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TARIHI RUSIYA DAR IBTIDOI ASRI XX

Jangi Rusiyayu Jopon. Ba davrai sarmoyadorii inhisori dokhil gardidani Rusiya ba vaqte rost omad, ki dar bayni mamlakathoi kalontarini sarmoyadory baroi az nav taqsim kardani jahon ziddiyatho tezu tund meshudand. Rusiya ham dar in qator meistod. Vay dar SHarqi Dur va havzai Uqyonusi Orom manfiathoi khudro dosht. Lekin ba on Joponi javoni imperialisti khalal merasonnd. In vaqt dar mamlakat buhroni inqiloby ham pukhta merasid. Baroy baromadan az in buhron ba mutlaqiyati rus yak jangi zafarovar lozim bud to ki badi on ba neruhoi inqilobii mamlakat zarba zanad.

Jopon ba jangi ziddi Rusiya hanuz az solhoi 90-um tayyory medid. Vay niyat dosht, ki in davlatro az havzai Uqyonusi Orom dur partoyad va bo hamin dar SHimoli CHin mavqei khudro mustahkam kunad. Gayr az in Jopon mekhost, ki Koreya va Manjuriyaro niz ba dast darorad.

Vale Rusiya ba jangi dar peshistoda onqadar tayyor nabud. Sokhtmoni rohi ohani Transsibir, istehkomhoi kadai Port- Artur, ki onro Rusiya dar nimjazirai Lyaoduni az CHin ba ijoragirifta mesokht, hanuz ba okhir narasida budand. Sokhtmoni in inshoot boyad soli 1909 anjom meeft.

Dar hamin vaziyat jang 27 yanvari soli 1904 bo hamlai eskadrai Jopon ba dastai kishtihoi floti rus, ki in vaqt dar bandari CHemulpoi Koreya bud. ogoz yoft. Dar in muhoriba kreyseri nomii Rusiya ‘’Varyag” va kanonerkam “Koreya” zarari kalon dida, dere naguzashta gark shudand. Dar yake az muhornbahoi sakhti bahry sarfarmondehi floti Uqyonusi Oromi rus admiral S. O. Makarov halok gardid.

Mohhoi may – avgusta soli 1904 dar Port-Artur va Lyaolyan muhornbahoi kalon ba amal omada, ba foidam joponiho anjom yoftand. Az Mohi may to Mohi dekabri soli 1904 Port-Artur dar muhosira bud. Muhofizatgaroni on bad az mudofiai duru daroz va talafoti ziyod majbur shudand, ki ba Jopon taslim shavand.

Mohi fevrali soli 1905 badi dar Mukden shikast khurdani rusho Nikolayi II az hisobi kishtihoi floti Baltika eskadra» jadid» kishtihoro orosta bar ziddi joponiho firistond, vale floti Jopon onro Mohi mayi soli 1905 dar nazdikii Susima torumor kard. Az in eskadra tanho 3 kishty tavonist, ki az muhosirai joponiho khalos shuda to ba shahri rusii Vladivostok rafta rasad. Dar in muhornba Rusiya talafoti kaloni joni ham dod. Inchunin hazorho nafar bahrnavardon ba asorat aftodand.

Dar jangi ziddi Jopon Rusiya shikast khurd va majbur shud, ki Mohi avgusti soli 1905 tavassuti miyonaravii IMA dar shahri Portsmu  in mamlakat ba Sozishnomai sulhi taslimshavi nmzo guzorad.

Jopon dar natijai galaba bar Rusiya ba maqsadi khud rasid. Rusiya az Port-Artur va qismi janubii chazirai Sakhalin mahrum gardid.

SHikast dar jangi ziddi Jopon buhroni inqilobiro dar Rusiya boz ham shadidtar gardonid.

Sabab va maqsadkhoi inqilobi yakumi burjuazy-demokratii solhoi 1905-1907. Islohoti solhoi 60-um – 70-umi asri XIX harchand Rusiyaro ba rohi sarmoyadory darovard, lekin ziddiyaghoi sershumori jomearo bartaraf karda natavonist. Boqimondahon feodaly hanuz ham dar mamlakat hukmron budand va islohot masalai agrariro to okhir va odilona hal karda na tavonist. YAke az moneahoi asosin peshravii Rusiya dar dehoti rus mavjud budani jamoai dekhqony ba shumor meraft. Jamoaro tark karda raftani deqqonon mumkin nabud. Az in ru, onho baroi barham dodani on muboriza meburdand.

