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MAYZADAGII MUZMIN

mayzadagii-muzminMAYZADAGII MUZMIN, bemoriest, ki az sababi muntazam va beetidol istemol kardani nushokihoi spirtdor inkishof meyobad. Nishonahoi avvalini on: odam miqdori muayyani mashruboti spirtdorro menushad, vale zahrolud nameshavad, sharob ba dili u namezanad va qay namekunad. Dar ayni zamon nisbati mashrubot shavqi nosolime paydo khohad shud (doimo dar borai on fikr mekunad, az fikri sharobnushi khushhol meshavad va g.). Faqat dar holati masti aloqamandi va khushholi ehsos megardad. Agar sharob naboshad, dar vaziyati behtarin niz pareshonholiyu asaboniyat rukh menamoyad, qobiliyati kori past meshavad. Badi nushidani miqdori odatii sharob avzo behtar megardad, faoliyati ruhi barqaror va khotir jam meshavad.
Bo mururi zamon in ishtiyoqi nosolim dar shakli kushishi paygirona baroi ba dast ovardani sharob zohir gashta, ba hama raftoru kirdori bemor rahnamoi mekunad. Ishtiyoq ba darajai gurusnagi va tashnagii sakht merasad, dar in hol gavharaki chashm kalon meshavad, odamro araq zer mekunad. Mastigari muntazam va doimi megardad, tasiri orombakhshi sharob kam va baraks, tasiri angezishovari on meafzoyad. Mayzada dar hushyori lanj, pareshonkhotir va ruhaftoda ast; dar masti faolu serharakat meboshad. Ammo chunin bolidaruhi zud ba oshuftagi, badkhashmi yo afsurdaruhi ivaz meshavad. Rashk va hissi ranjishi beasos, jangjui, intiqom ba vujud meoyand. Hangomi masti hofiza khalal meyobad, juziyoti voqeahoi az sar guzashta faromush meshavand yo mayzada badi hushyor shudanash, hej chizro ba yod ovarda nametavonad.
Aloimi khumor tadrijan, odatan, badi 4 – 10 soli bemori inkishof meyobad. Avvalho ehsosi norohati va beholi paydo meshavad, nishonahoi sabuki vegetativi – khamyozakashi, varaja, ishol ruy medihand. Vaqte ki alomati khumor ba avji alo merasad, zuhuroti on gunogun meshavad (vase shudani gavharaki chashm, seraraqi, varaja, khamyoza, tarangii mushakho, larzishi daston, ikhtiloli harakat, baland gashtani fishori khun, dilzani, bekhobi, gum shudani ishtiho). Barobari avj giriftani ishtiyoqi paygirona ba sharob khumori pagohi (sabuhi) ba mastii ruzona meguzarad. Tadrijan ba on nojurihoi jiddii ruhi ilova meshavand. Ilova ba nishonahoi muqarrari (bekhobi, oshuftagi, avzoi mushaddad) vahmi nomuayyan, iztirob, ruhaftodagi, hissi gunahgori ba vujud meoyand. Bazan tashannuj va psikhozi shadid, ki shakli mamultarini on doulkhamr («vasvosi mayzadagi») meboshad, mushohida megardad. Psikhozi shadid va tashannuj qobiliyati zehnii bemorro kohish medihand.
Bo mururi tul kashidani bemori zuhuroti mayzadagi niz tagyir meyobad. Mayzada az miqdori khele kami sharob mast megardad, dar surati andake mast shudan ham, zafi hofiza ruy medihad. Bazan mastigari davri meshavad, yane maykhoragii haqiqi ba amal omada, bemor ruz az ruz kamtar menushad, maykhoragi bo zafi vaznini ruhivu jismoni va digar istemoli karda natavonistani sharob khotima meyobad. Tadrijan aloimi khumor ham digargun meshavad, khavfi on baroi hayoti bemor meafzoyad. Dar holati khumor mayzadaho ba dushvori qadam mezanand, lanj, behavsala yo ruhaftoda buda, bazan khudkushi mekunand. Goho dar davrai az had guzashtani mayzadagi psikhozhoi muzmin (vasvosi rashk, gallyutsinoz, kamaqlii alkuhuli), ikhtiloli shuur, falaj va g. ruy medihand.
