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NAZARIYAI TEHNOLOGIYAI INFORMATSIONI

Darsi 1. PREDMETI FANNI TEHNOLOGIYAI INFORMATSIONI

Asoshoi informatika. Mafhumi informatika bo majmui ilmhoe aloqamand ast, ki onho ba omuzishi khosiyatho va tarzhoi gunkuni, tasvir, korkard va irsoli informatsiya tavassuti vositahoi tekhniki saru kor dorand. Dar mamlakathoi angliszabon ba joi mafhumi informatika mafhumi computer science ilmi kompyuteri mavridi istifoda qaror dorad.

Asoshoi nazariyavii informatikaro guruhi ilmhoi bunyodi (fundamentali) tashkil menamoyand, ki onhoro dar yak sath ham ba matematika va ham ba kibernetika mansub shumurdan mumkin ast: nazariyai informatsiya, nazariyai algoritmho, mantiqi matematiki, nazariyai zabonhoi formali va grammatiki, tahlili kombinatori va gayra. Gayr az in, fanni informatika ba omuzishi arkhitekturai kompyuter, sistemahoi operatsioni, nazariyai bazai malumotho, tekhnologiyai programmasozi va digar samthoi tekhnologiyahoi informatsioni mashgul ast.

Boyad qayd namud, ki dar muddati nachandon ziyodi tarikhi informatika az yak fanni tekhniki dar borai metodho va vositahoi korkardi malumoti dodashuda bo yorii moshinhoi elektronii hisobbaror ba ilmi bunyodi dar borai informatsiya va ravandhoi informatsionii na tanho sistemahoi tekhniki, balki tabiat va jomea tabdil yoftaast. Sababi asosii ba chunin muvaffaqiyatho noil gashtani ilmi informatika ba ravandi bebozgashti sarosar informatsioni gashtani jomea vobasta ast, ki on yak shakli zuhuroti qonuni umumii inkishofi bashariyat ast. Informatikunonii jomea bo khud tahavvuloti ilmiyu tekhniki va iqtisodiyu ijtimoiro meovarad, ki on dar navbati khud hayotu faoliyat va tafakkuru arzishhoi insoniro digargun mesozad. Tamoilot va surati in digargunshavi az on guvohi medihad, ki asri HHI asri informatika, tekhnologiya va jomeai informatsioni khohad bud.

Informatika ilmest, ki doir ba khosiyathoi informatsiya va qonuniyathoi ravandhoi informatsioni bahs menamoyad.

Tekhnologiyai informatsioni(TI). TI majmui mushakhkhasi vositahoi tekhniki va taminoti programmavi buda, baroi guzaronidani amaliyothoi gunoguni korkardi informatsiya dar samthoi mukhtalifi faoliyati inson peshbini shudaast. Bazan tekhnologiyai informatsioniro tekhnologiyai kompyuteri yo informatikai tadbiqi niz meguyand. TI-ro chunin tarif dodan mumkin ast:

setyTekhnologiyahoi informatsioni yake az sohahoi tafakkuri ilmi buda, ba vositai sistemai tahlilii hodisahoi muhiti atrof ravandhoi informatsionii bo surati baland vusatyobandaro meomuzad va metodu vositahoi avtomatii gunkuni, qabulkuni, nigahdori, tabdil, irsol, sabt va istifodai informatsiyaro tavassuti tekhnikai kompyuteri mavridi omuzish va korkard qaror medihad.

Maqsadi omuzishi fanni TI. Sohai talimii fanni tekhnologiyai informatsioni dar du janba mavridi omuzish qaror megirad. Janbai avval ba omuzishi sistemai informatsionii tasviri olam va qonuniyathoi informatsionii umumii sokht va tarzi kori sistemahoi khudidora – biologi, jamiyati va avtomati-tekhniki bakhshida shudaast. In guna sistemaho doroi khosiyati ijroi maqsadnoki amaliyot buda, raftorashon tavassuti uzvhoi qabul, tabdil va amalikunandai informatsioniashon idora karda meshavad. Janbai mazkur, ki qarib farogiri hama sohahoi umumitalimi meboshad, doirai hambastagii fanhoi «Informatika» va «Kibernetika»-ro tashkil medihad.

EZOH: Kibernetika ilm dar borai khosiyathoi umumii ravandhoi idorakuni dar sistemahoi zinda va gayrizinda meboshad.

Janbai duyumi sohai talimii fanni TI ba omuzishi metodho va vasoiti tekhnikii daryoft, gunkuni, zakhira, tabdil, irsol va istifodai informatsiya bo yorii kompyuter va digar vositahoi elektronii muosir bakhshida shudaast. In janba pesh az hama ba tadbiqi mavodi talimi dar hayot va ba faoliyati ejodi omoda sokhtani khonandagon aloqamand meboshad. Sohai talimii fanni TI kharakteri kompleksi dorad.

