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KASHFIYOTHOI BUZURGI JUGROFI

To nimai duyumi asri XV odamoni avrupo asosan dar borai Evropa. Osiyo va qismhoi sohilii Afrika tasavvurot doshtand. Dar borai digar qismhoi khushki malumote nadoshtand. Binobar in olimon dar kharitai tartibdodai khud faqat hamon materikho va bahru uqyonushoi ihotakardaashonro nishon dodaand. On kharitaho galathoi ziyod doshtand. Haritai olame, ki olimi YUnon Batlimus (Ptoyaemey. asri II milod) tartib dodaast, az qabili chunin kharitaho meboshad. Dar on kharita qismi ziyodi kurai Zaminro khushki tashkip medihad. Ammo mo medonem, ki haftodu yak foizi rui Zaminro ob tashkil kardaast.

kashfi-jugrofi

Uqyonusi Hindro hamchun bahri dokhili khushki tasvir karda, az garb ba sharq tul kashidani hududi materiki Evropayu Osiyoro az budash khele ziyod nishon dodaasg. Ammo sarfi nazar az in galatho, kharitai olami Batlimusro bahrnavardon va sayyohon chordah asr istifoda burdand. Dar kharitai Batlimus va globuse, ki dar asri XV Martin Bekhaym sokhta bud (rasmi 3), Avstraliya, Antarktida. Amerikai SHimoli va Amerikai Janubi aks nayoftaand. Ammo vujud doshtani in qismhoi khushkiro olimon takhmin mekardand. Dar janubi nimkurai janubi mavjud budani khushki (Avstraliya)-ro olimoni qadim peshgui karda budand. Dar on tarafi Uqyonusi Atlantika mavjud budani khushkii kalon (Amerikai SHimoly va Janubi)-ro Aburayhoni Beruni dar ibtidoi asri XI takhmin kardaast. Justujui on sarzaminkhoi nomalum, rohhoi navi bahri ba mamlakathoi SHarq, inkishofi ilm, bahrnavardi va manfiati savdo ba kashfiyothoi buzurgi geografi asos guzosht. Avvalin ekspeditsiyahoro ispaniho va portugaliho tashkil kardand.

Kashfi Amerika va rohi bahri Hinduston. Dar asri XV yakchand ekspeditsiya tashkil karda shudand. YAke az onho ekspeditsiyai Hristofor Kolumb bud. Maqsadi on justujui rohi bahri ba sui Hinduston bud. Bo in maqsad Hristofor Kolumb soli 1492 pas az tayyorii ziyode bo se kishti az Ispaniya baromada, ba vositai Uqyonusi Atlantika ba samti garb rahsipor gardid. U fikr mekard, ki Zamin kurashakl ast. Agar ba vositai Uqyonusi Atlantika ba garb harakat kunad, dar sharq ba sohilhoi Osiyo khohad rasid. Ba hamin fikru andesha Uqyonusi Atlantikaro guzashta, badi du moh ba sohilhoi Amerikai Markazy rasid. Kolumb hamagi ba sohilhoi Amerika chor marotiba ekspeditsiya tashkil kard, ammo ba garb yagon guzargoh nayofta, to okhiri umri khud fikr mekard, ki u Hindustonro kashf kardaast.

Ekspeditsiyahoi Hristofor Kolumb takhmini Aburayhoni Beruniro dar borai dar on tarafi Uqyonusi Atlantika vujud doshtani khushkii azim tasdiq namud. Ammo Hristofor Kolumb dar borai on ki qitai tamoman navro kashf namudaast, khabar nadosht. Dertar in qitaro Amerika nomidand. Badi panj soli ekspeditsiyai yakumi Hristofor Kolumb baroi yoftani rohi bahri ba Hinduston hukumati Portugaliya ekspeditsiya tashkil kard. Sarvarii onro ba Vaskoda Gama supurdand. Soli 1447 Vasko da Gama bo chahor kishti az Portugaliya baromada. ba samti janub harakat namud. U sohilhoi garbii Afrikaro davr zada, az Uqyonusi Atlantika ba Uqyonusi Hind guzasht va soli 1448 ba bandari bahrii Hinduston shahri Kalkatta vorid shud. Hamin tavr rohi bahri ba sui Hinduston kashf gardid, ki dar tarikhi savdoi jahony voqeai nihoyat muhim bud. Ammo haminro qayd kardan zarur ast, ki sayyohi tojik Abdurazzoqi Samarqandy az Vasko da Gamai portugaly 56 sol peshtar ba Hinduston az tarafi Garb ba vositai Haliji Hurmuz ba Uqyonusi Hind vorid shuda bud.