Buhroni iqtisodii solhoi 1900-1903 zahmatkashoni Rusiyaro boz ham kasholtar kard. Hazoron-hazor korgaron va tabaqahoi Digari mehnatkashon bekor mondand. In buhron vazi sissiyu ijtimoin mamlakatro niz beandoza tezu tund gardonid.

Imperiyai Rusiya davlati sermillat bud. Dar on dahho millatu khalqiyatkhoi gunogun sokin budand va az tarafi velikorosho sakht istismor karda meshudand. Binoan, khalqhoi mazlumi imperiyam Rusiyai podshohy baroi ozodii khud muboriza meburdand. Inqilobi dar peshistoda dar in imperiya zanjiri zulmi mustamlikaviro ham shikasta metavonist.

Dar jangi ziddi Jopon shikast khurdani Rusiya sarshavii inqilobro tezonid. Mardum nagz fahmid, ki gunahgoroni asosii in falokat mutlaqiyat va dastgohi behunari davyaatiyu harbii on meboshand.

Masalai az hama asositarinn inqilob barhamzanii mutlaqiyati podshohi va sohibi zamin shudani dehqononi bezamin va kamzamnn bud.

Ogozi inqilob. YAkshanbei khunin. Aksariyati korgaroni fabrikayu zavodi onvaqtai Rusiya on deqkonone budand, ki bo sababi barham khurdani huquqi krepostnoyi kori kishovarziro partofta, ba shahrkho rafta, izdihomi buzurgi mehnati kiroyaro tashkil karda budand. Vale onho hanuz az ruhiyai dehqony ory nabudand va ba “shoh – padarjonashon bovary doshtand. Jandarmeriya az in imtifoda burda, bo yorii gumoshgai makhfii khud pop Galon sozmoni “Majlisi korgaroni rusi fabrikavu zavodhoi shahri Sankt-Peterburg”-ro tashkil kard, to ki ba faoliyati in tabaqai mehnatkashon tasir rasonad va naguzorad ki vay ba sokhti siyosii mavjuda ziyon ovarad.

Muvofiqi maslihati pop Galon pagohii barvaqti yakshanba 9 yanvari soli 1905 hazoron nafar peterburgiho dar tai libosi idona, bo zanu farzandhoyashon, surathoi Nikolayn II va khudovu farishtaho dar dast duokhonon az dunboli pop Gapon ba sui Qasri Zimnstona rahsipor shudand. Hukumatdoron baron “peshvoz” giriftani izdihom tayyorii pukhta dida budand. Hamin ki mardum ba maydoni nazdi qasr vorid gardid, sarbozon ba suy on otash kushodand. Dar natija ziyoda az 500 nafar odam kushtayu yarador shudand. YAkshanbei khunin ogozi inqilobi burjuazii rus bud.

Rafti inqilob dar nimai avvali soli 1905. Badi yakshanbei khunin mamlakatro mavji namoishhoi etirozii mardumi ba – shuromada faro girift. Dar Mohi yanvar ziyoda az 400 hazor nafar odamon korpartoy kardand. To avvali bakhor dar korpartoikho to 800 hazor kas shirkat varzid. Junbishhoi milliyu ozodikhohona dar gushayu kanorhoi millim imperiya niz ba amal omadand.

Hukumat vazi Peterburgro nihoyat khavfnok donista, ba on general Trepovro bo vakolathoi favqulodda hokim tayin kard. Dar ayni zamon dar Peterburg va shahrhoi digari mamlakat habskunihoi ommavii ishtirokchiyoni inqilob ogoz yoft. Vale in ham harakati inqilobiro past karda natavonist. Az hamin sabab hukumati podshohi ba khalq vadaho medod. Podshoh Nikolayi II kayfiyati mardum va vazi iqtisodiyu ijtimoii felii mamlakatro ba hisob nagirifta nametavonist.

