Home / Biologiya / Oilai chillikgulho

Oilai chillikgulho

Ba oilai chillikgulho 3200 namudi rastanihoi yak yo dusola va bisyorsola taalluq dorand. Aksari onho giyohhoi alafi ba shumor meravand. Onho dar rui Zamin nobarobar pahn shuda, miqdori ziyodi namoyandagonashon dar mintaqahoi nimkurai shimoli vomekhurand. Dar nohiyahoi tropiki va nimkurai janubi boshad, dar kukhporaho pahn shudaand.

rasat

CHillikgulho dar sharoiti gunoguni muhiti zist mutobiqati khub dorand. Az in jost, ki namoyandagoni oilai chillikgulho dar mintaqahoi shimoli, arktiki, biyobonu nimbiyobon va dashtho, sohili Daryoho va dar balandkuhho to balandii 4500-5000 m az sathi bahr mesabzand. Onho inchunin dar zeri darakhtoni jangali, dar bayni nabototi dashti va dar joyhoi sernam va hatto baze namoyandagoni onho dar muhiti obi nashunamo mekunand.

YAke az khususiyathoi khosi rastanihoi oilai chillikgulho dar on ast, ki hamai namoyandagoni in oila doroi alomathoi mushtarak yo umumiand.

Poya va bargi chillikgulho bo pashmakhoi yak yo bisyorhujayragi faro girifta shudaand, ki shakli zohiriashon gunogun ast. Sokhti reshai onho tirresha va yo bekhmeva (tagyiryobii shakli resha) meboshad.

Bargi rastanihoi oilai chillikgulho sodda yo in ki beshtar parshakl va barbatshakl buda, dar poya ba tavri paydarham yo dar bunu jafi gardanaki resha joygir shudaand.

Hamai namoyandagoni oilai chillikgulho sokhti yakkhela dorand. Gulpushi gulashon duchandai ozod, yane ham kosagul va tojgul dorand. Kosagul az 4 kosabargi dar du davra dutogi joygirshuda iborat ast. Tojgul az 4 gulbargi ba tavri chilliki joygirshuda iborat ast. Mivdori gardbargho 6-to va dutoash kutohu chortoash daroz ast. Gulhoi (tudagulhoi) onho khusharo ba vujud ovarda, onho ba tufayli hasharot gardolud meshavand. CHunki shahddonhoi pur az shahd dorand .

Tukhmdon yakto buda, az du mevabarg tarkib yoftaast. Mevaashon gilofak yo gilofakcha ast. Gilofak chunin shakli mevaest, ki qadash az barash 3-4 marotiba daroz ast. Mevai yak guruhi chillikgulho gilofake meboshad, ki devorai kundalang dorand. In namudi gilo- fakho barkhilsgfi gilofakhoi muqarrarii chillikgulhoi digar ba- di pukhtan ba hissahoi alohida judo meshavand, ki har yak hissa yak- togi tukhm dorad.

Formulai guli oilai chillikgulho chunin ast: K2+2T4 G2+4 M(2)[1].

Tukhmi rastanihoi chillikgul endosperm nadorad. Karam yake az rastanihoi mamuli oilai chillikgulho buda, rastanii dusola meboshad. Bisyor tadqiqotchiyon chunin hisob mekunand, ki karami kishtshavanda (madani) va navhoi on, ki holo mavridi isgifodaand, az karami khudruy yo khasakkaram paydo shudaast. Dar ayni zamon ziyoda az 100 navi karam ba vujud ovarda shudaast. Az in miqdor beshtar az 10 navi karam (kallakarami safed, kallakarami surkh, gulkaram, gujumkaram, karamshalgam, bargkaram, gulkarami brokkoli va gayraho) parvarish karda meshavad.

Dar garmkhonaho az tukhmi karam kuchati (navniholi) onro dastras mekunand. Sipas, in navniholhoro dar maydonhoi kushodi kishovarzi kuchat mekunand. Navniholi karami dar zamini kushod shinondashuda saravval dar gardanaki reshaash barghoi kalon paydo

mekunad. Bargho bo surati balaid sabzida, ba dokhil pechida kallakaram hosil mekunand. Barghoi on ba poyai kutohi karam chaspidaand. Az in ru, kallai karamro hamchun mugjai azimjussa hisobidan mumkin ast. Poya sabzishashro davom doda, dar soli duyumi hayotash khushagul paydo mekunad.

