Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / Bayoni mukhtasari mazmuni baze surahoi Quroni karim az rui tafsirho /surai an – Niso/

Bayoni mukhtasari mazmuni baze surahoi Quroni karim az rui tafsirho /surai an – Niso/

Bismillohi -r – Rahmoni – r – Rahim. Davat meshavad, ki «ey mardumon az on Parvardigoraton bitarsed, shumoro az yake kass va az on kass zani uro ofarid.»

Oyati 2 chunin shumorad, ki khurdani moli yatim, tabdili in yo khiyonat dar on, nazdi Hudoi taolo gunohi azim ast. Va in oyat dar shani shakhse az qabilai Gatafon nozil shuda, ki u moli barodarzodaashro mutasarrif shud, ba dastovard va dar dodanash taammul mekard. Murofiai eshon barguzor shud va u tamomi moli barodarzodaashro pas gardrnd. («Tafsiri Huseyn», s.125).

«Agar doned, ki dar haqqi dukhtaroni yatim nametavoned adl kardan, pas nikoh kuned, on ki khush yaod shumoro az soiri zanon du-du, se-se, chahor-chahor, agar dar in surat ham beadolati shavad, pas yakero ba nikoh darored»/ «Tafsiri Husayni», s. 125/. Sipas, oyathoe chand ba parhezgori va dast kashidan az khurdani moli yatimon va bargardonidani merose, ki ba onho monda shudaast, davat mekunad.

surai-niso

Dar johiliyat arabho odat bud, ki zanon va khurdsolon haqqi meros nadoshtand.Haqqi kasse dosht, ki dar jangu nabard ishtirok karda tavonad.

To hijrati hamad /s/ in qonun jori bud, to ruzi vafoti Avs ibni Somit, ki zanash nazdi paygambar /s/ omad va arz kard, ki moli az shavharash mondaro, pisaramakhoyash giriftand va man se farzandi nobolig doram.

CHun Muhammad /s/ az onho pursuju kard, onho in haqro muvofiqii odati johiliyat durust shumoridand va in oyat dar borai haqqi khurdsolon va zanon ba meros nozil shud/”Tafsiri Husayni’ .s. 126/.

Ba hukmi tafsir onhoe, ki sitam karda noni yatimon khurdaand, ruzi qiyomat az dahonu binii onho otash favvora zada mebaroyad. Dar on ruz az Muhammad /s/ mepursand, ki kiyand onho. Muhammad /s/ javob dihad, ki magar nashunided, ki guyand onho moli yatim khurdand /'”Tafsiri Husayni”, s. 127/. Taqsimi meros dar oyat ba in vajh ast: haqqi yak mard barobari du zan, agar du zan meroskhur boshand, du qismi meros ba onho rasad, agar yak zan boshad, uro haq nisfi matrukai mutavaffi ast, ba padaru modari mait hissae az shash yake meros boshad, agar maitro farzand boshad va agar farzand naboshad, modari uro seyak hak boshad va boqi ba padar rasad va agar barodaroni modari va padari boshad yo baze modari, baze padari, pas baroi modari shashyak haq boshad. In nasiboho az meros farz ast.

Mardero, ki volidayn nadorad va ba u avlod nest, yo zane bud kalola, vale barodari modari va khohari uro boshad, pas har yakero shashyaki hissa rasad az merosm kalola: muazakkar /mard/ dar in surat ba muannas /zan/ yakson ast. Onro avlodi modar az yak barodaru yak khohar beshtar boshad, pas onho sarfi nazar az mardu zan budanashon hissa girand az seyakm meros badi adoi vasiyate, ki murda pesh az marg karda boshad.

Agar az zanon kasse zino kunad, boyad gunohi u bo guvohii chohor mard tasdiq shavad, on vaqt u zindoni va ba marg mahkum gardad. «Kasse az shumo zino mekunad: ozor dihed onhoro, to in ki tavba kunand va nakukoriero pesha girand» /Oyathoi 15-16,/ «Tafsiri Husayni», s. 136/.

Tavbai munofiqon, ki qabuli islom boshad, hangomi marg qabul nest.

Habsi zanon dar khona dar islom bekor karda shud. Dar davrai johiliyat arabro odat bud, ki kasse memurad va zanash memond, pisaroni on kass zani zani digarash, kheshu taboroni mard yo kasse, ki haqi meros dosht, joma dar sari on zan meandokhtand va ba in amal uro dar tasarufi khud medarovardand.