Bekhaym Martin (1459 – 1507) geografi nemis ast. U soli 1492 globusi nakhustinro sokht, ki tasavvuroti geografiro dar borai sathi Zamin dar arafai kashfi Olami Nav (kitai Amerika) aks namudaast.

Avvalnn ekspedntsiyai girdi olam. Badi kashfi qitai Amerika malum gardid, ki vay az shimol ba janub tul kashidaast va moneaest dar bayni Evropa va Osiyo. Bad savole ba miyon omad, ki oyo ii khushkiro davr zada ba garb shino kardan mumkin ast yo ne! In savoli dushvorro Magellan hal namud. U soli 1519 bo panj kishty ba nakhustin safari girdi olam baromad. Uqyonusi Atlantikaro guzashta, ba vositai gulugoh Amerikai Janubiro davr zada, kishtikho ba Uqyonusi Orom vorid gardidand. Magellanro soli 1521 dar yake az jazirahoi Filippin ba qatl rasondand. Soli 1522 az panj kipggii hayati ekspeditsiya faqat yak kipggi ba Ispaniya bargasht. In ekspeditsiya kurashaklii Zaminro tasdiq-namud, buzurgii sathi Zamin, yagonagii Ukyonusi Olam va az ob iborat budani qismi ziyodi sathi Zamin malum gardid.

Kashfi materikhon Avstraliya va Antarktida. Dar kharitahoi olami asrhoi miyona dar janubi Uqyonusi Hind khushkie bo nomi Zamini Januby aks yofta bud. Hollandiho baroi muayyan kardani on ekspeditsiya tashkil namudand. Onro sayyoh va bahrnavardi mashkhur Abel Tasman sarvary mekard. Soli 1642 u sohilhoi shimoli va shimoli garbii Avstraliyaro tadqiq namuda, dar samti janubni on jaziraero kashf kard, ki onro badtar Tasmaniya nom guzoshtand. Ekspeditsiyai Tasman muayyan namud, ki Avstraliya materiki alokhida buda, on qadar kalon nest.

Materiki Antarktidaro rusho kashf namudand. Soli 1819 du kishti bo sarvarii F. F. Bellinsgauzen va M. P. Lazarev az Peterburg baromada, ba tarafi doirai Qutbi Januby shino kardand, 16 yanvari soli 1820 ba sohilhoi Antarktida nazdik shuda, az dur nishonai nazdik budani zaminro mushohida kardand. In ruzro olimon sanai kashfi Antarktida meshumorand. Hamin tavr tavassuti kashfiyothoi buzurgi geografi materikho va uqyonushoi nav kashf karda shudand. Donishi odamon oid ba Zamin afzun gardid.

Tadqiqoti muosiri geografi. Qisshoi kaloni rui Zamin – materikho va uqyonusho tadqiq karda shudand. Vale tabiati dokhili materikho, ukyonusho va qutbhoi SHimoli va Janubi holo purra omukhta nashudaand. Binobar in olimoni sohai ilmi geografiya dar zamoni mo ham ba tadkiqoti tabiati sathi Zamin mashguland. Onho dar tadqikothoi khud az usulhoi gunoguni ilmy istifoda mebarand. Az jumla baroi omukhtani tabiati qismhoi alohidai materikho va uqyonusho ekspeditsiyaho va markazu nuqtahoi mushohidakunii doimi tashkil menamoyand.

Baroi mushohida va hisob kardani malumotho az asbobu moshinhoi hozirazamon istifoda mebarand. Natijai tadqiqothoi geografiro dar kharita aks namuda, baroi tashkil va inkishofi sanoat, khojagii qishloq va naqliyot istifoda mebarand. Rasmhoi az kayhon giriftaro jambastu tahlil menamoyand (rasmi 5). Ba maqsadkhoi gunogun dar tabiat tajriba meguzaronand. Masalag.. dar Turkmaniston baroi ba iklimi biyobon mutobiq kunondani nabototi garmidust, dar Pomir baroi mutobiq kunondani darakhtoni mevadihanda va gayra tajriba guzaronda msshavad. Natijai onro mamlakathoe, ki dar mintaqai biyobon va balandkukh joygir shudaand, istifoda mebarand.

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