Karam ba ob va khoki sergizo ehtiyoji kalon dorad. Baze navhoi karam dar davrai boavji nashunamoyashon dar yak shabonaruz (yak rastani) to 10 litr obro istifoda mebarad. Tarkibi karam vobasta ba navhoyash gunogun buda, az moddahoi gizoi boy ast. Uzvhoi istemolshavandai karam vitaminhoi A, Vr V,, S, R, K, RR, namakhoi madani, khususan fosfor va kalsiy dorad.

Karamro ba tavri taru toza, pukhta, damkardashuda yo ochoronida istemol mekunand. Karamro dar tibbi khalqi va muosir baroi tabobati kasalihoi zardparvin, ispurch, rohi nafas, jigar, medayu ruda bomuvaffaqiyat istifoda mebarand.

Turb rastanii sabzavoti buda, dar soli yakumi sabzishash bekhmeva hosil karda, dar soli duyum gul va meva mebandad. Bekhmevai turb sokhti gunogun (lundashakl, darozruyai safedu sabzrang) doshta, sermagzu serob meboshad. Dar baze mavridho vazni bekhmevai rastanihoi alohidaash to 5 kg merasad. Guli turb dujinsa buda, gulbarghoyash safed, gulobi, bunafsh meboshand. Mevaash gilofaki kushodanashavanda ast. Bekhmevai turb tami khub yo kame tund doshta, onro ba tavri taru toza istemol mekunand.

Vay dar tarkibash vitaminhoi gunogun, aminokislotaho, ravgani efir, namakhoi kalsiy, kaliy, ohan, magniy va gayra dorad. Turb sabzavoti parhezy buda, khususiyati tabobati dorad.

Ba juz karam va turb boz bisyor namoyandagoni oilai chillikgulho, az qabili shalgam, shalgamcha, turneps, khardali dashti, rosan, mavsar (raps) va gayraho, ki ahamiyati kaloni gizoi dorand, ba tavri vase kishtukor karda meshavand.

YAke az rastanihoi rangdihandai mamuli oilai chillikgulho usma meboshad. Usma rastanii yaksola buda, rangi gulash zard, mevaash gilofakcha meboshad. Az bargu poyai on rang hosil mekunand, ki baroi rang namudani matohoi pashmin istifoda burda meshavad.

Ba oilai rastanihoi chillikgul bisyor rastanihoi khudruy man- suband va qisme az in rastaniho hamchun alafi begona dar bayni ziroathoi kishovarzi nashunamo karda, mevayu tukhmi ziyode hosil mekunand. Baze namudkhoi onho dar davomi tobiston 3-4 maroti- ba tukhmu meva basta, ba sabzishu inkishofi mutadili rastanihoi kishovarzi khalal merasonand.

Alafhoi begonai beshtar mamul inhoyand: turbkohak, vazirak, jagjag, shabushak, gulzard (zargulak), ravganak va gayraho.

Jagjag (chaqchaq) yo khaltai chupon rastanii yaksola buda, rezagulhoi safedash dar khushagul joygir shudaand. Mevai jagjag gilofakchai sekunjashakl buda, ba khaltai chuponi davrahoi qadim monand meboshad. Mevai on tukhmi maydaandozai qahvarang dorad. Tukhmi jagjag qobiliyati sabzishashro az 3 to 6 sol nigoh medorad.

Jagjag dar hamai iohiyahoi Tojikiston (dar balandihoi 350 — 3800 m az sathi bahr) pahn gardidaast. Odatan, dar kishtzorho, zaminhoi nokoram, bogu rog, kanori rokhu sohili juyu daryoho va dar nazdi khonahoi istiqomati meruyad.

Odamon jagjagro chun giyohi gizoi va shifoi istifoda mebarand. Avvali bahor az bargu poyai navrustai on sambusa mepazand.

Rastanii chagjag khosiyati tabobati dorad. Dar tib onro chun dorui khunband va davoi digar kasaliho (illati dil, jigar, gurda) istifo- da mebarand.

  1. Alomathoi baroi namoyandagoni oilai chillikgulho khosro nombar kuned.
  2. Namoyandagoni mamuli oilai chillikgulhoro nombar kuned.
  3. Rastanihoi sabzavotii oilai chillikgulho kadomhoyand?
  4. Karam rastanii chandsola ast?
  5. Karamro chi tavr parvarish mekunand?

[1] SHarhi formulai gul: K – kosabarg (kosagul), T – tojgul (gulbarg), G – gardbarg, M – mevabarg (tukhmdon). Raqamho miqdori uzvhoi gul va dar har yak davra joygirshavii onhoro nishon medihand. Qavs bo ham chaspida budani uzvhoi gulro mefahmonad.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

nargis

Guli Nargis

In rastanii gulkunanda az piyozash meruyad va ranghoi gunoguni gulash hast az jumla Nargisi zard …