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Hifzi khok

Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston

Dar borai hifzi khok  

(Akhbori Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, soli 2009, №9-10,  mod.548)

 Qonuni mazkur prinsiphoi asosii siyosati davlati, asoshoi huquqii faoliyati maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, shakhsoni voqei va huquqiro bo maqsadi oqilona va ehtiyotkorona istifoda burdani khok, nigoh doshtani sifat, hosilkhezi va hifzi onro az padidahoi manfi muayyan karda, majmui munosibathoi bo hifzi khok aloqamandro tanzim menamoyad.

 BOBI 1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMI

Moddai 1. Mafhumhoi asosi

zamin

Dar Qonuni mazkur mafhumhoi asosii zerin istifoda meshavand:

khok – qabati boloii tabii yo dar natijai faoliyati khojagidori va namudhoi digari faoliyat tagyiryoftai zamin, ki az moddahoi madani va organiki, ob, havo, organizmhoi khoki va samarai faoliyati hayoti onho iborat buda, khosiyati hosilkhezi, sokht va khususiyathoi digari baroi mavjudiyati nabototu hayvonot va hayotu faoliyati inson zarurro dorost;

hifzi khok – majmui chorahoi huquqi, tashkili, iqtisodi va tadbirhoi digari oqilona istifoda burdani khok, inchunin az kharobshavi, tasiroti manfii tabii va tekhnogeni peshgiri va hifz kardani on;

holati khok – majmui nishondihandahoe, ki tarkib, sokht va khususiyati khokro ifoda mekunand;

sifati khok – majmui khosiyathoi khok, ki janbaho va samaranokii ahamiyati khokro dar tamini muhiti musoid baroi zisti inson, nabotot va hayvonot muayyan mekunand;

-qabati hosilkhezi khok – qabati boloii khok, ki baroi numui nabotot khosiyati musoidro dorost;

khoki nodir – khoke, ki dar sharoiti benaziri tabiiyu iqlimi tashakkul yofta, doroi ahamiyati makhsusi hifzshavandai tabii, ilmi va khususiyathoi digari arzishnok meboshad;

khoke, ki ba on khatari az bayn raftan tahdid menamoyad – khoke, ki az khosiyathoi khud mahrum megardad yo hamchun obekti tabii az bayn meravad;

meyorhoi sifati khok – nishondihandahoi sokht va khosiyathoi khok, ki ba tufayli onho khokqobiliyati hosilkheziikhudro nigoh medorad;

tasirrasonii imkonpazir ba khok– natijai tasiri faoliyati khojagidori va tarzhoi digari istifodai khok, ki dar in holat meyorhoi sifati khok rioya gardida, az haddi tasiri joizi antropogeni ba khok ziyod nameboshad;

meyorhoi tasirrasonii imkonpaziri antropogeni ba khok -natijai tasiri umumii namudhoi gunoguni faoliyati khojagidori va tarzhoi digari istifodai khok, ki dar on holat qobiliyati tabiii khok tamin megardad;

iflosshavii khok – bo khok omekhta va dar on jam shudani moddahoi zararnoki kimiyovi, radioaktivi va mikroorganizmho, ki sifati khokro kharob mesozand, ba unsurhoi digari muhiti tabii va umuman ba muhiti zist tasiri manfi merasonand;

-kharobshavii tadrijii khok – bad shudani sokht va tarkibi khok, ki ba oludashavi, botloqshavi, shurshavi va omilhoi digari manfi sabab gardida, hosilkhezii onro past va tarkibashro kharob mesozad;

bequvvatii khok – tagyir yoftani sokht va khosiyathoi khok, ki dar natijai on moddahoi gizoi kam gashta,  hosilkheziashro past mekunad;

vayron shudani khok – qisman yo purra (ba tavri mekhaniki) nobud  va vayron gardidini tarkibi khok;

barqarorsozii khok – andeshidanichoraho dar bobatibarqaror namudani holati tabiii sokht, sifat va khususiyathoi khok.

