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HARAKATI MOLEKULA VA ATOMHO – DIFFUZIYA CHIST?

Bisyor tajribaho nishon medihand, ki molekulahoi hamai moddaho dar harakat qaror dorand. Ba zarfi shishagin zok, yane dahoni farangro, ki dar ob munhal shudaast, birezed. Vay rangi obiro ba khud megirad. Ba mahlul obi tozaro onchunon ehtiyotkorona birezed, ki onho omekhta nashavand.

Diffuziya in voridshavii molekulai yak ashyo ba molekulai digar ashyo meboshad. 

Dar ogozi tajriba marzi bayni ob va mahluli dahoni farang baromalo dida meshavad. Zarfro dar holati orom guzoshta ba marzi bayni moeho mushohida bikuned. Pas az chand ruz marzi bayni onho shuru ba takhrib shudan mekunad. Pas az du hafta marze, ki moero az ham judo mekard, az bayn rafta, moei dar zarf buda rangi obi­ro ba khud girift. Pas malum megardad, ki moeho omekhta shudaand.

Difuziya

Natijai tajriba chunin tashreh meshavad: avval molekulahoi ob va mahluli dahoni farang, ki dar nazdikii marz qaror dorand, dar natijai harakat joyhoi khu- dro ivaz mekunand. Molekulai dahoni farang ba qabati poyonii ob guzashta, molekulai ob ba qabati boloii mahluli dahoni farang, marzro bishkasta meguzarand. Pas az in yak qismi in molekulaho bo molekulahoi qabathoi digar joy ivaz mekunand. Bad-in tartib, dar natijai harakati payvasta va nomunazzami molekulaho, moeho komilan ba hamdigar omekhta tuda, ba khud rangi yagona megirand.

Hodisai bahamdigar guzashtani molequlahoi moddahoi hamhudud, ki dar natijai harakathoi nomunazzami hissachahoi moddaho surat megirand, diffuziya nomida meshavad. Tavassuti diffuziya metavon ravandi gurshavii bodiringho, karamho, mohiho va digar mahsuloti gizoiro sharh dod.

Diffuziya dar gazho niz pyx medihad. Agar ba hujra ashyoi buydihandaro, masalan, atrro darored, pas hamon lahza buyi atr tamomi hujraro faro megirad. Malum megardad, ki dar hama qismathoi hujra molekulahoi atrho cap darovardaand va hodisai diffuziya surat megirad. Molekulahoi atrho betartibona harakat karda va bo molekulahoi havo barkhurda, dar tamomi khona pahn meshavand.

Diffuziya dar moddahoi sakht niz ba vujud meoyad, vale khele ba ohistagy. Du plastinro, ki boloyashon az sarpushhoi ruhi va tilloi sokhtashuda kafsher shudaand, bo­noy hamdigar guzoshta, tavassuti bor fishurdand.

Dar sharoiti odii harorati hujravi tillo va va ruh bo ham dar muddati panj sol to ba masofai 1mm omekhta gardidand.

Diffuziya hamchunin dar hayoti inson va hayvonot ahamiyati buzurg dorad. Masalan, havo az muhiti zisti mo ba organizmi inson tavassuti pust dar natijai dif­fuziya vorid meshavad. Moddahoi gizoi az ruda ba khun dar asosi diffuziya intiqol meyoband.

ASOSITARIN NUKTAHOI MAVZU

Molekulahoi hamai moddaho payvasta va nomunazzam harakat mekunand. Dar natija moddahoi ba ham hamhudud ba ham omekhta meshavand. .

Suporish.

  1. YAkjo bo modaraton ba zarfi bodiringdor mahluli namakini sardu garm birezed..

Pursishho

  1. CHi tavr metavon isbot kard, ki molekulahoi hamai moddaho dar harakat karor dorand?
  2. Diffuziya chist?
  3. Diffuziya dar tabiat chi ahamiyat dorad?
  4. Dar sharoiti khona hodisai diffuziyaro mushohida kardaed?
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