Oqibati biologiyu ijtimoii M. m. baroi bemor va jamiyat vaznin ast. Oqibathoi biologii on ikhtiloli ruhu tan meboshad. Dar avval nishonahoi asteniyavi (khastagi, susti, nomuvozinati infioli) ba amal omada, bo bekhobi, beishtihoi, ikhtiloli gunoguni vazifavi jarayon megirand. Mayzadagi tadrijan boisi zafi intellekt (pareshonkhotiri, past gashtani qobiliyati ejodi va hatto kamaqli), noustuvori, dagali, tundmizoji, beintizomi, betoqati, pareshoni, tagyiroti shakhsiyat (mahdud shudani doirai muoshirat va mashguliyat, barham khurdani shavqu havas, nest shudani talabot ba inkishofi manavi, donish, takmili ikhtisos, ikhtiloli aqidahoi akhloqi, beparvoi nisbat ba qarordodhoi muhimi peshina, gum kardani hissi ehtirom nisbat ba obruvu etibor va shakhsiyati inson) megardad. Ikhtiloli tan gunogun ast. Beshtar silsilai dilu ragho va dastgohi guvorish oseb mebinand. Hususan, jigar sakht oseb meyobad. M. m. sababi asosii sirrozi jigar meboshad. Ikhtiloli gunoguni sistemai asab niz az oqibathoi noguvori M. m. ast: tanzimi asabi kulli organizm khalal meyobad, harakat va raftor besomon megardand, nevrithoi gunogun paydo meshavand. Hususan nevriti asabi chashm khavfnok buda, oqibat boisi zafi bosira, tang gashtani doirai binish, rangkuri megardad. Hangomi nushidani sharobi surrogat bilkul nobino shudan mumkin ast.
Umri bemoroni M. m. kutoh buda, onho bisyor vaqt dar sinni 30-solagi halok meshavand. Sababhoi bevositai marg illati dilu ragho, hodisahoi nokhush, notavonii jigar, pankreatiti shadid, sarmo zadan, khudkushi, psikhozi shadid va g. meboshand.
Mukholifati mayzada bo jamiyat tagyiroti shakhsiyat (pastravii manaviyu akhloqii u) – ro metezonad. Vay majbur meshavad durug guyad, khudro safed kunad. In holatro zafi ruzafzuni intellekti u vaznintar menamoyad. Tadrijan mavqei ijtimoii u tanazzul meyobad: ikhtisos, kor va oilai khudro gum mekunad. Mayzadagi rasman ba oilavayroni naovarad ham, ba hayot va salomatii kamash du nasl zarari kalon vorid mesozad. Dar nasli mayzadaho bemorihoi sar, oligofreniya, nuqsonhoi gunoguni inkishof nisbatan beshtar vomekhurand. SHaroiti vaznine, ki dar oilai mayzada mavjud ast, sababi tarbiya va inkishofi nodurusti kudak meshavad. Gustarishi M. m. akhloqro bad karda, ba inkishofi jinoyatkori ovarda merasonad.
Muolijai mayzadagii muzmin. Natijai solhoi ziyod az sharob zahrolud shudani organizm in ast, ki dar qatori digar nojuriho faoliyati biologi niz sakht tagiyr meyobad va parhez az sharob der davom kunad ham, hangomi dubora ba maynushi shuru kardan, bemaylon boz ba mastigari mebarad. Muhlati parhez har qadar kam boshad, khohishi masti hamon qadar zudtar va sakhttar paydo meshavad. Binobar in, dar surati rioya nakardan ba parhez hamesha khavfi on ast, ki bemoron ikhtiyori khudro az dast dihand. Maqsadi tabobat qat kardani maynushi, bartaraf sokhtani aloimi khumor, barqaror namudani vazifai uzv, maglub sokhtani ragbat ba sharob, tamoili ustuvor ba zindagii hushyorona ast.
Hudi bemor be madadi dukhtur rafti mariziro bozdoshta nametavonad. Faqat dar davrahoi avvali bemori mastigariro boshuurona qat kardan mumkin ast. Bemore, ki shakhsiyati u tagyir nayoftaast, agar khatari vaziyati ba vujud omada (ikhtilofho dar oila, dar kor va g.)-ro bifahmad, ragbati ba sharob doshtai khudro bartaraf karda metavonad. Hud ba khud qat gardidani mastigari, odatan, badi psikhozi sakhti alkuhuli ba vuqu payvasta, bazan ziyoda az nim sol davom mekunad. Dar bisyor holatho ba tabobati beruna dakholat boyad kard. Dar in mavrid makhsusan roli oila kalon ast. SHakli bemori giriftani mastigariro odamoni nazdik nisbatan zudtar pay mebarand, bo oqibati vaznini M. m. avvalin shuda onho ru ba ru meshavand.