Mekhost, uro ba nikohi khud medarovard va yo ba kasi digar ba shavhar medodu mahri muajjalro khud megirift, yo in ki az tazvij man mekard, dar khona mahbus medosht, to har merose, ki az mutavaffi ba u monda bud, ba dast medarovard va agar zan qalb az andokhttani joma ba ahdi khud mepayvast, vorisi mutavaffi ba u digar nadosht. Dar davrai avvali islom niz hamin qonun rioyat meshud, to vaqte ki Abu Qays Ansori yake az sahobaho /r/ vafot kard va zani u Qubaysaro pisari Ansori /r/, ki az zani digar bud, ba tasarrufi khud darovard va ba u maishate ba tariqi muzorra ogoz nihod /muzorra-on odati johiliro guyand/. Qubaysa nazdi Muhammad /s/ shikoyat namud. Muhammad /s/ uro ba sabr davat kard, to ki chorae paydo shavad. In hodisa zanoni digarro niz ba shur ovard va onho niz nazdi Muhammad /s/ shikoyat burdand va ba Muhammad /s/ oyat omad, ki “ey muminon, baroi shumo halol nest, ki zanonro ba zurovari, meros gired: /oyati 18, “Tafsiri Husayni”, s. 137/.

Dar oyati 31 az gunohhoi kabira va sagira sukhan meravad va gufta shudaast, ki az gunohhoi kabira khuddori kuned, gunohhoi sagiraro khudo mebakhshad. Tafsirho dar bobi gunohhoi kabira va sagira bahsho kardaand va nishonahoi gunohhoi kabira ba qavle on ast, ki bar on otashi duzakh, yo azobi alim vada shudaast va gayra/”Tafsiri Husayni”, s.136/.

Mazhabhoi gunogun onhoro ba tarzhoi mukhtalif va ba meyorhoi gunogun sharh medihand, ki bayoni mufassali onho az doirai in kitob berun ast. Harom ast bar shumo zanoni shavhardor ba juz zanone, ki dar mavridi jang asir girifta meshavand va az dorulharb barovarda meshavand /”Tafsiri Husayni”, s. 133/. Mahri muqarrarshudai zanonro dodan hatmi ast, nikohi kanizakon niz joiz ast va mahri onho niz boyad doda shavad.” Martabaero tamanno makuned, ki Hudoi taolo ba on bazero az shumo bar baze buzurgi doda ” /32/.

Ba qavli tafsir zavjai Sad ibni Rabe yo zavjai Sobit ibni Qays ba shavharash itoat nadosht va shavhar ba iztirob omada ba rui u shappoti zad. Zan hamrohi padarash bo shikoyat nazdi Paygambar /s/ raftand va Muhammad /s/ qasos hukm kard. Nav az dar berun shuda budand, ki Muhammad /s/ vahy girift, ki mard bar zan afzal ast. Tafzili mardon ba kamoli aql, ilm, fahm, jihod, kamoli savmu salavot, jumayu jamoat, azon, khutba, namozi idayn, namozi janoza, shahodat, dar hududi qasos, ziyodatii meros va amsoli onho, on ki anbiyovu aima az mard meshavand, na az zanon malum ast /”Tafsiri Husayni”, s. 136/, oyathi 34/.

Mufassir oyathoi 36 va 37-ro khele mufassal sharh dodaast, alalkhusus ba haqqi padaru modar va hamsoya, munosibati sodiqona bo onho, mehruboni bo hamsuhbat, duri justan az bukhlu Kinga va gayra unsurhoi akhloqi etibor dodast.

Dar masti va janobat /to on ki gusl kuned/ namoz nakhoned. Ni hukm qabl az tahrimi khamr bud. Baroi musofironu bemor begusl joizast dar surate, ki agar ob yoft nashavad, bo khok pok karda, ba du dast mahs namuda boshad.

Mardum ba jihod davat meshavand, bazeho dar in mavrid sarkashshi mekunand, harchand /mukofoti/ buzurg dar zinda budanash va badi halokatashon vada karda meshavad. Inchunin ijozati qasr khondani namoz baroi musofiron takid shudaast. Dar masalai taqsimi meros, ki kheshovandon, agar zanu mard boshand, yak zan nisfi hissai yak mardro meros girifta metavonad. Az merosi padaru modar va kheshon vorisi zanu mard haq ast. Dar borai guruhe az yahud, ki nofarmonbardori namudand va ruzi shanbe, ki Hudo man karda bud, ba shikori mohi raftand, azobu uqubati onho dar jahannam naql karda meshavad va tafsir ba tasviri azob etibor dodast.

