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BIOLOGIYA

biologiyaBIOLOGIYA (Biologia; az bio… va …logiya), majmui ilmhoest oid ba tabiati zinda. B. hamai namudhoi organizmhoi zanda – az virusho to odam, sokhtu funksiyahoi onho, inkishof, paydoish, aloqai bayni onho va muhitro meomuzad. Sistemai ilmhoi biologi murakkab buda, bo gunogunii hayoti rui zamin, usulho va maqsadi tadqiqi onho muayyan karda meshavad. Fasli B., ki nabototro tadqiq mekunad botanika va on fasli B., ki organizmhoi hayvonotoro meomuzad, zoologiya nom dorad. Har kadom fasl, vobasta ba mavzui tadqiq, ba qismhoi maydatar (virusologiya, mikrobiologiya, parazitologiya, mikologiya, entomologiya va g.) judo meshavad. Sohahoi alohidai B. ba tadqiqi sokhti organizmhoi zinda (anatomiya, gistologiya, sitologiya), funksiyai onho (fiziologiya), qonuniyathoi irsii alomatho va tagyiroti onho (genetika), tarzi hayoti hayvonot va rastani va robitai onho bo muhit, khususiyathoi raftor (etologiya) va inkishofi fardi (B.-i inkishof), inchunin tarikhi hayoti rui Zamin va g. bakhshida shudaand. Usulhoi navi tadqiqi fiziki va khimiyavi imkon dodand, ki biokhimiya va biofizika az B. judo shuda, faslhoi mustaqili ilm gardand.
Ahamiyati amalii tadqiqi biologi baroi hamai sohahoi khojagii khalq, khususan baroi tib, nihoyat kalon ast. Omuzishi hayoti bakteriyaho, virusho, zanburugho (nig. Zanburughoi mikroskopi) va dig. barangezandahoi amrozi siroyatii odam va hayvonot imkon dod, ki tadbirhoi tasirbakhshi peshgirii bemorihoi siroyati daryoft karda shavand.
Mikroskopiyai elektroni, izotophoi radioaktiv, usulhoi muosiri tadqiqi biofiziki va biokhimiyavi imkon medihand, ki sokht va reaksiyahoe, ki asosi jarayoni biologii organizmro tashkil dodaand, omukhta shuda, sokhti subhujayravi va mavqei onho dar faoliyati hayotii hujayraho tadqiq, mekhanizmhoi nozuki immunitet va bartaraf namudani nomuvofiqatii boftaho omukhta shavand. Kashfi antibiotikho dar muolijai bemorihoi siroyati tabodulot ba vujud ovard. Muvaffaqiyathoi genetika imkon medihand bemorihoi irsi va ikhtiloli digari marbut ba dastgohi genetikii odam tashkhis shavand.
Vazifahoi B. gunogunand. B.-i molekulavi khele pesh raftaast. Vazifai biologiyai inkishof az muayyan kardani farqi hujayraho, qonuniyati ba boftaho, uzvho, badtar ba tamomi organizm roh yoftani onho iborat ast. Paydoishi hayot va tajdidi muttasili davrahoi paydoishi on, jarayoni ba vujud omadani namudhoi biologi – hamai in masalaho dar marhilai hozirai inkishofi B. niz khele muhim meboshand. Diqqati bisyor biologho ba tadqiqi mahsulnokii tabiii organizmhoi zinda va umuman biosfera, tasiri aholii kurai Zamin ba ravandhoi mutadili biosfera va justujui rohhoi naghdoriyu afzun namudani hosilnokii on nigaronida shudaast. In masala tadqiqoti ilmiro dar bobati muhofizati tabiat va daryofti tarzi sarfakoronai khojagidori (nig. Hifzi muhiti zist) darbar megirad.
B.-i tojik tarikhi qadim doshta, davrahoi muhimi on bo nomu asarhoi Abuali ibni Sino, Beruni, Hayyom, Ismoili Jurjoni, Nosiri Hisrav va dig. aloqamand meboshad. Tadqiqi tibbi – jugrofii flora va faunai Tojikiston okh. a. 19 va avv. a. 20 bo ekspeditsiyai olimoni rus A.P. Fedchenko, O.A. Fedchenko, N.A. Severtsov, N.I. Vavilov, S.I. Korjinskiy ogoz yoft. Dar takomulu tashakkuli ilmhoi biologi va tarbiyai mutakhassisoni soha kafedrahoi B.-i donishkadayu donishgohhoi jumhuri kalon ast. Tai solhoi mavjudiyat dar kafedrai B.-i DDTT ba nomi Abuali ibni Sino roje ba «Faunai protozoii ruda hini isholi muzmin», «Hususiyathoi bemoriovarii soddatarinhoi ruda», «Tasiri omilhoi ekologi bar sathi geterogeniyu genetikii populyatsiyai Tojikiston», «Tagyiryobii baze parametrhoi antropometri va nishondihandahoi morfologiyu biokhimiyavii khuni populyatsavii sokinoni Tojikiston dar hambastagi bo manotiqi iqlimiyu jugrofi» va g. pajuhishhoi nazarras anjom paziruftaand. Tadqiqotho dar samthoi gunoguni B. idoma dorand.
Ad.: Berdiev N., Biologiya (kitobi darsi), D., 2008.

N.B. Berdiev.

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