Home / Gunogun / Hayoti khojagi pas az istiloi mugul

Hayoti khojagi pas az istiloi mugul

Chingizkhon davlati buzurgi imperatorii tashkilkardaashro dar bayni pisaroni khud taqsim namud.

Pisari kaloni u — Juji hanuz dar soli 1207 ba idora kardani «khalqhoi jangalnishin» uhdador gardida bud, ki in khalqho dar masohati vase az poyonobi daryoi Salanga to sohili Irtish zindagi mekardand. Dar soli vafoti Chingizkhon (1227) qismi shimolii haftrud, tamomi khoki onvaqtai qazoqho va qirgizho, inchunin qismati shimolii Khorazm niz ba hissai mulki Juji dokhil shud. Mulki pisari digari Chingizkhon – Chagatoy az mamlakati uygurho to Samarqand va az qismati janubii Oltoy to sohilhoi daryoi Amu vusat dosht. Urdu – quvvai asosii khoni buzurg Uqtoykhon dar Tarbogatoy voqe gardida bud. Pisari khurdi Chingizkhon Tuluy, az rui taomuli bodiyanishinon, ba zaminhoi asosii padarash sohib shud.

Agarchande Movarounnahr ba mulki Chagatoy dokhil meshud, vale amalan in mamlakatro bevosita khudi khoni buzurg Uqtoy (1229-1241) dar tasarruf medosht va faqat yak qismi oidoti onro ba Chagatoy va khonavodai u medod.

Istilokoroni mugul kishvarhoi zabtkardaashonro bo quvvai khud idora karda nametavonistand. In bud, ki Uqtoy vazifai idora kardani Movarounnahrro ba buzurgtarin tojir va ribokhuri in mamlakat — Mahmudi Yalavoch suporid. Mahmud dar Khujand istoda, qalamravi khudro idora mekard. Tamomi quvvai harbii dar Movarounnahr guzoshtai mugulho niz dar ikhtiyori u bud. Sardoroni in quvvai harbi baskakho, ki nazorati az aholi jam kardani moliyot ham vazifai onho hisob meshud, bevosita ba Mahmudi Yalavoch itoat namuda, bo nishondodi u amal mekardand.

Istiloi mugul sokhti jamiyatii Osiyoi Miyonaro tagyir nadod, vale ba avzoi tabaqahoi mukhtalifi mamlakat ba tavri gunogun tasir rasond.

Ruhoniyon, tojiron va zamindoroni kalon ba zudi ba takyagohi gosiboni mugul tabdil yoftand. Chi nave ki muarrikhi asrhoi KhIII-KhIV Rashidaddin meguyad, dar vaqti Chingizkhon va vorisoni u Uqtoykhon va Guyukkhon (1246-1248) khonho va shohzodagoni mugul ba tojiron va zamindoroni kalon yarliqhoi makhsus («paytezi») medodand, ki dar asosi on aholi meboist har vazifa va khidmate, ki onho farmoyand, ijro mekard. Vaziyati ommai zahmatkash, chi dar shahrho va chi dar mahalhoi rustoi ruz az ruz badtar megardid.

Barzgaron va peshavaron gayr az khiroj, ki har sol az zaminhoi kisht ba davlat medodand, boz ba ado namudani vazifahoi ziyode majbur budand. Mamuron, tojiron, namoyandagoni tabaqai ruhoni va azoi khonavodai khoni, vaqte ki az yagon mahal meguzashtand, yarlikhoi makhsusro iishon doda, az aholi maskan, ozuqa va naqliya talab mekardand va aholi majbur bud, ki hamai in talabotro ba jo orad. Ilova bar in, masuliyati bo khurok va pushok tamin namudani dastahoi harbii dar shahru dehot guzoshtashuda niz ba zimmai aholi bud. Peshavaron dar fehrasti makhsus budand va gayr az vazifahoi nombarshuda ba tahiya namudani yak miqdori muayyani mahsulot ham uhdadori doshtand. Onho meboist dar muhlati muqarrari miqdori muayyani masnuoti khudro baroi hokimoni mugul hozir mekardand. Makhsusan, ahvoli peshavaroni aslihasoz, poyafzolduz va bofanda khele bad bud.

Istiloi mugul ba hayoti khojagii Osiyoi Miyona zarbai sakht rasonid. Suistemolkunii hukmrononi mahalli, ki khudsarona andoz va moliyotro nazar ba darajai muqarrarshuda yakchand martaba beshtar mesitonidand, ahvoli khalqro ba kulli toqatnopazir mekard. Zulmu istibdod va jabru bedod aholii zindamondai shahru qishloqro az har guna maylu ishtiyoqi pesh burdani khojagi mahrum sokht. In bud, ki vaziyati khojagii mamlakat dar dahsolahoi avvali istiloi mugul boz ham kharobtar gardid.