 

Moddai 2. Qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar borai hifzi khok

Qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar borai hifzi khok ba Konstitutsiyai (Sarqonuni) Jumhurii Tojikiston asos yofta, az Qonuni mazkur, sanadhoi digari meyorii huquqii Jumhurii Tojikiston, inchunin sanadhoi huquqii baynalmilalie, ki Tojikiston onhoro etirof kardaast,  iborat meboshad.

 

Moddai 3. Hamkorii baynalmilali dar sohai hifzi khok

  1. Hamkorii baynalmilali dar sohai hifzi khok mutobiqi prinsip va meyorhoi etirofnamudai huquqi, shartnomahoi baynalmilali va qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston surat megirad.
  2. Samthoi asosii hamkorii baynalmilali dar sohai hifzi khok inhoyand:

-ishtirok dar shartnomaho, barnomaho va loihahoi baynalmilali  dar sohai hifzi khok;

– mutobiq gardonidani standartu meyorhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston dar sohai hifzi khok bo standartu meyorhoi baynalmilali;

-mubodilai ittilooti ilmiyu tekhniki va ittilooti digar dar sohai hifzi khok.

 

BOBI 2. ASOSHOI TANZIMI DAVLATII FAOLIYAT DAR SOHAI HIFZI HOK

 

Moddai 4. Prinsiphoi asosii siyosati davlati dar sohai hifzi khok

Prinsiphoi asosii siyosati davlati dar sohai hifzi khok az inho iboratand:

-tamini istifodai oqilona va nigohdorii khok hamchun muhimtarin juzi muhiti tabii;

-tamini tatbiqi tekhnologiyahoi hifzi khok va chorahoi digari peshgiri az oludashavi va kharobshavii khok dar rafti faoliyati khojagidori va faoliyathoi digar;

– sari vaqt guzaronidani tahqiqot va oshkor namudani tagyiroti holati khok;

– andeshidani tadbirho baroi hosilkhez gardonidani khok va barqaror kardani khoki kharobgardida;

-ilman asosnok kardani chorabiniho dar sohaihifzi khok;

-oshkor, purra va saheh budani malumoti holati khok va tadbirhoe, ki baroi hifzi khok andeshida meshavand;

-ishtiroki mutakhassison dar mavridi qabuli qarorho dar sohaihifzi khok;

– noguzir budani javobgari baroi zarari ba khok rasonidashuda.

 

Moddai 5. Salohiyati Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston dar sohai  hifzi khok

Ba salohiyati Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston dar sohaihifzi khok dokhil meshavand:

-amali namudani siyosati yagonai davlati;

– muayyan kardani maqomi vakolatdor;

– tasdiqi sanadhoi meyorii huquqi;

-tahiya va mablagguzori ba barnomahoi jome va maqsadnoki davlati;

-tashkili monitoringi davlatii holati khok, muayyan kardani tartibi guzaronidani monitoringi istehsoli;

-muqarrar namudani tartibi mansub donistani khok ba khoki nodir va khoke, ki ba on khavfi nobudshavi tahdid mekunad;

-muayyan namudani tartibi nazorati davlatii hifzi khok;

-bastani sozishnomaho va shartnomahoi baynihukumati va andeshidani tadbirho jihati ijroi onho;

– vakolathoi digar oid ba hifzi khok, ki qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston muqarrar namudaast.

 

Moddai 6. Barnomahoi hifzi khok

  1. Baroi hifzi gunogunnavii khok, az jumla peshgiri az oluda va kharobshavii on barnomahoi jome va maqsadnoki davlatiyu mintaqavi qabul karda meshavand.
  2. Dar barnomahoi jome dar barobari peshbini namudani tadbirho dar sohaihifzi khok chorabinihoi digari hifzi muhiti zist niz peshbini karda meshavand.
  3. Dar barnomahoi maqsadnoki davlati va mintaqavi hifzi khok az eroziyai obi va bodi, barqaror namudani khokhoi kharobshuda, andeshidani tadbirho bo maqsadi baland bardoshtani hosilkhezii khok va tadbirhoi digari ba hifzi khok musoidatkunanda peshbini megardand.