Muolija har qadar beshtar ba takhir andokhta shavad, oqibathoi khavfnoki bemoriro bartaraf kardan hamon qadar mushkiltar megardad. Der murojiat kardan ba dukhtur bisyor vaqt natijai nadonistani nishonahoi ibtidoii bemori ast. Muddati madid, hatto vaqte ki kayho ragbati nosolim ba sharob paydo shudaastu shakhs baroi nushidan har guna bahona mejuyad va baroi in hamfikron ham dorad, M. m.-ro hamchun mastigarii muqarrari va tasiri duston mepindorand. Mayzada va nazdikoni u tahti gubori takhayulot monda umed ba on mebandand, ki dar mavridi zarurat «aqlro ba kor andokhtan» va mastigariro qat kardan mumkin ast.
Muddati ziyod nazdikon ba vadahoi mayzada dar borai qati maynushi yo baetidol nushidan bovar mekunand. In savgandho jiddiand va khudi bemor niz ba ijroi onho bovar dorad, vale ragbati nosolim boz va boz az niyathoi u zurtar mebaroyad. Baroi isboti qudrati irodai khud mayzada chand vaqt parhez kardani khudro misol meovarad. Vale mohiyati dalelhoi u in ast, ki az had ziyod nushidan hodisai doimi buda, parhez muvaqqatist. Ilova bo nodurust baho dodan ba vazi mayzada, nazdikoni bemor boz sahvi digare mekunand: onho umed mebandand, ki bo irodai khud mastigariro ba tartib meandozand va ba in maqsad maynushiro dar khona tashkil mekunand («to ki dar kucha nanushad»), dar ruzhoi istirohat bisyor nushidanro ijozat medihand («to ki dar ruzhoi kori nanushad»). Vale makhsusiyati bemori, yane gayriimkon budani nazorat va peshgiri karda natavonistani istemoli sharob, in tadbirhoro bemanfiat megardonand. Hatto badi on ki tamomi choraho andeshida shudand, nazdikon ba dukhtur murojiat kardanro kashol medihand, az tarsi narezondani obrui araqkhur ba inkishofi bemori musoidat mekunand. YAgona rohi imkonpaziru durust dar mavridi ba bemorii mayzadagi giriftor shudani yake az ahli oila paygirona talab kardani qati mastigari va hangomi natijai dilkhoh nadodani parhez murojiat ba dukhturi narkolog ast. Bisyor vaqt bemoron ba gazab etiroz mekunand, az muolija ru metoband. Dar in mavridho dar khotir boyad dosht, ki har qadar bemori inkishof yobadu ikhtiloli ruhi va tagiyroti shakhsiyat amiqtar gardad, qahru gazab va etirozi mayzadaho khavfnoktar meshavad.
Agar bemor zeri tasiri atrofiyon «aknun man ba sharob ragbat nadoram, misli digaron solim hastam va nushida metavonam…» gufta, boz nushad, bemori mumkin ast az nav khuruj kunad. Badi in dar oila ba bemor hamchun ba shakhsi az bemorii vaznin shifoyobanda muomila boyad kard. Vay boyad rejai qatii kor va istirohat doshta boshad, sarivaqt gizo khurad, chunki gurusnagi ishtiyoqro ba nushokii spirti bedor mesozad. Ehsosi tezu tund va anduh ba avj giriftani bemori musoidat mekunand. Muolija har qadar der sar shuda boshad, hamon qadar ehtimoli ziyod meravad, ki ishtiyoqi nosolim be sababi aniqe az nav ruy medihad. Bisyor vaqt bemor in ragbatro his namekunad yo onro beshuurona raf mesozad, vale khud asaboni meshavad. Nishonahoi shiddat giriftani bemori taqozo mekunand, ki zud yorii tibbi rasonda shavad. Bemorro bisyor vaqt dar bemorkhona khobondan lozim meoyad. Ba tashkili istirohat va farogati mayzadahoe, ki muolija karda shudaand, kumak rasondan zarur ast.
Ad.: Bolotova Z. N., Alkogolizm – obshestvennoe zlo, Kiev, 1982; Gudvin D. U., Alkogolizm, M., 2002; Lapin I. P., Stress. Trevoga. Depressiya. Alkogolizm. Epilepsiya, SPb., 2004.

G. Q. Mirojov.

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