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HALIFAHOI ROSHIDIN

Bad az fathi Makka, baze qabilahoi arab, ki hanuz dini islomro qabul nakarda budand, mekhostand mutahid shuda, ba lashkari islom hujum namoyand. Ammo Muhammad /s/ az maqsadi onho ogoh, shuda ba muqobili onho lashkar kashid va dar mavzei Hunayn bayni in du lashkar muhoribai shadid ba amal omad. Dar in muhoriba muqobiloni islom shikast khurda, taslim gashtand. Hamim tariq, tamomi Arabiston dini islomro paziruft.

Muhammad /s/ avvalin sarvari ruhi va siyosii in davlati tozabunyod intikhob gardid. Bad az vafoti paygambar /s/ kori uro jahor dusti nazdiku yori bovafo, chahor jonishin – khalifae, ki siyosatu vasiyathoi uro sodiqona va sobitqadamona ijro menamudand, Abubakr, Umar, Usmon va Ali budand. In chahor khalifaro, ki bad az Muhammad sarvarii Arabistonro ba uhda doshtand, khalifahoi roshidin, yane rostkor nomidand. Dar bayni mardum onhoro hamchun “chor yoron” niz nom megirand.

Onho az ruzhoi avvali faoliyati Muhammad /s/ ba u hamroh shuda, az jumlai avvalin ashkhosand, ki dini islomro qabul kardaand. Tamomi mushkilihoi muborizaro, tahdidu tahqirro az sar guzaronidaand. Hamrohi paygambar ba Madina hijrat namudand, dar tamomi zadukhurdho faolona ishtirok varzida, sadoqatu mehri bekanori kheshro ba Muhammad paygambar va dini islom sobit namudand. Az in khotir mardumi Arabiston ba in chahor bovariyu ehtiromi makhsus doshtand.

Hanuz dar vaqti bemoriashon paygambar /s/ vasiyat karda budand,, ki badi az dunyo guzashtanashon, Abubakr khalifa intikhob gardad. Hamin tariq, bad az favti paygambar /s/ Abubakr khalifai Arabiston gasht. Vay du solu se moh in vazifaro ijro namuda, dar sinni shastu se solagi az dunyo guzasht.

Bad az vay Umar ba vazifai khalifagi va sarvarii Arabiston intikhob gardid. Umar baroi pahn gashtani dini islom bisyor muboriza burdaast. Dar zamoni khilofati Umar lashkari islom ba Eron hujum namuda, onro tasarruf namudaand. Dini islom dar sarzamini Eron jori gardid. Dar zamoni Umar islom ba bisyor kishvarho pahn gardid. Umar dah solu shash moh vazifai khalifagiro ado namud. Dar sinni 63-solagi az tarafi yak gulomi nasroni ba shahodat rasonida shud.

Dar vaqti zindagiash Umar gufta bud, ki “SHumoyon, bad az man az miyoni khudaton kadomero, ki loiq, bined, khalifa kuned!” Bad az dafnii Umar, mardum ba masjid jam shuda, Usmonro khalifa intikhob namudand.

Dar zamoni khilofati Usmon tamomi kishvari Eron zabt gardid va lashkari arabho ba sarhadi Movarounnahr rasidand.

Voqeai jolibe, ki dar davrai Usmon ba vuqu payvast, in sokhtani kishtihoi jangii bakhri meboshad. Tavassuti kishtiho lashkari arab jazirahoi Rodos va Kiprro zabt namudand. On goh imperatori Rim ba muqobili quvvahoi bahrii arabho kishtihoi jangiashro ravon kard, ammo dar in jang lashkari bahrii arabho ba lashkari rimho shikasti sakht vorid namuda, galaba ba dast ovard.

Dar okhirhoi hukmronii Usmon, dar mamlakat nizoho barkhostand. Baze viloyatho az siyosati peshgiriftai khalifa norizo budand. Onho talab mekardand, ki khalifa vazifaashro tark kunad, ammo hazrati Usmon ba tahdidhoi onho etibor namedod. Nihoyat yak guruh mukholifin ba khonai khalifa hujum namuda, uro ba shahodat rasonidand. Muddati khilofti Usmon dahu nim solro dar bar megirad.

Badi kushta shudani Usmon mardum Aliro khalifa tain kardand, lekin tarafdoroni Usmon khilofoti Aliro qabul nakardand. Onho tarafdoroni khudro jam namuda, ba Ali muqobil baromadand. Hamin tariq, davrai khilofati Ali ba janghoi dokhili baroi khilofat ogoz yofta, dar tuli sarvarii vay davom dosht. Oqibat soli 661 Ali dar vaqti namoz dar masjidi Kufa kushta shud.

Hamin tariq bo shahid gashtani Ali hukmronii okhirini namoyandai khalifahoi roshidin e choryoron ba okhir merasad. Ba joi onho khalifagii Muoviya ogoz gardid. Dar davrai khilofati Muhammad (s) va payravoni vay khalifagi haqqi makhsusi hej kas nabud. Musulmonon kasero, ki mekhostand, khalifa intikhob mekardand. Az davrai Muoviya khalifagi merosi qaror doda shud.

Suporish va savolho.

1.Az boboyaton yo az padaru modaraton dar borai khalifahoi roshidin (chor yoron)

pursed. Agar nadonand, in porcharo baroyashon khoned.

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