 

Moddai 7. Muqarrar namudani meyorho dar sohai hifzi khok

  1. Bo maqsadi hifzi khok, tamini ijroi korhoi sanitariyu gigieni, ekologi va khojagidori meyorhoi davlatii sifati khok, meyorhoi joizi tasirrasoni ba khok va meyorhoi digar muqarrar karda meshavand.
  2. Nishondihandahoi meyorii sifati khok shomili nishondihandahoi haddi joizi gilzati moddahoi kimiyovi, radioaktivi, biologi va mikroorganizmho dar khok va tagyiroti joizi tarkib, sokht va khususiyathoi on, ki ijroi vazifahoyashro tamin menamoyand, buda bo nazardoshti navi khok va tayinoti maqsadnoki zamin muqarrar karda meshavand.
  3. Nishondihandahoi meyorii tasiri joiz ba khok shomili nishondihandahoi meyorii tasiri namudi mushakhkhasi joizi faoliyati khojagidori va faoliyathoi digar ba khok, ki marbut ba sarchashmai mushakhkhasi tasir hastand va nishondihandahoi fishori joizi antropogeni ba khok meboshand.
  4. Nishondihandahoi meyorii joizi antropogeni ba khok az rui har namudi tasir ba khok va majmui tasir ba khoki tamomi mahalli muayyan bo nazardoshti khususiyathoi tashakkuli khoki mintaqahoi gunoguni tabiii iqlimi, qobiliyati khudbarqarorkunii khok va tayinoti  maqsadnoki zamin muqarrar karda meshavand.
  5. Nishondihandahoi meyorii tasiri joizi antropogeni ba khoki zamini kishtzorho boyad hosilkhezii onro tamin namoyand.
  6. 6. Nishondihandahoi meyoriisohai hifzi khok az tarafi maqomoti vakolatdori davlati muqarrar karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 8. Monitoringi khok

  1. Monitoringi khok az mushohidai muntazami holati on bo maqsadi oshkor namudani tagyirot dar sokht va sifati on iborat buda, tahqiqoti khok, bahodihii on va peshbinii tadbirho jihati peshgirii padidahoi manfii onrodar bar megirad.
  2. Monitoringi davlatii holati khokro maqomoti vakolatdori davlati dar doirai monitoringi davlatii ekologi va (yo) monitoringi zamin mutobiqi qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston amali mesozand.
  3. Monitoringi davlatii holati khok az hisobi bujeti davlat amali karda meshavad.
  4. SHakhsoni voqei va huquqi, ki bo faoliyati khojagidori va faoliyathoi digar mashguland va dar natijai faoliyati onho ba khok tasiri manfi rasidaast, uhdadorand monitoringi holati khokro anjom dihand. Dar in holat monitoringi holati khok az hisobi shakhsone, ki faoliyati onho ba holati khok tasiri manfi rasonidaast, amali gardonda meshavad.

 

Moddai 9. Tahqiqi khok

  1. Maqsad az tahqiqi khok muayyan kardani holat va sifati on, andeshidani choraho oid ba hifz, barqaror va beh namudani holati khok meboshad.
  2. Tahqiqi khok dar asosi qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston, qarori maqomoti vakolatdori davlati yo bo tashabbusi istifodabarandagoni zamin guzaronida meshavad.
  3. Tahqiqi khok bo tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston guzaronida shuda, on mavqei nav va zernavhoi khoki qitai zamin, holati sanitari va ekologii khok, inchunin khususiyathoi digari onro muayyan menamoyad.
  4. Tahqiqi khok az tarafi maqomoti vakolatdori davlati yo shakhsoni mutasaddii in namudi faoliyat bo tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston guzaronida meshavad.
  5. Malumot oid ba tahqiqi khok, kharitahoi khok, hisobot dar borai holati khok va hujjathoi rasmii digarro dar bar megirad.
  6. Haritahoi khok dar asosi malumoti kadastri davlatii zamin, monitoringi davlatii ekologi, tahqiqi khok va malumoti digar dar borai khok tartib doda meshavand.

