Home / Ilm / MAGNIY

MAGNIY

magniyMAGNIY (Magnesium), Mg, elementi khimiyavii guruhi II sistemai davrii Mendeleev, raqami at. 12, massai at. 24,305. M.-i tabii az 3 izotopi sobit – 24 Mg (78,60%), 25 Mg (10,11%) va 26 Mg (11,29%) iborat ast. 3 izotopi radioaktivii suniash – 23 Mg, 27 Mg, 28 Mg niz hosil karda shudaast. M.-ro dar shakli khoka s. 1808 G. Devi hangomi elektrolizi magneziyai tar dar katodi simobi va taqtiri amalgamai dar natijai on hosilshavanda kashf kardaast. M. 2,10%-i massai qishri Zaminro tashkil mekunad. Dar tabiat dolomit, forsterit, magnezit, karnallit barin dahho mineralhoi silikati, karbonati, sulfati, khloridi, fosfatii M. mavjudand. Obi bahrho to 0,38% va obi baze kulho to 30% khloridi magniy dorand. M. metalli nuqratob, narmi yozanda va sabuk ast. Zichiash 1739 kg/m3 (dar 200S); t gud. 6510S; t jush. 11070S . M. dar hamai payvasthoyash 2-valenta ast. Vay metalli faol buda, dar havo bo pardai tunuki oksid pushida meshavad; hangomi sakht tafsondan (600 – 6500S), bo shulai chashmkhirakunanda sukhta oksidi magniy (MgO) va qisman nitridi magniy (Mg3N2) hosil mekunad. Bo obi khunuk ba reaksiya nameravad, ammo az bugi ob (dar 4000S) gidrogenro khorij menamoyad. M. aksariyati metallhoro az mahluli obii namakhoyashon fishurda mebarorad; bo mahluli serobi kislotahoi minerali bo osoni ba reaksiya meravad. M. hangomi tafsonidan bo gidrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, gallogenho, karbon, silitsiy, fosfor va dig. elementho payvast shuda gidrid, gallogenid, sulfid, karbid, silisid, fosfid va g., inchunin bo moddahoi organiki payvasthoi metalloorganiki, bo metallho khulahoi sabuk hosil mekunad.
M. yake az elementhoi hayotan zaruri organizm ast. Konsentratsiyai vay dar tarkibi baze obsabzho to 3%, foraminiferho to 3,5%, isfanjhoi ohaki to 4% meshavad. Dar khlorofili nabototi rui Zamin takhminan 100 mlrd t M. mavjud ast.
M.-ro organizmi hayvonu odam ba vositai khurok megirad. Ehtiyoji shaboruzii odam ba M. 0,3 – 0,5 g ast. Miqdori normalii M. dar khun 4,3 mg% buda, hangomi ziyod shudani on serkhobi, behissi va bazan falaji mushakhoi skelet mushohida meshavad. Hangomi norasogii M. mutadilii angezishi sistemai asab, kashishkhurii mushakho vayron megardad. M.-ro dar tekhnika asosan bo rohi elektrolizi khloridi M. yo karnalliti beob, inchunin bo usuli metallotermi yo karbotermi hosil mekunand. M. dar pirotekhnika, metallurgiyai istehsoli khulaho, hosil kardani vanadiy, titan, uran, sirkoniy, chuyani sakht, inchunin tekhnikai atom, tib, kishovarzi va g. vase istifoda meshavad. Qismi ziyodi M. dar tarkibi boftai ustukhon jo giriftaast. Dar plazmai khun, dar eritrositho va boftahoi narm M. asosan dar holati ioni vujud dorand. YAk miqdori on bo safedaho, makhsusan safedahoi fermenti payvast shudaast. M. baroi faoliyati baze fermentho komilan zarur ast. Dar surati ba hayvonot khurondani khuroke, ki namaki M. nadorad, faoliyati dil ikhtilol yofta, tashannuj paydo meshavad. Agar ba khun miqdori ziyodi namaki M. guzaronida shavad, holati behushi ruy medihad. Tasiri bozdorandai ionhoi M.-ro ba asabiya bo rohi ba khun guzaronidani namaki kalsiy bartaraf mekunand. Ahamiyati biologii M. boz dar on ast, ki angezishi asabiyaro mutadil megardonad. M. raghoro vase, ikhroji talkharo ziyod mekunad, binobar in bisyor payvasthoi M. (mas. sulfati magniy, askorbinati magniy, tiosulfati magniy va g.)-ro chun doru istifoda mebarand. Dar asosi tajriba muqarrar kardaand, ki dar asnoi narasidani M. dar devorai raghoi kalon, mushakhoi dil va skelet miqdori kalsiy meafzoyad. M. dar lubiyo, yarmai suli, yarmai marjumak va nakhud vujud dorad. Dar mahsuloti gushtu shir miqdori M. kam ast.
Ehtiyojoti organizmi odam ba M. asosan az hisobi magniye, ki dar tarkibi khurokvori hast, qone karda meshavad; ehtiyojoti organizmi javon ba M. ziyod ast. Odami kalonsol boyad har ruz 500 mg M., zani homila 925 mg, modari sinamakon 1250 mg, kudakon az 140 mg (3-sola) to 530 mg (14 – 17-sola) istemol kunand. Miqdori M. dar zardobi khuni odam az rui meyor 1,6 – 2,9 mg% ast.
Karbonati magniy (Magnesii subcarbonas) – ro ba kalonsolon 1 – 3 g, ba kudakoni to 1-sola 0,5 g, ba kudakoni 2 – 5-sola 1 – 1,5 g, ba kudakoni 6 – 12-sola 1 – 2 g ruze 2 – 3 marotiba mefarmoyand. Onro gayr az istemol kardan metavon hamchun khoka ba pust molid (zarura). Dar shakli khoka va qurs istehsol karda meshavad. On dar tarkibi qurshoi «Vikalin» va «Vikair» niz mavjud ast.
Peroksidi magniy (Magnesii peroxydum)-ro pesh az khurok yo badi on tain mekunand (baroi kalonsolon 0,25 – 0,5 g ruze 3 – 4 marotiba). Dar shakli khoka istehsol karda meshavad.
Sulfati magniy (Magnesii sulfas), namaki anglisi, namaki talkh, davoi mushil buda, onro shabona yo nimsoat pesh az khurok tain mekunand (baroi kalonsolon dar 50 ml ob 10 – 30 g). Hamchun davoi talkharon kalonsolon mahluli 20 – 25%-i onro ruze 3 marotiba istemol menamoyand. Dar shakli khoka va ampula istehsol karda meshavad.
Ad.: Populyarnaya biblioteka khimicheskikh elementov, M., 1983; SHreter V., Himiya, M., 1989; Idrisov T., Kimiyoi anosir (elementho), D., 2004.

J.S. Langarieva.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

komputer-3

KOMPYUTER – MOSHINI UNIVERSALI

  Imkoniyatho va khosiyathoi kompyuter. Kompyuter pesh az hama yak namud moshin ast. On bo …