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Oilai chatrgulho

Ba oilai chatrgulho 3000 namudi rastaiiho mansuband va onho dar tamomi rui Zamin vase pahn shudaand. Miqdori ziyodi namoyandagoni oilai chatrgulho dar nohiyahoi iqlimashon garmu mutadil va mintaqahoi subtropiki, tropiki vomekhurand.

Dar Tojikiston 170 namudi rastanihoi oilai chatrgulho malumand. Aksari namudhoi in oila rastanihoi alafii yaksola va bisyorsola buda, namudhoi buttagi va darakhtiashon kamshumorand.

Poyai rastanihoi chatrgul rost yo khobanda (palakmonand) ast. Dar aksari namudhoi in oila baynbugumhoi poya darunkholi buda, onho qiranok yo juyakdorand.

chatrgul

Dar poya va digar uzvhoi rastanihoi oilai chatrgulkho chuyakhoi gadudi dida meshavand, ki onkho ba tufayli in gadudho ravgani efir va moddahoi zifti khorij karda, boisi bui makhsusi in rastaniho megardand.

Joygirshavii bargi rastanihoi oilai chatrgul navbati buda, nazdbarga nadorand. Pahnaki bargashon panjashakl, yak, du yo bisyorhissashuda meboshad.

Guli rastanihoi chatrgul khurd buda, onho dar khushaguli soyabonshakli (chatrshakli) sodda yo murakkab joygirand. Gul-gulpushi duchanda dorad. Gul az 5 kosabarg, 5 gulbarg va 5 gardbarg iborat ast. Mevadon du mevabarg doshta, gura dulonagi meboshad. Sokhti guli onkhoro ba nazar girifta, formulai onro chunin tartib dodan mumkin ast: K5 T5 G5 M(2).

Rangi gulbarghoi rastanihoi oilai chatrgul odatan safed, safedu gulobi, zard va zardi sabzrang meshavad. Hushaguli (tudaguli) kaloni chatrgulho baroi hasharot khele khub namoyon ast va onho tavassuti hasharoti gunogun gardolud meshavand. Badi bordorshavi mevai dulonagi hosil meshavad. Mevai rastanihoi chatrgul khushk ast va badi pukhtan ba du tukhmak taqsim meshavad.

Rasmi 42. Tutakali
Oilai chatrgulho bisyor rastanihoi foidanoki dorugi, khuroki, tekhniki va asalovarro darbar megirad. Guruhi digari rastanihoi chatrgul zahrnok buda, chun alafi begonai khavf- nok dar bayni ziroathoi kishovarzi vomekhurad (tutaqali, shavka- ron).

Tutakali

Sabzi rastanii dusolai khuroki ast. Dar soli yakumi nashunamoyash bargi nazdireshagi va bekhmeva hosil mekunad. Bekhmevai on rangi zard va norinji doshta, sergushtu serob meboshad. Dar soli duyumi sabzish az bekhmeva poyai ba bolo qadafrokhta inkishof meyo- bad. Poya bo muyakchaho pushida shudaast ESH.

Barg va bargchahoi ruypushi nazdi khushagul parshakli ba hissaho buridashuda meboshad.

Gul rangi safed doshta, meva bo khorchaho pushida shudaast.

Sabzi rastanii istemoly (baroi inson, chorvo) meboshad. Vay az vitaminhoi A, Vr V2, S boy meboshad. Dar ayni zamon, zi- yoda az 2000 navhoi gunoguni sabzi ba vujud ovarda shudaand va vobasta ba sharoiti mahal, navhoi gunogunash kisht karda meshavand.

Aksari in rastaniho az zamonhoi qadim injonib dar tibbi khalqi baroi muolijai kasalihoi gunogun istifoda burda meshavand. CHunonchi, jafariro baroi tabobati illati jigar, gurda, obkhura, uzvhoi hozima, barham zadani sangi gurda istifoda mebarand. Abuali ibni Sino bo ravgani shibit (tukhmash) dardi asab, bo shiraash (bargu poyai sabzash) dardi gush va bo khokistarash zakhmu jarohathoi gunogunro tabobat menamud.

Bargi sabzi shibit khosiyati vase namudani raghoi khungardro dorad va bo in sabab galayoni khunro past mekunad.Ba oilai chatrgulho inchunin rastanihoe mansuband, ki khususiyati khushbuyu khushhazm kardani khurokro dorand (chunonchi, jafari, kashniz, shibit, zira, kravshak va gayraho). In rastanihoro baroi khushbuy kardani konservaho, nonu mahsuloti qannodi, tayyor kardani paniru hasib, istehsoli nushobayu sharbathoi gunogun va dar sanoati atriyot istifoda mebarand.

Aksari namudhoi oilai chatrgulho khuroki khubu sergizoi chorvo meboshand. Masalan, yugan, kamol, boldirgon va gayraho.

YUgan va kamol rastanihoi bisyorsola buda, namudhoi ziyod dorand va dar nohiyahoi gunoguni Tojikiston vase pahn shudaand. Kamol va yugan dar zaminhoi gilu regzor, to balandii 3100-3500 m az sathi bahr, dar bayni rastanikhoi bodomu pista, shulashu archazorho, vomekhurand. Bazan dar tallu teppayu domanakuhho pushishi yaklukhti kamol va yuganro mushohida kardan mumkin ast.

Poyai navrustai baze namudhoi kamolro (to davrai shukuftani gulash), ki bo iomi kasruf, roshak va rov malumand, odamon dar fasli bahor, istemol mekunand.

SHirai (safedi) kamolro dar tibbi khalqi baroi orom namudani asab va hangomi shamolkhuri istifoda mebarand.

Dar bogu polizu kishtzorho, kanori rohu juyborho, daryo va chashmasoron ras-

tanii khele zahrnok bo nomi tutaqali meruyad. Tutaqali rastanii dusola buda, to 150 sm qad mekashad. Poyaash rosti darunkholi, mudavvarshakl, qismi boloiash sershokh meboshad. Bargash murakkabi parshakl ast. Hushaguli chatrmonandi bisyorguldor dorad. Dar tarkibi uzvhoyash ravgani efir va alkaloidhoi gunoguni khele zahrnok dorad. Binobar on az in rastani bisyor ehtiyot shudan lozim ast.

  1. Kadom rastanihoi oilai chatrgulhoro medoned?
  2. Alomathoi khosi oilai chatrgulhoro nombar kuned.
  3. Namudhoi khushbui oilai chatrgulhoro nombar kuned.
  4. Kadom namudhoi oilai chatrgulhoro dar tibbi khalqi baroi tabobati kasaliho istifoda mebarand?
  5. Rastanihoi zahrnoki oilai chatrgulhoro nombar kuned.
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