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HAMVORIHOI QARI UQYONUSI OLAM

Dar qari Uqyonusi Olam vobasga ba sokhti qishri Zamim se mintaqai balandi dar chuqurihoi gunogun hosil gardidaand:

  1.  pastobi materiki (dar chuqurii to 200-400 metr),
  2. nishebii materiki (az 2000 to 3000 metr).
  3. majroi uqyonusi (dar chuqurii az 3000 metr ziyod). Relefi sathi onho gunogun meboshad. Hamvoriho asosan dar pastobi materiki va majroi uqyonus pahn gardidaand.

Relefi hamvorihoi qari Uqyonusi Olam. Hamvorihoi qari uqyonus bo khususiyathoi paydoish khud az yakdigaf farq mekunand. YAke az chunin hamvoriho pastobi materiky meboshad. On az jihati paydoish davomi materikho buda, dar natijai ohista-ohista past shudani kanori onho zeri ob mondaast. Ba in tahshinhoi relefi piryakhi qadim va vodii daryohoi zeri bahrhoi Uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimoli guvohi medihand. Onho dar sharoiti khushki khosil gardida, bad zeri ob mondaand. Tadqiqotho nishon medihadn, ki pastobi materiki 7.6 foizi masohati Uqyonusi Olamro tashkil menamoyad.

uqyonus-bahr

Sathi pastobi kari uqyonus moil ast. Relefash gunogun buda, az mavzehoi hamvor, khamida, nova va teppahoi nachandon baland iborat ast. Dar on joykhoe, ki daryoho ba bahrho jori meshavand, relef asosan hamvor meboshad. Agar pastobi materiki bo mintaqai kuhho hamshafat boshad, relefi on nisbatan murakkab ast. Pahnii pastobi materiki dar sohilhoi hamai materikho yak khel nest. On metavonad az yakchand kilometr yu 400-500 kilometr va az in ham ziyodtar boshad. Dar on mahalhoe, ki sohili materikho ba uqyonus rost faromadaast, pastobi materiki tamoman vujud nadorad.

Tahshinhoi pastobi materiki az jinshoi shikastai ob ovarda va sohilhoro vayron kardani mavji obi bahr hosil shudaand. Onho  asosan az sanghoi kalon, qayroksang, regu gil va gayra iborat meboshand. Dar zeri ob onho  bo tartibi muayyan pahn gardidaand. Dar nazdi sohil sanghoi kalon, bad qayroksang, sipas peg va nihoyat gil vomekhurand.

Az kanori pastobi materiki (ba sui qari uqyonus) nishebin materiki davom mekunad. Nishebii materiki ba monandi pastobi materiki kanori hamai materikhoro ihota kardaast. Tahshinho va gilhoe, ki dar in jo vomekhurand, niz paydoishi materiki (khushki) dorand. In tahshinho dar domanai nishebii materiki teppa va talhoi zeriobiro hosil kardaand. Az kanori domanai nishebii materiki cap karda majroi uqyonusi ibtido meyobad. Relefi onro hamvorihoi teppador tashkil dodaand. Sathi onhoro tahshinhoi tunuk pushondaand. Dar hamvoriho gafsii tahshinho 50-300 metrro tashkil medihad. Gafsii on dar domanai nishebii materiki ziyod buda, barobari az on dur shudan tunuk meshavad. Tahshinho paydoishi organiki va vulqoni dorand.

2.1 Tagyir yoftani hamvorihoi kari uqyonus. Hamvorihoi kari uqyonus misli hamvorihoi khushki tadrijan tagyir meyoband. Ammo tagyiroti onho beshtar ba harakati qishri Zamin va Jarayoni obi uqyonus vobasta meboshad. Vulkonho, zilzila va tarkishhoi qishri Zamin dar hamvorihoi qari uqyonus digarguni ba vujud meovarand. Dar sathi hamvoriho pastiyu balandi va chokho paydo meshavand. Onhoro ob va jarayoni uqyonus tagyir medihad. Hangomi otashfishonii vulqon jinshoi kovoki vulqoniro ob shusta, dar qari uqyonus tahshin mekunad. Onho  bo hamrohii zarrahoi gil va boqimondai hayvonoti inqirozyofta, mikroorganizmho tavassuti harakati obi uqyonus pastihoro pur mekunand. Dar domanai nishebii uqyonusi majrohoi kari uqyonus tahshinhoro omekhta, talu teppahoro ba vujud meorand. Az tahshinhoi jonvaroni nobudshuda (marjonkho) bo guzashtani hazorho sol dar zeri ob saddho hosil shudaand. YAk qismi onho  az sathi bahr bolo baromada, sadd va jazirahoi marjoniro ba vujud ovardaand. Saddi buzurgi marjonii sohili shimoli sharqii Avstraliya, jazirahoi Maldiv (dar Uqyonusi Hind» va Marshal (dar Uqyonusi Orom) az qobili onkho meboshaid.

Savol va suporish

  1. Dar qari Uqyonusi Olam chand mintaqai balandi dida meshavad? Onhoro nombar karda, az kharitai tabiy nishon dihed.
  2. Dar kadom mintaqahoi balandi hamvorihoi qari uqyonusi beshtar pahn gardidaand?
  3. Pastobi materiki chi tavr hosil shudaast? SHaklhoi asosii relefi onro nombar kuned.
  4. Dar bayni pastobi materiki va majroi uqyonusi kadom mintaqai balandi voqe gardidaast?
  5. On az pastob va majroi uqyonusi bo kadom khususiyatkhoyash farq mekunad?
  6. Dar majroi uqyonusi kadom shaklhoi relef ziyod ast?
  7. Kadom omilho hamvorihoi qari uqyonusro tagyir medihand?
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