Tafsir oyati boloro, ki dar khususi durug va gunohi oshkoro ast, sharh doda bayon mekunad, ki chun az Madina berun karda shudani qabilai bani Nazir hukm shud va guruhe az onho dar Haybar jo giriftand, jame az eshon ba nazdi mushrikini Quraysh rafta /Ibni Kanona, Ibni Akhtub va dig. / Abusufyon va atboi uro ba muhoribai ziddi Muhammad /s/ targib namudand. Mushrikin bo onho hamray gashtand va az in guruh tibqi rasmi khud ehtirom ba jo ovardand va guftand, ki ba shumo on vaqt mo bovar mekunem, agar ba butoni mo toatu ibodat kuned. YAhudiyon ba du buti Quraysh, Jibt va Togut sajda kardand, guyand, ki avvali sehr va duvvumi Iblis ast. Muhaqqiqon chunin shumorand, ki avvali nafsi ammora va duvvumi orzuhoi ust. Qasdi yahud bar nubuvvati Muhammad /s/, ki na az bani Isroil, balki az bani Ismoil ast, mahkum karda meshavad.

Dar tafsiri oyati 58 shahri amonat omadaast: Dar ruzi fathi Maka paygambar /s/ ba Usmon ibni Talha farmud, ki kalidi khonai Kabaro biyorand. Kalid nazdi modari Usmon bud. Usmon nazdi modarash baroi kalid raft, vale modar kalidro ba u dodani nabud, chun az qadim boz on kalid dasti avlodi onho bud. CHun Usmon der kard va paygambar /s/ khele dar iztirob shud, du nafari Siddiq va Foruq nazdi dari Salofa /modari Usmon/ omadan to Usmonro khabar dihand, ki paygambar /s/ iztirob ast. On vaqt modarash kalidro ba Usmon medihad. Abbos nazdi paygambar /s/ mavride, ki Usmon kalidro ba Muhammad /s/ daroz mekard, ibroz dosht, ki chun mutasaddii chohi Zam –zam man hastam, kalidro ham ba man dihed. Har bore, ki sukhanashro Usmon meshunid, dasti daroz kardaashro aqib mekashid, to dame, ki Paygambar /s/ naguft: ki agar ba khudoyu rasul imon dori, kalidro ba man deh. Usmon kalidro dod, Murtazo Ali pesh omad va ba paygambar murojiat namuda, darkhosti chunin kaliddorii Kaba shud. Hamin mavrid oyat nozil shud va Muhammad /s/ on kalidro ba Usmon bargardond. Usmon mulozamati paygambarro /s/ ikhtiyor karda, kalidro ba barodarash dod va to imruz on avlod kaliddori Kabaand /”Tasfiri Husayni”,s.142/. Dar tafsiri oyathoi bad az farmonbardori ba umaroi musalmon va kissai Umari Foruq, sukhan meravad. Az jumla gufta meshavad, ki munofiqe ba yahudie davo dosht.

Muhammad /s/ ba nafi yahudi hukm mekunad. Munofiq rozi nashuda, yahudiro nazdi Umar mebarad. Umar /r/ kissaro shunida meguyad, ki ijozat dihed, ki man berun oyam va hukmi durust kunam. Va shamsher kashida sari munofiqro az tanash judo karda meguyad: “ba har kase, ki hukmi paygambarro ijro naku-nad, chunin khoham kard”. Az on mavrid Muhammad /s/ laqabi Umarro Foruq, guzosht /”Tasfiri Husayni”, s. 142/.