 

Moddai 10. Malumot dar borai holati khok

Malumot dar borai holati khok va malumot jihati andeshidani tadbirho oid ba hifzi on az jonibi maqomoti vakolatdori davlati peshnihod karda meshavand.

 

BOBI 3. TALABOT BA HIFZI HOK

 

Moddai 11. Hifzi qabati  hosilkhezi khok

  1. Hifzi qabati hosilkhezi khok yake az vazifahoi asosii maqomoti hokimiyati davlati va shakhsoni voqeiyu huquqii Jumhurii Tojikiston ba shumor meravad.
  2. Hangomi ijroi faoliyati khojagidori va namudhoi digar faoliyat hifzi qabati hosilkhezi khok boyad tamin karda shavad.
  3. SHakhsoni voqei va huquqi hangomi dar qitahoi zamini doroi khoki hosilkhez bunyod kardani binoyu inshootho va mashgul shudan bo namudhoi digari faoliyati gayrikishovarzi jihati kharob nakardani qabati hosilkhezi khok, onro burida girifta, ba joyi digar,  ki sharoiti musoid dorad, intiqol medihand.
  4. Qabati hosilkhezi khoki burida giriftashuda baroi barqaror namudani khoki zaminhoi kharob va oludagashta, zaminhoi kamhosil, behtar kardani sifati khoki kishtzorho, inchunin baroi az khud kardani qitahoi zamini nav istifoda meshavad.
  5. Joyhoi nigohdorii qabati hosilkhezi khoki burida giriftashuda va istifodai minbadai onro maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlatii shahru nohiyaho muayyan mekunand.
  6. Qabati hosilkhezi khokro az marzi mamurii Jumhurii Tojikiston barovardan man ast. Namunai khok va kolleksiyahoi khok tanho ba maqsadhoi ilmi bo tartibi muayyannamudai Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston ba khoriji kishvar barovarda meshavand.

Moddai 12. Talabot ba hifzi khok hangomi  banaqshagiri, loihakashi va sokhtmon

  1. Hangomi banaqshagiri, loihakashi va sokhtmoni binoyu inshootho talabot oid ba hifzi khok  boyad rioya karda shavad.
  2. Dar tahiyai loihahoi shahrsozi, memori va sokhtmon barobari ba inobat giriftani talaboti ekologiyu sanitari boyad tadbirho oid ba hifzi khoki hosilkhez hatman peshbini karda shavand.

 

Moddai 13. Talabot ba hifzi khok hangomi ijroi faoliyati istehsoli, istifodabarii obekthoi faoliyati  khojagidori va digar namudi faoliyat

  1. Faoliyati istehsoli, istifodabarii obekthoi faoliyati khojagidori va namudhoi digar faoliyat, ki ba khok tasiri manfi merasonand, boyad mutobiqi talabot va nishondihandahoi meyori hifzi khok ba roh monda shavad.
  2. Bo maqsadi peshgirii iflosshavii khok shakhsoni voqei va huquqi hangomi faoliyati istehsoli, istifodai obektho va namudhoi digari faoliyat,  ki ba khok tasiri manfi merasonand, uhdadorand tekhnologiyahoi samarabakhshi toza kardani  changu dud va  partovhoi digarro ba roh monda, obekthoyashonro bo tajhizoti makhsusi poksozi tamin namoyand.
  3. Dar holati az jonibi shakhsoni voqei va huquqi istifoda namudani obektho va mashgul shudan bo namudhoi digari faoliyat, ki ba holati khok tasiri manfi rasonida metavonand, guzaronidani monitoringi istehsolii holati khok az jonibi onho hatmi meboshad.
  4. Agar khoki qitahoi zamin dar natijai istifodai obektho va namudhoi digari faoliyat iflosgashta, ba salomatii aholi khatar tahdid namoyad, shakhsoni voqei va huquqi vazifadorand, qabati oludashudai khokro burida girifta, dar joi makhsus guronand va bo tartibi mamuli bo khoki toza rupush namoyand.