Mohi may mavji korpartoiho boz ham ziyodtar shud. I may namoishhoi sershumori mehnatkashon va burjuaziya dar zsri shiorhoi sisyoy guzashtand. Korpartoii az hama kalon va duru daroz. ki on 72 ruz davom kard, dar korkhonahoi bofandagii Ivanovo-Voznesensk ba amal omad. Dar on to 70 hazor kormandoni soha ishtirok kardand. Korpartofgagon SHuroi vakiloni khudro intikhob kardand, ki vay az 151 kas iborat bud. SHuro vakolatdor karda shud, ki bo sohiboni fabrikakho guftushunid karda, ba ijroi talabhoi zahmatkashon muvaffaq shavad.

14 iyuni soli 1905 bahrnavardoni kishtii floti Bahri Siyoh “Knyaz Potyomkin Tavricheskiy” shurish bardoshtand. Ba on matros Grigoriy Vakulenchuk rohbari mekard. U az tarafi afsari siyahkore parronda shud. Badi in rohbarii shurishro Afanasiy Matyushenko ba uhda girift. Ba in kishty tanho yak kishtii digari floti Bahri Siyoh “Georgiy Pobedonosets” hamrokh shudu khalos. Badi sarsoniyu sargardonihoi chandinruza “Potyomkin-i isyongar 18 iyun majbur shud, ki ba sohilhoi Ruminiya rafta, ba hukumati in mamlakat taslim shavad.

SHurishi “Kiyaz Potyomkin Tavricheskiy” va oshubho dar artish nishon dodand, ki lashkar va flot» Harbin Bahri ba hukumati podshohi sodiq nameboshand. Takhir kardan mumkin nabud, vagarna vaziyatn mamlakat boz ham vaznintar meshud. Inro podshoh Nikolayi II khub dark karda bud.

Manifest 17 oktyabr. Tiramohi soli 1905 dar korpartoii umumirossiyagi ziyoda az 2 million nafar odamon ishtiroq kardand. On shahrhoi Sankt-Peterburg, Moskva, Kiev va shahrhoi digari Rusiyayu muzofothoi mustamlikavii vayro faro girift. Dar in vaziyat podshoh gayr az guzasht kardan iloji digar nadosht. Nnkolayi II majbur shud, ki ba “Elomiya” (“Manifest”,-i “17 oktyabr” imzo guzorad. Dar on davat karda shudani Dumay davlaty. ozodihoi demokrati; ozodii sukhan, matbuot. majlisho, girdihamoiho, tashkilotho va ozodii vijdon vada karda tuda budand. In ozodiho dar natijai muborizai ommavii hamai quvvahoi inqilobi ba dast darovarda shudand.

Dar arafai inqilob va badi baromalamn “Elomiya”-i shoh neruhoi navi siyosi tashkil yoftand. Soli 1902 hizbi Sotsialisti Inqiloby (SR, bo ifodai “eser” nom burda meshud). soli 1903 Hizbi Sotsial-Demokratii Korgaroni Russiya” (RSDRP,, soli 1904 Demokrathoi Konstitugsnony (KD – bo ifolai “kadet” nom burda meshud) va mohi oktyabri soli 1905 Hizbi Oktyabrchiyon bo komi “Ittifoqi 17-umn Oktyabr” ba faoliyat shuru mekunand.

Az “Elomiya”-i 17 oktyabri podshohi 3 hizb – eserho. kadetho va oktyabristho qanoatmand budand. In hizbho barham khurdani hokimiyati podshohiro shart va zarur nameshumoridand. Qismi ziyodi ahli mehnat niz az “Elomiya” rozy bud. RSDRP boshad, tarafdori to barhamkhurii mutlakiyat davom dodan» muboriza bud. Sarfi nazar az mavqei RSDR11 aksariyati aholii mamlakat “Elomiya”-i Nikolay» N-ro khub istiqbol kardand. Az in ru, badi elon gardidani on inqilob ru ba tanazzul nihod.