CHand oyatro roje ba farmon naburdani baze va sarsuporii digaron ba paygambar sharh dodaand. Dar sharhi oyati 65, 66 tafsir navisad, ki Zubayr va Hotib sari navbati ob bo ham mukholifat kardand va az Muhammad /s/ qazovat pursidand. Muhammad /s/ farmud, ki ” “Ey Zubayr, ob deh zamini khudoro, pas ba hamsoya guzor”. Dar roh, ba onho yahude duchor omad va pursid, ki chi hukm kard, Hotib bo tana guft, ki ba foidai pisari ammai khud. YAhud bo taajjub izhor namud, in mardum, ki uro paygambari khudo medonand, boz ba guftahoyash shakkoki menamoyand, hol on ki bani Isroil dar zamoni Muso /a/ gunohe sodir karda budand. Muso /a/ farmud, ki baroi omurzishi gunoh boyad hamdigarro bikushand. CHunon bo ham qatol kardand, ki 70 hazor kushta shud va paygambari khudro bar in hukm sitam nadoshtand. Oyati 86 dar haqqi odobi muoshirat, yane boyad ba har kas «assalomu alaykum» guft, javoban “alaykumu-s- salom va rahmatulloh”.

Agar salom bo izofai rahmat boshad, javobash boyad bo ilovai «barakotuhu» boshad, yane dar in javob “assalomu alayka va alayka assalom” miqdori farz ast va ilovaho sunnat… Sipas oyatho dar borai kushtani kuffor /agar onho ba sulh naoyand va qitol kunand/, nohaq, budani kushtani mumin az tarafi mumin, ba juz tasoduf, ki nadonista bikushand, dar in surat boyad ozod kunand va pardokhti diya /khunbaho va nafaqa/ ba vorisoni maqtul biyoyand. In oyat ba gufti tafsir ba Ayyosh dakhl dorad. Ayyosh islom ovarda ba Madina hirat kard. Modarash az in bisyor nolon bud. Abujahl Horis niz barodari modarii Ayyosh budand, uro dar roh dastgir karda burda dar Maka azob dodand, to ki az islom ru gardonad, vale Ay1sh in korro nakard va qasam khurd, ki Horisro dar har holate paydo kunad, bikushad. Horis badi chande musulmon shud, vale az on Ayyosh bekhabar bud. Ruze uro Ayyosh dar mahallai qibtiho dida bikusht.

Sahobaho uro ba in kor malomat kardand. Ayyosh nazdi Muhammad /s/ omada qissaro bayon kard va ba hukmi tafsir oyati mazkur on mavrid nozil shudaast. Donista kushtani muminonro oyati digar man kardaast va tafsir guyad, ki paygambar /s/ guruhero ba sari qavme firistod, ki az miyoni onho Mardosi Fadaki nom mard musulmon bud.

On qavm az omadani guruhe musulmonon khabar yofta bigurekhtand. Mardos boshad bo molu mulkash dar kuhe muntaziri musulmonon bud. CHun faryodi takbir baland shud, u niz takbirguyon ba poyon furomad, ba onho salom kard, kalimai shahodat ba zabon rond. Vale Usoma ibni Zayd bo shamsher ba sui u bitokht, uro bikusht va molu mulkashro toroj kard. CHun Muhammad /s/ in khabarro shunid, alamnok shud…

Sipas, oyatho dar borai namoz hangomi safar, yane qasr khondan va kam kardani miqdori onho, masalan ba joi chor rakat omadaast. CHun dar havolii Madina dushmanoni muminon ziyod budand va khavfi kushta shudani onho bud, namozi khavf farmon gardid, yane lashkari islom du guruh shuda, yake posdori mekunad va digare namoz meguzorad va badi har rakat guruhho ivaz meshavand.

In oyat vaqti jang bo mushrikon shudaast, vaqte, ki onho qasdi hamla ba vaqti namoz kardaand / «Tasfiri Husayn», s. 154/ Sipas chand oyat dar hamdu sanoi khudo va qiyomat, adoi shahodat kardan ba rosti va gayra zikr shudand. / «Tasfiri Husayn», s. 162/. Dar tafsiri oyati 137 omadaast, ki munofiqonro misli musulmonon khudo dar qiyomat nure dihad, vale chun ba sari puli Sirot rasidand, on nuri munofiqon gum shavad, onho dar zulmot monda az puli Sirot ba duzakh

biaftand, nur rohi musulmononro ravshan sozad va onho az Sirot guzarand.

Munofiqon dar tabaqai zertari duzakh boshand va az kuffor azobashon beshtar boshad…

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

kitobi-texnologiya-

Kitobi tekhnologiyai ittilooti baroi sinfi 5 (Elektroni)

Kitobi informatika sinfi 5. Kitobe, ki SHumo dar dast dored usuli jihozi oshkhona, asbobu anjomi …