 

Moddai 14. Talabot oid ba hifzi khok hangomi barham dodan yo  muvaqqatan az amal bozdoshtani obekthoi khojagidori  va namudhoi digari faoliyat

Dar surati barham dodan yo muvaqqatan az amal bozdoshtani obekthoi khojagidori va namudhoi digari faoliyat, ki ba holati khok tasiri manfi merasonand, shakhsoni voqei yo huquqie, ki dar obekthoi mazkur faoliyat mekunand, vazifadorand holati khokro tahqiq namuda, baroi barqaror kardani holati musoidi istifodai minbadai on mutobiqi tayinoti maqsadnok tadbirho andeshand.

 

Moddai 15. Talabot ba hifzi khok  az botloqshavi va shurshavi

  1. Baroi hifz namudani khok az botloqshavi va shurshavi avval korhoi vobasta ba tahqiqi khok guzaronida meshavand.
  2. Bo maqsadi hifzi khok az botloqshavi va shurshavi loihahoi zaminsozii dokhilikhojagi tahiya karda meshavand, ki dar onho tadbirhoi agrotekhniki, meliorativi va tadbirhoi digar peshbini megardand.
  3. Bo nazardoshti natijahoi tahqiqi khok baroi hifzi on az botloqshavi va shurshavi tadbirhoi zerin andeshida  meshavand:

– toza kardani zahburu zahkashho to haddi muayyannamudai loihai past kardani sathi obhoi zerizamini;

– obshuy kardani zaminhoi shur;

– rioya kardani meyori obyori mutobiqi naqshai obyorikuni va  ehtiyojoti ziroat;

– ijroi korhoi digari agrotekhniki va meliorativi, ki ba hifzi zaminho az botloqshavi va shurshavi musoidat mekunand.

 

Moddai 16. Talabot oid ba hifzi khok az kamgizoi va khushku sakhtshavi

  1. Istifodabarandagoni zamin uhdadorand baroi kamgizo, khushk va sakht nashudani khok, inchunin barqaror namudani hosilkhezii khok, khususiyathoi kimiyovi va biologii on, tadbirho andeshand.
  2. Bo maqsadi peshgirii kamgizo nashudani khok bo nazardoshti natijahoi tahqiqi khok, az jumla az kharitai agrokimiyovi va korhoi laboratori istifoda karda, ba khok mutobiqi meyorhoi zaruri nurihoi madani va organiki andokhta meshavand. Baroi hifz namudani khok az kamgizoshavi va baland bardoshtani hosilkhezii on naqsha vatartibi muayyani kishtgardoni ziroathoro jori namudan zarur ast.
  3. CHorabiniho oid ba peshgirii khushkshavii khok dar doirai korhoi meliorativi va agrotekhnikii zerin anjom doda meshavand:

– vobasta ba mahalli joygirshavii tabiii khok  va bo nazardoshti namudi ziroat tahiya kardani naqshai istifodabarii ob va obyorii zamin tibqi meyorhoi  muayyanshuda;

– bo maqsadi nigoh doshtani namnokii khok pesh az borishoti  barfu boron mutobiqi talaboti agrotekhniki shudgor kardani zaminho.

  1. Baroi hifzi khok az sakhtshavi dar barobari andeshidani tadbirhoi peshbininamudai qismhoi 2 va 3 moddai mazkur chorahoi ilovagi oid ba narm namudani khokhoi sakhtshuda va kishti ziroathoe, ki khususiyati kovok kardani khokro dorand, andeshida meshavand. Hamzamon baroi sakht nashudani khok ba zamin nurihoi madani va   organiki andokhta meshavand.

