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ELEMENTHOI KIMIYOVY (Himiyavi)

Majmui atomhoi yakkhela iborat az elementi kimiyovy meboshad.

Hama atomhoi sulfur, ki dar Tabiat ba nazar merasand, iborat az elementi sul- fur, atomhoi kislorod – elementi kislorod meboshand. Pas, bo vojai «element» hamai atomhoi yakkhelaro ifoda mekunand. Tavassuti vojai «atom» boshad hissachai khurdi elementro ifoda menamoyand.

Baze az elementnoy kimiyovy, chun qurgoshim, ruh, tillo, qalagi, mis, sulfur, arsen (margimush) hanuz dar zamonhoi qadim kashf gardida, az tarafi halqiyathoi gunogun mavridi istifoda qaror giriftaand.

Zameni kashfi ohanu simob ba hazorai b-2-i pesh az milod rost meoyad. Dar nimai avvali asri XVII Genri Kavendish elementi vodorodro (dar tarjuma az zaboni yunony manii «zoyandai ob»-ro dorad).

Dmitriy Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907)
Dmitriy Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907)

Nomi elementnoy kimiyovy sababhoi gunoguni paydoish dorand. Nomi baze az elementno ba jismhoi osmony bakhshida shudaand. Tavri misol, Tellur – nomi lotinii Zamin „ Selen – nomi yunonii Mon, Uran – nomi sayyorai Uran, PalladiySoli 1771 godu K. SHeele elementi kislorod (dar tarduma az yunony «tavlidkunandai kislota»-ro dorad) kashf gardid. Kislorod hangomi tajribahoi Pristli dar soli 1774 dudo gardida bud. Soli 1772 D. Rutenford va K. SHeele azotro (dar tarduma az yunony manii «behayot», «bezindagy»-ro dorad ) kashf kardand.

  • nomi asteroidi Pallada, Tseriy -nomi asteroidi Tserera meboshad. Baroy baze elementno olimon nomi kishvarhoi khudro guzoshgaand. Tavri misol, element Galliy
  • az nomi qadimai Faronsa, element Skandiy – az nomi Skandinaviya, Germaniy – az nomi Germaniya, Evropiy – ot nomi qitai Evropa, Erbiy – az nomi mavzei It- terbi, Lyutetsiy – az nomi qadimai shahri Parij, Gafniy – az nomi kadimai shahri Kopengagen, Ruteniy – az nomi lotinii Rossiya girifta shudaand.

Baze az khosiyathoi elementno nomi onnoro muayyan kardaand. Tavri misol, pla­tina manii «monand ba nukra», bariy – vaznin, ftor – takhribkunanda, argon – tanbalu konil, kripton – pinnon, neon – nav, ksenon – makhsusro ifoda mekunand.

Az zamonnoi kadim to ba miyonakhoi asri XIX 63 element kashf gardida bud. Bisyor olimon kushish kar­daand, to in elementhoro az ruyi khosiyatashon jo ba jo kunand. Vale in bori nakhust ba professori Donishgohi Peterburg Dmitriy Ivanovich Mendeleev muyassar gar­did. Dar borai ijro shudani in kor D.I. Mendeleev chunin navishta bud:

«Gayriikhtiyor andeshae dar in bora paydo shud, ki bayni vazn va khosiyathoi kimiyovy boyad robitae mavjud boshad. Azbaski vazni moddaho, harchand mutlaq nabuda, balki nisbist, tavri ninoy dar shakli atomho ifoda meyoband, pas boyad mutobiqati vazifavii bay­ni khususiyatnoi infirodii elementno va vazni atomii onho dustudu gardad. YAgon chizro boyad medustem, loaqal zamburugnoro va yagon nav vobastagiro. Mushohida karda, onro mesandidam. Rohi digar nabud. Hamin tavr, man elementhoro bo vaznhoi atomiyashon va khosiyathoi aslivu reshaviyashon dar kartochkami alohida navishta, elementhoi monand va vaznhoi atomii ba hamdigar nazdikro navishta, ba tartib darovardam. Az in zud khulosa barovardam, ki khosiyati elementho az vobastagii davravii vazni atomii onho qaror dorand. Bo vujudi on ki man dar bisyor norushaniho shak meovardam, yagon daqiqa bo umumiyati khulosai barovardaam shak nadoshtam. Zero imkone baroi roh dodan ba tasoduf nabud».

Tablisae tahti unvoni «Sistemai davravii elementho» az jonibi D.I.Mendeleev dar nashri yakumi kitobi darsii u tahti unvoni « Asosnoi kimiyo» (soli 1871) chop tuda bud. Dar on bisyor joyhoi kholy mavdud budand. On zamon chunin elementhoe, az qabili galliy, skandiy va germaniy hanuz kashf nashuda budand. Dar toblu doynoe baroi chunin elementnoy kimiyovy, chun marganets, yod, telluri, tseziy, bariy, tan­
tal, ki hanuz kashf nashuda budand, guzoshta shuda budand. Ba bisyor joyhoi kholi (bayni elementkhri bariy va tantal) elementnoy nodiri zamini muvofiq meomadand. Bisyore az elementnoe, ki qablan az jonibi D.I. Mendeleev peshgui shuda budand, dar tabiat paydo gardidand.

mends

Dar noli nozir 114 element malum gardidaand. Baze az onio ba nomi olimon bakhshida shudaand.Tavri misol, kyuriy – bakhshida ba Mariya va Per Kyuri (soli 1944), eynshteyniy – ba sharafi Albert Eynshteyn (soli 1953 ), mendeleeviy – ba sharafi Dmitriy Ivanovich Mendeleev (soli 1955 ) nomguzory shudaand.

F Suporish. Paragrafro yak bori digar binoned va ba nomno va alomathoi kimiyovii elementno, ki dar toblui 7 nishon doda shudaand, tavajjuh bikuned. Kartachaho karda, dar on nomhoi elementnoy kimiyoviro va alomatnoi ifodakunandai onnoro tavre dar toblu dast, binavised.

Nomdoitojikii elementno Ifodai elementnoy kimiyovy. Tarzi ifodai elementnoy kimiyovy
Azot N En
Vodorod N Ash
Kislorod O O
Sulfur S Es
Uglerod s Se
Hlor S1 Hlor
Natriy Na Natriy

Agar baroyaton jolib boshad, dar borai elementnoy boqimonda az muallimaton bi- pursed.

Pursishho

Elementa kimiyovy chist?

  1. CHunin elementnoro, az qabili kislorod va azot ky kashf kardaast?
  2. Elementnoy kimiyoviero nom bared, ki ba nomi jismdoi osmony nomguzory shudaand.
  3. Toblui «Sistemai davrii elementnoro ky kashf kardaast»?

 

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