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TAVSIFI JAMIYATI PALEOLIT

Mo dar asosi materialhoi arkheologi inkishofi tadrijii quvvahoi istehsolkunandai jamiyati davrai paleoliti Osiyoi Miyonaro mavridi tadqiq qaror dodem. Ammo masalai takomuli tadrijii ijtimoii in jamiyat nihoyatdaraja murakkab ast. hatto qonuniyathoi asosii taraqqiyoti on dar asarhoi mutakhassisoni sotsiologiya niz ba tavri mukammal omukhta nashudaast, mulohiza va khulosahoi peshnihodshuda mavzui bahsu munozirahoi tundutez gardidaand[1]. Masalai oid ba khususiyathoi inkishofi jamiyati ahdi paleoliti Osiyoi Miyona umuman ba miyon guzoshta nashudaast.

Agar guem, ki jamiyati insoni bisyortarin qismati vaqti khudro dar marhilai asri sang guzaronidaast – in sukhani umumi khohad shud. Dar in mavrid joiz ast, ki baroi vozehtar ifoda yoftani matlab qiyosi borho istifodashudaro biyovarem. Inak, shartan farz kunem, ki tamomi hayoti jamiyati insoni to Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr hamagi yak sol davom kardaast. Dar on surat ba odam tabdil shudani maymun dar avvali mohi yanvar ba vuqu payvasta, davrai hukmronii paleolit qarib tamomi solro to 25-umi mohi dekabr faro megirad va tamomi tarikhi jamiyati sinfii Osiyoi Miyona bahuzur dar nim soati okhiri pesh az soli nav «gunjoish» meyobad!

Tashkiloti ijtimoi dar paleoliti poin khele soda va ibtidoi bud. Kollektivhoi az hama qadim va nav tashakkulyoftai odamonro F.Engels «gala» nomidaast[2]. V.I.Lenin pai ham «galai ibtidoi» va «kommunai ibtidoi»-ro nombar mekunad[3].

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Davrai galai ibtidoi davraest, ki jamiyati insoni tashakkul yofta, asosi asoshoi on faroham meoyad. Dar okhiri paleoliti miyona va bolo tashkiloti qabilavii jamiyat – kommunahoi ibtidoi bo tartibi qavmiyu nasabi paydo meshavad. In sokhti qavmii modari bud, ki zan dar on mavqei khele balandro ishgol mekard[4]. Munosibati oilavi dar doirai nikohi guruhi surat megirift.

Istehsolot kollektivi boshad ham, vale darajai quvvahoi isteh-solkunanda nihoyat past bud. «In navi ibtidoii istehsoloti kooperativi yo kollektivi, albatta, na oqibati umumi kardani vositahoi istehsolot, balki natijai zaifii shakhsiyati judogona bud»[5]. Quvvahoi istehsolkunanda dar yak jo namonda, ba ohistagi takmil meyoft. Taraqqiyoti besh az peshi quvvahoi istehsolkunanda va tashkiloti jamiyati boisi murakkabshavii shaklhoi madaniyati insoni megardid. Boyad guft, ki yod giriftani tariqi hosil kardani otash, sokhtani manzilhoi oddi, rivoji shikori hayvonoti kalon va ba in vasila guzashtan ba zindagonii muqimi – hamai in qadamhoi muhimi taraqqiyoti progressivii jamiyati insoniro nishon medihad. CHunon ki az madfani pisarbachai teshiktoshi ayon megardad, dar hamon vaqtho avvalin alomathoi rusumi dafn, nakhustin padidahoi din ba zuhur omada budaand.

[1] Nig.: masalan: Semyonov YU.I., 1966; Semyonov YU.I., 1968; Ter-Akopyan N.B., 1968; Butinov N.A., 1968; Kabo V.R., 1968 (dar in asarho fehrasti mufassal va nigorishi tarikhi masala mavjud ast).

[2] K.Marks va F.Engels. Asarho, jildi 34, s. 138.

[3] Nig.: V.I.Lenin. Asarho, jildi 35, s. 111.

[4] Dar tarikhnigorii soveti nurtai nazari digar niz mavjud ast (nig.: Kabo V.R., 1968, s. 258–265).

[5] K.Marks va F.Engels. Asarho, jildi 19, s. 404.

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