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BEMORIHOI SHADIDI ROHI NAFAS

bemoriBEMORIHOI SHADIDI ROHI NAFAS (Morbi respiratorii asuti), yak guruh bemorihoe, ki onhoro bemorihoi zukomi (ORZ) niz menomand. B. sababhoi bisyor doshta, nishonahoyashon ba hamdigar monand meboshand. B.-ro virusho, khlamidiyaho, mikoplazmaho va bakteriyaho meangezand. Bemorihoi zukomii paydoishashon mushtarak niz mavjudand (virusivu virusi, virusivu bakteriyavi, virusivu mikoplazmavi). Hususan bemorihoi zukomii virusi va mikoplazmavi beshtar duchor meoyand. Onho dar bayni bemorihoi odam joi namoyonro ishgol mekunand. Masalan, gripp, paragripp, amrozi adenovirusivu rinovirusi. Muvofiqi malumoti rasmi sole taqr. 40 mln. nafar odam ba gripp va dig. B. giriftor meshavand.
Homili tabii va manbai siroyati B. mariz ast. Odamoni solim, vale homili virus angezahoi B.-ro bisyor pahn namekunand. Siroyat asosan tavassuti zarrahoi dar havo vujuddoshtai obi dahon (hangomi surfidan, atsa zadan, nafas giriftan) ba vuqu mepayvandad. B. goho ba tavri epidemiya rukh menamoyand.
B.-ro taqr. 200 kheli angezandaho ba vujud meorand, ki beshtari onho mansubi virusho meboshand. Alomathoi B. ba yakdigar shabohat dorand. Vale masuniyat (immunitet)- i hosilshuda ba kheli bemori vobasta ast. YAk nafar mumkin ast dar davomi sol 5 – 7 marotiba ba B. giriftor shavad. In holat beshtar dar muassisahoi atfol (maktab va kudakistonho) ba nazar merasad. Sabab dar on ast, ki bemori har dafa bar asari angezandai (serotipi) nav ba vujud meoyad.
B. bo zahroludii umumii sabuk, khususan osebi qismi boloii rohi nafas, padid meoyad. Illati uzvhoi nafas chun zukom, rinofaringit, faringit, laringit, trakheolaregit va goho pnevmoniya paydo meshavad. Dar surati vujud nadoshtani pnevmoniya bemori az 2 – 3 to 5 – 8 ruz davom mekunad. Dar mavridi pnevmoniya, ki sababgori on bisyor vaqt mikoplazmaho, virusi respiratori-makhloti va adenovirusho buda, onho yakjoya bo bakteriyaho amal mekunand, bemori 3 – 4 hafta tul mekashad va muolijaash dushvor ast.
Tashkhisi bemorihoe, ki angezahoi gunogun ba vujud ovardaand, bisyor murakkab meboshad. Hatto gripp barin bemorii mamul bazan amrozi zukomii paydoishash digarro ba khotir meorad, zero on dar beshtarin mavridho bo nazla (katar)-i rohi boloi nafas va toksikozi sust padid meoyad. Az uhdai tashkhisi laboratorii bisyor bemoriho (khosa amroze, ki rinovirusho, koronovirusho, mikoplazmaho ba vujud ovardaand) na hamai laboratoriyaho mebaroyand. Ilova bar in natijai tahqiqi laboratori bisyor der, vaqte ki mariz shifo yofta az bemorkhona baromadaast, malum megardad. Binobar hamin usuli asosii tashkhisi B. tashkhisi sariri (kliniki) ast. Tashkhis chunin meboshad: amrozi zukomi (ORZ); sipas ba on sharh medihand, yane rinit, rinofaringit, laringotrakheobronkhiti shadid va g. Goho az istilohi «siroyati shadidi rohi nafas» (ORI) niz istifoda mekunand, ki khato ast, chunki istilohi «siroyat» nafaqat bemori, balki homili nihonii yagon angezai marizi budanro ham ifoda menamoyad. Hususan korbasti «siroyati virusii shadidi rohi nafas» (ORVI), ki chun murodifi ORZ istifoda meshavad, nodurust ast. Zero bisyor B.-ro na virusho, balki mikoplazmaho va bakteriyaho ba vujud meorand.
Baroi muolijai B. antibiotikho va dig. doruhoi khimiyavi natija namedihand, chunki onho ba virusho tasir namerasonand. Antibiotikhoro hangomi B.-i angezaashon bakteriyaho (mas., faringiti streptokokki), mikoplazmozho, hamchunin dar mavridi orizahoi mikrobi (otitho, sinuitho, pnevmaniyaho) metavon tain kard. Mariz asosan dar khona tabobat meyobad. Binobar in uro judo nigoh doshta, kosavu tabaqro jushondan lozim ast. Agar mariz tabu tasf doshta boshad, boyad hatman bikhobad. Dar surati paydo shudani nishonahoi khurusak, ki asosan dar kudakon mushohida meshavad, havoi khonaro namnok mekunand (bo rohi ovekhtani joypushi tar, guzoshtani satile, ki obi garm dorad va g.); garm nigoh doshtani gulu niz mufid meboshad. Hamchunin doruhoi taskinbakhsh (fenobarbital, khloralgidrat) va rafi iltihob (butadion, kortikosteroidho) tain karda meshavand.
Farjomi bemori nek ast. Dar mavridi pnevmoniyai virusiyu stafilakokkii kudakon oqibati marizi jiddist.
Jilavgirii az B. bo nazardoshti tarzi pahn gashtani angezaho andeshida meshavad.
Nig. niz Gripp, Zukom, Nazla.
Ad.: SHuvalova E.P., Infeksionnie bolezni, M., 1999; Qamardinov H.Q., Bemorihoi siroyati, D., 2000.

O. H. Husaynov.

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