Home / Biologiya / Leykositho va imuniteti odam

Leykositho va imuniteti odam

Sokht va vazifahoi leykositho. Leykositho hujayrahoi berangi khun buda, dar magzi surkh, illiki zardi ustukhon dar girehhoi limfatiki va ispurch hosil meshavand. Az jihati tarkibashon 2 namudi leykositro farq kardan mumkin ast: leykosithoi donador va bedona. Hamai leykositho yadro (hasta) dorand. Miqdori leykositho dar 1 mm3 khun 6-8 hazorro tashkil mekunad. Onho qobiliyati harakatkuni dorand.

Print

Immunitet. Leykositho dar organizm vazifai sanitari yo bezarargardoniro ijro mekunand. Onho harakat mekunand va zarrachahoi begonaero, ki baroi organizm zararovarand, furu mebarand va hazm mekunand. In hodisaro avvalin marotiba olimi rus I.I. Mechnikov kashf karda, onhoro fagositoz (az kalimai yunoni «fago»-furubaranda) va hujayrahoi «khurandaro» fagositho nomidaast.

Agar ba organizm jismhoi begona khele ziyod dokhil shavand, fagositho onhoro furu burda, nihoyat kalon va oqibat vayron meshavand. Dar natija moddahoi iltihobovar judo shuda, joi zarardida varam mekunad va haroratash baland shuda, surkh megardad. Judoshavii moddaho boisi iltihob megardad, ba joi sukunati jismhoi begona leykosithoi navro jalb mekunand.
Leykositho jismhoi begona va hujayrahoi vayronshudaro nobud sokhta, miqdori ziyodashon memirand. Fasode, ki dar boftaho hangomi iltihob ba vujud meoyad, tudai leykosithoi nobudgashta meboshad.

Organizmro az jismhoi begona na tanho yak khudi fagositoz muhofizat mekunad. Ilova bar in dar organizm safedahoi makhsus – podtanho hosil shuda, jismhoi begona va zahri onhoro bezarar megardonand (rasmi 42). Podtan bo ishtiroki navhoi makhsusi leykositho hosil meshavad, ki na faqat dar khun, balki dar limfa ham vomekhurad. CHunin navi leykosithoro limfositho menomand. Bazei onho ba barangezandai yak bemori, masalan, barangezandai surkhcha tasir mekunand. Mavjudiyati podtanho muqobiliyati organizmro nisbat ba bemorihoi siroyatkunanda ustuvor menamoyad. Podtanho metavonand duru daroz boqi monand, binobar in ba organizm yak bemori dubora tasir namekunad. Fagositoz va podtanho mekhanizmi yagonai muhofizati organizm – immunitet nom giriftaand. Immunitet organizmro az bemorihoi siroyatkunanda nigoh doshta, onro az hujayrahoi murda, tagyiryofta va begona khalos mekunad. Reaksiyai siroyatnopazir sababi judoshavii uzvho va boftahoi payvandi meboshad.

Helhoi immunitet. Immunitet 3 khel meshavad: 1) merosi; 2)tabii va 3) suni. Immuniteti merosi az nasl ba nasl meguzarad va az vaqti tavlid mavjud ast. Immuniteti tabii badi ba in yo on bemorii siroyatkunanda giriftor shudani organizm, badi sihat yoftan paydo meshavad va odam duyumbora ba in bemori giriftor nameshavad. Immuniteti suniro baroi peshgiri kardani bemorihoi siroyatkunanda moyahoi (vaksina) makhsus tayyorkarda shuda istifoda mebarand. Dar natija odam ba bemorihoi isholi khunin, sil va gayraho giriftor nameshavad.

Immunitet na ba hama barangezandahoi bemoriho qobiliyati ustuvori dorad. Binobar in odam ba bemorihoi gripp, zarparvin, guludard va gayra metavonad yakchand marotiba takroran giriftor shavad.

Savolho:
1. Az rui kadom nishonaho leykosithoro ba du guruh taqsim mekunand?
2. Sababi bemorihoi siroyatkunanda chist?
3. Leykositho kadom vazifahoro ijro mekunand?
4. Fagositoz chist? Immunitet chist?
5. Kadom namudi immunitet mavjud ast?
6. Zardobi shifoi chist?

Kori amali

Sokhti zarrabinii khuni odam va qurboqqa
Tajhizot baroi amaliyot: mikropreparati rangkardai tayyori
khuni odam va qurboqqa, zarrabin.

Rafti amaliyot:
a) Ba kor omoda kardani mikroskop.
b) Ba zeri zarrabin guzoshtani mikropreparati khuni odam.
v) Preparatro muoina kuned. Eritrosithoro yofta rasmashonro kashed.
g) Aknun ba zeri zarrabin mikropreparati khuni qurboqqaro guzored.
d) Eritrosithoi khuni qurboqqaro muoina karda, rasmashonro kashed.
Onho az eritrosithoi khuni odam chi farq dorand?
Fikr kuned, ki kadom khun bisyortar oksigen meorad – khuni odam yo khuni qurboqqa. Baroi chi?

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

genetika

DURAGAKUNII DIGIBRIDI VA POLIGIBRIDI

Qonuni seyumi Mendel – qonuni kombinatsiyai bevositai genho (novobasta ba meros guzashtani jufti genho) Mendel …