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KOS

kosKOS (Pelvis), yak juzi skelet, ki ba andomhoi poyoni taalluq dorad. Az du ustukhoni kos, chorband va dumgoza iborat ast. K. yakjoya bo bandi kosu ron takyagohi badan ast.
K. kalon va khurd meshavad. K.-i kalon az pesh bo devorai peshi shikam, az qafo bo sutunmuhra, az pahluho bo nugi ustukhonhoi tihigoh faro girifta shudaast; K.-i khurdro az pesh ustukhoni zihor, az qafo ustukhoni chorbandu dumgoza va az pahlu ustukhonhoi surin ihota kardaand. Dar K.-i kalon uzvhoi qismi poyoni javfi shikam (rudahoi borik va gafs), dar K.-i khurd peshobdon, rudai rost va azoi tanosuli dokhili joy giriftaand.
K. az se ustukhon – tihigoh, surin va zihor iborat ast, ki bo qismhoi pahluii chorband va bayni hamdigar payvast meboshand. Qismi poyoni chorband, ki bo dumgoza robita dorad, payvandi kamharakatero ba vujud meorad (az pesh va qafo bo bandakho ustuvor ast). Dar sathi qafoi ustukhoni surin du chok mavjud ast, ki bo bandakho pushida shuda, surokhhoi kalon va khurdi surinro tashkil medihand. Dar hududi K. mushakhoi tihigohu kamar, mushakhoi sidodii daruni va murudshakl joygirand. Onho az ustukhonhoi K. ibtido girifta, ba ustukhoni ron payvast meshavand.
K. va uzvhoi onro shokhahoi arteriyai tahigohii daruni bo khun tamin mekunand. Venaho, ki arteriyahoro hamrohi menamoyand, boftai venavi tashkil namuda, khun az onho ba venai tihigohii daruni, sipas ba venai kholii poyoni va qisman ba venai daromadgohi jigar meravad. Mushak va uzvhoi K.-i khurd az asabbofthoi kamar, chorband va dumgoza, inchunin qismi kosii silsilai asabhoi naboti (vegetativi) bo asab tamin karda meshavand.
Dar K. nuqsu osebhoi gunogun ba mushohida merasand. Baze az osebho modarzodi (mas., deformatsiyai K.) buda, barkhe binobar amrozi iltihobi, nodurust sabzidani ustukhonho va ikhtiloli ravandi sakht gashtani onho tashakkul meyoband. Dar K. omoshoi gayrisaratoni va saratoni niz paydo meshavand.
Kosi zanho. K.-i zanho az K.-i mardho farq dorad. In farqiyat khususan dar davrai balogati jinsi nagz zohir meshavad. Ustukhoni K.-i zanho tunuk va sabuk ast. On nisbat ba K.-i mardho vase va farrokh meboshad. CHorbandi zanho pahn buda, misli chorbandi mardho bisyor kaj nest. In hangomi tavallud ahamiyati kalon dorad. Masofai bayni dungihoi surini K.-i zan nisbat ba K.-i mard ziyod ast. Az rui andoza va nishondodhoi K.-i kalon metavon oid ba andozai K.-i khurd khulosa barovard. To 2 sm khurd shudani yake az andozahoi K.-i kalon daleli tang budani K.-i khurd meboshad. Dar amaliyai akusheri chor sathi K.-i khurdro judo mekunand: sathi vurud ba K.-i khurd; sathi qismi vasei javfi K.-i khurd; sathi qismi boriki javfi K.-i khurd; sathi khorij az K.-i khurd. Hati payvandi markazi hama andozahoi rosti K. mehvari K. nom dorad.
KL
Rasmi 1. Kosi mard (A) va zan (B). Hathoi andozahoi kosi kalon va vurud ba kosi khurd nishon doda shudaand. 1 – distántia cristárum (masofai bayni tegahoi tihigoh); 2 – diametri kundalang; 3 – distántia spinárum (masofai bayni tegahoi boloii peshi tihigoh); 4 – qutr (konyugata)-i haqiqi (ginekologi); 5 – diametri kaj.
Rasmi 2. Andozai kosi zan. 1 – qutr (konyugata)-i anatomi; 2 – konyugatai haqiqi (ginekologi); 3 – andozai rost (baromad az kos); 4 – konyugatai diagonali; 60° – kunji khamii kos.

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