 

Moddai 17. Talabot oid ba barqaror namudani khoki kharobgardida

  1. Istifodabarandagoni zamin va khojagidoroni digare, ki baroi istifoda qitahoi zamin dorand va dar natijai amal yo beamalii onho khoki zaminashon kharob gardidaast, uhdadorand baroi barqaror namudani on tadbirho andeshand.
  2. Harojoti barqarorkunii khoki kharobgashta az jonibi shakhsoni voqei va huquqi,  ki binobar amal yo beamalii onho kharob gardidaast, jubron karda meshavand.
  3. Tadbirho oid ba barqarorkunii khoki kharobshuda dar asosi usulhoi ilmi va bo nazardoshti namud va darajai kharobshavii on, qobiliyati tabiii az nav barqarorshavii khok, inchunin bo nazardoshti tayinoti maqsadnoki khok andeshida meshavand.
  4. Hangomi barqaror kardani khoki kharobgardida tartibi makhsusi istifodai qitai zamini doroi chunin khok jori karda meshavad, ki in amal baroi barqaror namudani khosiyat va hosilkhezii khok,  kamtar kardani tasiri antropogeni va purra barqaror gashtani faoliyati zarurii on ravona karda meshavad.
  5. Agar dar rafti faoliyati khojagidori holati khok muntazam kharob gardida yo  bo moddahoi zararovar besh az pesh oluda shuda, ba salomatii odamon khatar tahdid namoyad, istifodabarii in guna qitahoi zamin bozdoshta meshavad.
  6. Qabati khoki bo moddahoi radioaktivi yo bo moddahoi digari ba hayot va salomatii inson zararnok oludashudai khok burida girifta, bo tartibi muayyankardai Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston dar joyi makhsus guronda meshavad.
  7. Dar surati qat gardidani huquqi istifodai qitai zamin mutobiqi bandi «d» moddai 37 Kodeksi zamini Jumhurii Tojikiston shakhsoni voqei va huquqi az jubroni zarari ba khok rasonidaashon ozod karda nameshavand.

 

BOBI 4. NAZORAT DAR SOHAI HIFZI HOK

 

Moddai 18. Nazorati davlati dar sohai hifzi khok

  1. Nazorati davlatii hifzi khok dar doirai nazorati davlatii ekologi, nazorati davlatii istifodabariyu hifzi zamin va nazorati tamini behbudii sanitariyu  epidemiologii aholi surat megirad.
  2. Nazorati davlatii hifzi khok amalhoi zerinro dar bar  megirad:

-nazorati holati khok dar rafti faoliyati khojagidori va namudhoi digari faoliyat;

-nazorati ijroi talabot va rioyai nishondihandahoi meyori hifzi khok;

-nazorati ijroi chorabinihoi peshbininamudai hujjathoi zaminsozi, shahrsozi va ekologi, inchunin hujjathoi digar, ki tadbirhoi peshgirii kharob va oludashavii khok, barqarorsozii on va rafi jarayonhoi manfiro dar khok faro giriftaand;

-sanjishi durustii malumote, ki dar borai holati khok peshnihod karda shudaast;

-andeshidani choraho oid ba rafi kambudiho dar sohai hifzi khok.

  1. Maqomoti vakolatdor va tartibi nazorati davlatiro dar sohai hifzi khok Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston muayyan mekunad.

 

Moddai 19. Nazorati jamiyati va istehsolii hifzi khok

Nazorati jamiyati va istehsolii hifzi khok bo tartibi muqarrarnamudai sanadhoi meyorii huquqii Jumhurii Tojikiston amali gardonida meshavad.

 

BOBI 5. MUQARRAROTI HOTIMAVI

 

Moddai 20. Javobgari baroi rioya nakardani talaboti Qonuni  mazkur

SHakhsoni voqei va huquqi, ki talaboti Qonuni mazkurro rioya namekunand, tibqi  qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston ba javobgari kashida meshavand.

 

Moddai 21. Tartibi mavridi  amal qaror dodani Qonuni mazkur

Qonuni mazkur pas az intishori rasmi mavridi amal qaror doda shavad.

 

 

 

Prezidenti

Jumhurii Tojikiston                                                        Emomali  Rahmon

 

               sh. Dushanbe, 16 oktyabri soli 2009,

               №555

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