Har yak qismi on dar ijroi vazifai alohida va mushakhkhasi sohai talim maqomi khosa dorad va bahri amali gashtani hadafhoi zerin ravona shudaast:

  • Parvarishi malakahoi istifodai mohirona va pursamari kompyuter dar ravandi omuzish va faoliyati hamaruzai khonandagon
  • Omodagi ba hayoti purarzishu faoli jomeai informatsioni
  • Baland bardoshtani farhangi informatsionii khonandagon Tadbiqi tekhnologiyahoi navi informatsioni dar muassisahoi talimi
  • Tamini farogirii ustuvori tekhnika va tekhnologiyai kompyuteri dar hamai samthoi hayot
  • Ravshan gardonidani mohiyati ravandhoi informatsioni dar jahonbinii ilmi va naqshi TI dar jomeai navin.

Vazifaho va payvandu vobastagihoi TI bo ilmhoi digar.

 Hangomi dar omuzishi hama fanhoi talimi jori namudani kompyuter, malakahoi ba nom «savodnokii kompyuterii khonandagon» kharakteri umumitalimi megirad. Tashakkuli munosibati nav ba fahmishi maqsadhoi omuzishii fanni TI pesh az hama ba vazifahoi umumitalimii in fan va imkoniyathoi potensialii on dar halli masalahoi muhimtarini talim, tarbiya va rushdi zehnii maktabbachagon aloqamand ast.

Unsurhoi alohidai tahlili kibernetikii hodisahoi muhiti atrof inikosi khudro dar kurshoi talimii biologiya, fizika, tarikh, jamiyatshinosi, talimi mehnat va gayra meyoband. Fanni TI boshad dar sistemai fanhoi talimi naqshi peshbarandaro bozida, bahri daryofti tasavvuroti yagonai olami hasti va ehsosi umumiyati asoshoi informatsionii ravandi idorai tabiati zinda, jomea va tekhnika sharoiti musoid faroham meorad.

Hamin tariq, vazifai asosii fanni TI az tamin namudani farogirii donishi mustahkam va boshuuronai khonandagon doir ba ravandi tabdil, irsol va istifodai informatsiya iborat buda, dar halli masalahoi malumoti umumiinsoni sahmi arzanda dorad:

  1. Dar tashakkuli asoshoi jahonbinii ilmi:

tasavvuroti khonandagon oid ba informatsiya hamchun ba yake az se mafhumi bunyodii tasviri ilmii olam modda, energiya, informatsiya tashakkul doda meshavad;

fahmishi khonandagon doir ba prinsiphoi yakkhela va yagonai sokhti sistemahoi khudidorai gunogunjabha tashakkul doda meshavad va mavqei tekhnologiyahoi navi informatsioni dar taraqqiyoti jomea va digargunshavii mazmunu kharakteri faoliyati inson muayyan karda meshavad.

  1. Dar taraqqi dodani sathi tafakkuri khonandagon:

ilmi ravonshinosii muosir (psikhologiya) ahamiyati TI-ro dar rushdi tafakkuri nazariyavi va ejodiikhonandagon tahlil namuda, tashakkuli shakli navi tafakkur – tafakkuri operatsioniro ba qayd giriftaast;

yak qator tadqiqothoi ravonshinosi az on guvohi medihand, ki hangomi istifodai kompyuter dar khonandagon uslubi samaranoki moduliyu refleksii fikrroni tashakkul meyobad.

  1. Dar omodasozii khonandagon ba faoliyati amaliyu mehnati:

naqshi TI dar tashakkuli farhangi informatsionii khonandagon va komponenthoi omodagiashon ba tarzi navi hayotguzaroni dar jomeai informatsioni bagoyat buzurg ast;

istifodai metodu vasoiti kompyuteri khonandagonro ba davomdihii tahsil dar maktabhoi kasbi hidoyat menamoyad.

Ba obekthoi asosii fanni TI – informatsiya, zakhirahoi informatsioni, ravandhoi informatsionii sistemahoi tabiatan gunogun, vositahoi informatikunoni va tekhnologiyahoi informatsioni dokhil meshavand. Fanni TI hamchun ilmi mustaqil na tanho sohai tadqiqoti, balki metodhoi khosi tadqiqotii khudro dorost.

Istifodai in metodho imkoniyat medihand, ki khosiyat va qonunhoi umumii hodisahoi muhiti atrof va jomearo oshkor sozem, tadqiq va tadbiq namoem. Dar barnomai talimii fanni TI chahor jihati parvarishi tafakkuri khonandagon peshbini shudaast:

  • jahonbini – tashakkuli tasviri sistemaviyu informatsionii olam, umumiyati ravandhoi idorakuni dar tabiati zinda, jomea va tekhnika;
  • tekhnologi – tashakkuli tasavvurot dar borai kompyuter hamchun vositai universalii informatsioni, rushdi savodi kompyuteri va farhangi informatsionii talabagon, omodasozii onho ba faoliyati mehnati va idoma dodani tahsili kasbi;
  • algoritmi – inkishofi tafakkuri khonandagon doir ba algoritm;
  • tadqiqoti – parvarishi ejodkori va tahlilnamoi. 

Hudro sanjed:

  1. Informatika chi guna ilm ast? TI chi?
  2. Maqsad va vazifahoi fanni TI az chi iborat ast?
  3. Obekthoi asosii fanni TI kadomhoyand?

Ijro kuned:

  1. Mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va predmeti fanni TI-ro naql kuned.
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