Du jahon I va II davlat. Dar okhirhoi mohi apreli soli 1906 Dumay I davlaty davat karda shud. Qonuni intikhoboty intikhobotro baron dehqonon chorzinagi, baron korgaron sezinagi va baron dvoryanhoyu burjuziya duzinagi. yane nobarobar muayyan karda bud. Qoidahoi namoyandagi niz baroi tabaqahoi gunogun yak khel nabudand. Dvoryanho metavonistand az har 2 hazor kas, burjuaziya az har 4 hazor kas, dehqonon az har 30 hazor kas va korgaron az har 90 hazor kas 1 vakil intikhob kunand. Inchunin qonun mahdudiyathoi molumulky va sinusoln ham dosht. Az ni ru, na hamai odamon huquqi intikhoboty giriftand.

SHuroi davlaty huquqi palatam Olii Dumaro girift. Nisfi azoi onro khudi podshoh taynn mekard. Loihai qonunho tanho badi tasdiqi podshoh khuquqi qonunro megiriftand. Binobar in badi davati Dumay I ham Rusiya davlati hokimiyati mutlaqdor mondan shrift. Lekin on az tarafi Dumay davlaty to yak daraja mahdud karda shud.

Dumay I davlaty baroi podshoh va jonibdoroni u gapnodaro baromad. chunki fraksiyach trudovikho bar khilofi manfiathoi pomeshikho masalai halli zaminro ba muhokima peshnihod kard. Bnnobar in Nikolayn II hamchun sarvari davlati feodaly onro “balvogar” nomnda, mohi iyuni soli 1906 parokanda kard.

Ibtidoi soli 1907 Dumay II davlaty davat karda shud. Vale on az Dumay 1 ham gapnodarotar bud. In duma dar davrae davat karda shud, ki inqilob allakay ba shikast duchor gardida bud. Baroy hamin mutlaqiyat be yagon tarsu kharos 30-yumi iyuni soli 1907 Dumay 2-ro ham barham zad.

Inqilob va faoliyati du dumay davlaty nishon dodand, ki dar mamlakat islohot guzaronidan lozim ast, ki yake az juzhoi muhimtarini on masalai zamin meboshad.

Islohoti agrarii Stolipin. To soli 1905 mutlaqiyat jamoai dehotii rusro bo har roh muhofizat mekard. On baroi sitonidani andoz, safarbary ba sarbozy va az tarafi pomeshikon istismor kardani dehqonon vositai khele qulay bud. Vale inqilob nishon dod, ki minbad nigoh doshtani jamoai dehqony baroi mutlaqiyati Rusiya khavfi kalon dorad. Doirahoi peshqadami mamlakat sokhti jamoaviyu patriarkhalli (padarshokhy)-i Rusiyaro hamchun yake az moneahoi asosii peshravii mamlakat medonnstand. Baroi hamin az hukumati podshohi barham dodani onro talab mekardand.

Dar zeri sarparastii yake az shakhsonn mansabdori kaloni davlati Stolipin Komissiyam davlaty loihai islohoti agrariro kor karda baromad va 9 noyabri soli 1906 Nikolayi II ba zeri amr dar borai islohoti agrary imzo guzosht. Badtar SHuroi davlaty dar in bora qonun ham barovard. In islohot muvofiqi sanai az tarafi podshoh tasdiqkarda “Qonuni 14 iyuni soli 1910” nomida shudaast.

Bo hamin jamoai dehqonii rus barham khurd. Dehqononi az jamoa ozodgardida sohibi zamin shudand. Islohoti agrary az qismati evropavii mamlakat ba gushayu kanorhoi durdast, az on jumla, ba mustamlikaho mujojir kardani dehqononro dar nazar dosht. In qonun boyad dar zarfn 10 sol amaly megardid.

Islohoti agrarii Stolipin kishovarziro ham ba rohi sarmoyadory darovard. Vay baroi kamol yoftani sohibkory va munosibathoi bozorgony dar shahru dehoti Rusiya sharoiti musoid muhayyo menamud. Sarfi nazar az in suiqasdi dushmanoni islohotba joni sarvari islohoti agrary Stolipin, Jangi yakumi jahoni va nihoyat tabadduloti bolshevikin mohi oktyabri soli 1917 baron purra ba amal barovardani islohoti agrarii soli 1906 elonkardai Nikolay!! khalal rasonidand.

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