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OB – MANBAI HAYOT DAR ZAMIN

 Niyogoni mo chunin meshumoridand, ki sayyorae, ki mo dar on zindagy mekunem, az fazohoi nachandon kaloni obi, jinshoi sakht va khok iborat ast. Vale onho ishtiboh kardand! Agar odamoni qadim medonistand, ki 70,8% sathi Zaminro ob tashkil medihad, onho hayron meshudand. In malumot ba mo tavassuti tahqiqoti kayhonnavardon va akshoe, ki tavassuti hamsafarho girifta shudaand, malum me­gardand.

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Nazar ba digar sayyorahoi Sistemai Oftoby, dar Zamin sharoiti bisyor khub muhayyo shudaand. Az in ru dar Zamin harorate mavjud meboshad, ki mavjudiyati obro dar se holat tamin mekunad. Tanho dar Zamin boron borida, uqyonusho va bahrho mavjud meboshand. Fazoy obi masohati 391 134 060 km2 -i Zaminro tashkil medikhad. Fazoy farogiri oby 3/4 qismi sathi Zaminro ishgol karda, Uqyonusi Olamro ba vujud meovarad. Vay dar khudash 98% tamomi obi Zaminro hifz megunjonad. Geografho shartan Uqyonisi Olamro ba 4 qism taqsim karda, onhoro chunin nom nihodand: Orom, SHimolii YAkhbasta, Hind, Atlantik.

Umqi miyonai Uqyonusi Olam 3795 metrro tashkil medihad.

Umqi Novadoni Mariin, ki bayni jazirahoi Guam va YAp dar Uqyonusi Orom qaror dorad, 11 033 m-ro tashkil medihad. Agar kuhi az hama balandi Everestro (Alburzkuhro) ba qari Novadoni Mariin guzorem, pas az kullai on to ba satkhi ob dar novadon boz 2 km memonad.

Dar hama obi Uqyonusi Olam gazho, moddahoi gayriorganiki (namakhoi madani) munhal shudaand. Dar obhoi bahry hama elementhoi tabii duchor meoyand. Dar onho besh az hama khlor (55%) va natriy (31%) duchor meshavand.

Payvastagii in du element namaki oshii odiro, ki mo istifoda mebarem, ba vujud meovarad. SHurnokii ob dar uqyonusi kushod ba hisobi miyona 35%-ro tashkil mekunad.

SHumo medoned, ki ob dar sayyorai mo na tanho dar uqyonusho, bahrho, balki dar obanborhoi dar khushki sokhtashuda, dar kulho, botloqho, daryoho mavchud meboshad. Ob dar Zamin dar shakli piryakhhoi kuh, dar viloyathoi qutbi duchor meshavad. Ob dar khushki hamagy 2% -i Uqyonusi Jahoniro tashkil mekunad. Besh az hama vay dar piryakhho, kamtar az hama dar daryoho zakhira shudaast. Ob dar atmosfera dar shakli bugho duchor meoyad.

Rutubati atmosfera 1/1000 hissai zakhirai umumii obro dar Zamin tashkil ku- nad ham, naqshi on bisyor buzurg ast. Daryoho, kulho, piryakhhoro pur karda, vay Zamin- ro bo ob tamin mesozad. Bughoi oby dar atmosfera moneai khunuk shudani sayyorai mo megardad. Ob ba surokhihoi khok va jinshoi khurdi kuhy roh yofta, ba istiloh obhoi zerizaminiro ba vujud meovarad. Ob khamchunin ba tarkibi madanhoe, ki az jinshoi kuhi iboratand, dokhil meshavand. Vay dar magmai (taftai) vulkanhoi favvorazadan- da duchor meshavad. Tafta 12% az bughoi oby iborat meboshad.

A Obe, ki dar tafsii kurai zamini Zamin (obhoi zerizaminy), dar Uqyonusi Olam va dar khushky (daryoho, kulho va piryakhho) va ob dar atmosfera (buti oby) mavjud meboshad, qabati yagonai obii sayyorai moro – gidrosferaro tashkil medihad.

Tamomi obi Zamin hamesha dar harakati tavaqqufnashavanda qaror dorad. Ob dar sathi khushky, daryoho, bahrho, uqyonusho, obanborho bukhor shuda, zakhirai rutubati atmosferiro, ki dubora dar shakli borishot ba Zamin barmegardad, pur mekunad. Qarib 90% bughoi obii atmosferi dar qabati poyonii panjkilometra qaror dorad.

Qismi kaloni in rutubat az sathi uqyonus vorid meshavad. SHumo aknun medoned, ki hangomi past shudani harorat, bugho jam meshavand.

Az in ru dar balandy hangomi past shudani harorat kam-kam abrho paydo mesha­vand. SHamolho obhoro az yak joy ba joi digar va yakjo bo onho rutubati atmosferiro az uqyonus ba khushky meronand. Buti oby az atmosfera ba Zamin dar shakli boronho, barf, jola faromada, gizo mebakhshad, obhoi zerizaminy, daryoho, kulhoro pur karda, piryakhho ba vujud meovarad. Hokro nam karda, tavassuti reshay rastaniho jabbida shuda, tavassuti bargi onho bukhor meshavad. Vay dubora dar shakli borishot ba Za­min mefaroyad. Obhoe, ki ba khushky yakjo bo jarayoni havo vorid meshavand, bilokhira tavassuti daryoho ba uqyonus merezand.

Bad-in tartib, davrzanii abadii ob dar Tabiat surat megirad (rasmi 74).

Kadom quvvaho obro, ki gidrosferai Zaminro tashkil mekunad, ba harakat me- darorad? Quvvai asosy in garmii oftob ast. Dar zeri tasiri on ob bukhor shuda, yakhu barfho ob meshavand, jarayonhoi ob va havo paydo shuda, obro az yak joy ba joyi ditar intiqol medihand.

Hamchunin Quvvai jozibai Zamin naqshi muhimero bozida, tahti tasiri on qatrai borishho bazamin rekhta, ob az joi nisbatan baland ba joi nisbatan pastjori pguda, ba zamin jabbida meshavand.

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