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IMMUNOLOGIYA

imunnologiaIMMUNOLOGIYA (Immunologia; az immunitet va …logiya), masuniyatshinosi, ilmi tibbiyu biologiest, ki taassuri molekulavi, hujayravi va fiziologii organizmro ba antigenhoi gunogun va nojurihoi dar in mavrid paydoshuda meomuzad. Majmui taassuri muhofizatie, ki ba doimi nigoh doshtani muhiti dokhilii organizm nigaronida shudaast, immunitet nom dorad.
I. hamchun ilmi mustaqil az kashfiyoti L. Paster (1880) ogoz yoft. u muqarrar kard, ki murgoni bo parvardai kuhnai angezandai kasalii vabo moyakubshuda ba tasiri angezandahoi nihoyat badzahri vaboi murgon muqovimati zur va nohassosi zohir menamoyand. Az in ru L. Paster prinsipi ba dast ovardani vaksinahoro muayyan namuda, bar ziddi bemorihoi sukhtani va hori moyahoi makhsus tayyor kard.
Ba taraqqiyoti I. olimoni nemis P. Erlikh, fransavi E. Ru, avstriyagi K. Pirke, rus I. I. Mechnikov, A. A. Bezredka, V. K. Visokovich, I. G. Savchenko, N. N. CHistovich, L. A. Tarasevich va shuravi I. L. Krichevskiy, L. A. Zilber, P. F. Zdrodovskiy, G. V. Vigodchikov, V. I. Ioffe va digaron sahmi kalon guzoshtaand.
I. talimot dar borai immunitet va talimot dar borai allergiyaro niz darbar megirad. I. ba du soha – I.-i nazariyavi va I.-i amali taqsim meshavad. I.-i nazariyavi ba oshkor namudani asl va tariqi ba amal omadani taomulhoi ba immunitet va allergiya mutaalliqi organizm mashgul ast. Vazifai I.-i amali ba kor burdani taomul va omilhoi immunitet dar amaliyai tib, baytori va biologiya meboshad (mas., istifodai reaksiyai serologi va allergi dar tashkhisi bemorihoi siroyati, halli baze masalahoi ekspertizai tibbi-sudi bo usulhoi masuniyatshinosi, muayyan kardani guruhhoi khun va g.). Reaksiyahoi immunologi dar sohai epidemiologiya va epizootologiya baroi oshkor namudani siroyathoi nuhufta (pinhon) niz vase ba kor meravand. Bo yorii omilhoi immunologi bemoriro tashkhis (immunodiagnostika), peshgiri (immunoprofilaktika) va tabobat (immunoterapiya) menamoyand.
I. chand fasl dorad: immunomorfologiya, ki anatomiya, gistologiya va sitologiyai sistemai masunii organizm, I.-i qiyosi, ki aksulamali masunii organizmi jonvaroni gunogun, immunopatologiya, ki taomulhoi immunologii favquloddai zararovar va bemorihoi bo ikhtiloloti faoliyati sistemai immunitet vobasta, immunobiologiya, ki tariqi hosilshavii podtanho, filogenez va ontogenezi sistemai immunitetro dar haddi hujayra va molekula meomuzad.
I. usulhoi pajuhishii khudro dorad. Az usulhoi tadqiqotii navtarini dig. ilmhoi nazdik (biokhimiya, sitomorfologiya, endokrinologiya va g.) niz istifoda mebarad. Olimoni Tojikiston baze masalahoi muhimi I. (tasiri sharoiti balandkuh va iqlimi garm ba reaksiyahoi immunologi, masuniyati organizmi inson hangomi bemorihoi siroyatii shadid va g.)-ro tadqiq namuda, dar taraqqiyoti I. sahmi muayyan guzoshtand.

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