Dar in bobat makhsusan vazi hayoti shahr va tijorati dokhilii puli misoli ravshan shuda metavonad. Bar tibqi shahodati Chan-chun, ki az qatlu gorati mugulho dere naguzashta ba Samarqand safar kardaast, dar shahr qarib chor-yaki aholii mahalli boqi monda, hama joro gadovu gurusna zer karda bud, bo vujudi in tijorat davom mekard va bozor moli farovon dosht. Badtar ahvol na in ki ru ba behbudi nihod, balki badtar gardid. Dar sikkahoi onvaqtai Samarqand alomathoi afzudani buhroni tijorati puli, shakli buhron va kushishhoi dar rohi peshgiri kardani in buhron bakharjdodai hukumat vozehu ravshan naqsh yoftaast.[1]

Dar Samarqandi pas az istiloi mugul (misli peshtara, chunon ki dar asri KhII va ibtidoi asri KhIII) sikkahoi kaloni misi zarb zada, az ruyash obi nuqra medavonidand. In diramhoi misii nuqraandud dar muomilot pulhoi nuqrai asilro ivaz kardand. Osiyoi Miyona «buhroni puli nuqra»-ro holo ham az sar meguzarond. In avvalin pulhoi pas az istiloi mugul barovardashuda, ki navishtahoi arabii aksaran dini doshtand, dar muomila der davom nakardand. Dar soli 1225 ba joi onho pulhoi qadre gayrioddi ba muomila guzoshta shudand, ki navishtahoyashon na in ki ba zaboni arabi, balki ba zaboni mahallii tojiki bud. Aknun zarurate ba miyon omad, ki mardum pulro na faqat az shakli zohiriash, hamchunin az mazmunash ham bishinosand. In navishtaho bo zaboni fahmoi samarqandiho mardumro bovar kunondani meshudand, ki in puli mahallist, baroi Samarqand va davoiri on barovarda shudast va dar hamin jo roij ast. Vale mardumi Samarqand bovar nakardand. On goh pas az yak sol diramhoi navi misii nuqraandud barovarda shud, ki dar onho niz sukhanoni «bovarkunonanda», vale aknun bo ohangi tahdidomez, sabt gardida bud: bo in maqsad dar navishtahoi rui pul se martaba bo isror takid meshud, ki in tangahoi khudi Chingizkhon ast. Ammo samarqandiho az in natarsidand. Ba in sabab dar soli 1232 diramhoe paydo shudand, ki dar rui onho ba zaboni tojiki sukhanoni oshkoro tahdidkunanda sabt yofta bud: «har kase, ki dar Samarqand va nohiyai in shahr in pulro nagirad, jinoyatkor ast».

Az in chunin barmeoyad, ki dar on vaqtho Samarqand sakhttarin buhroni muomiloti puliro az sar meguzaronid: kase namekhost moli khudro ba puli misii nuqraandud furushad, lekin puli digar mavjud nabud.

Az khohishu tahdid chize hosil nashud. hukumat majbur gardid, ki dar Samarqand puli nuqrai asil barorad. Vale in iqdom vaziyatro faqat badtar kard: tangahoi nuqra, hamin ki ba dasti kase aftad, digar berun namebaromad va dere naguzashta zakhirai in pul ba itmom rasid. Dar chunin sharoit bozgashtan ba diramhoi misii nuqraandud umuman az aql berun bud. Inak, Samarqandi yak zamon buzurgtarin markazi bozargoniyu hunarmandii Osiyoi Miyona ba «davrai bepuli» qadam guzosht: tijorati puli tamoman qat gardid.

Vaziyati tijorat dar digar viloyathoi kalone, ki yak vaqtho az jihati iqtisodi khele nashunamo doshtand, boz ham badtar bud. Chunonchi, dar Fargona, Shosh, Tirmiz, Chagoniyon va bisyor shahru viloyatho pas az istiloi mugul umuman pul barovarda nashud. Agar dar in mahalho yagon qadar tijorati dokhili vujud doshta boshad, tadrijan ba darajai sodatarin dodu girifti moli tanazzul namud.

[1] Davidovich E. A., 1970 a.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

GERMANIYA DAR OHIRI ASRI XIX – AVVALI ASRI XX

Anjomyobii mutahidshavii Germaniya. Mohi yanvari soli 1871, vaqte ki sipohiyoni Germaniya shahri Parijro muhosira karda …