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BEMORIHOI PARAZITi

bemorii-parazitiBEMORIHOI PARAZITi (Morbi parasitaria), bemorihoi angali, bemorihoe, ki onhoro kirmhoi parazit (gelmintho), soddatarinho (mavjudoti yakhujayrai kasliovar – amyobaho, leyshmaniyaho, lyambliyaho, toksoplazmaho, plazmodiyaho va g.) va bandpoyho (hasharot va kanaho) ba vujud meorand. B. p.-ro amrozi invaziyavi niz menomand (invaziya – siroyat az parazithoi hayvonot). Bar khilofi B. p. illathoe, ki angezandaashon bakteriyaho, spirokhetaho, rikketsiyaho, virusho va zanburughoyand, bemorihoi siroyati nom dorand.
Bemorihoero, ki kirmhoi parazit ba vujud meorand, gelmintozho menomand. Onho bemorihoi askaridoz, ankilostomidoz, gimenolepidoz, trikhinellyoz, trikhosefalyoz, enterobioz, ekhinokokkoz va g.-ro darbar megirand.
Dar organizmi odam qarib 50 namudi soddatarinho mavjudand. Bemorihoi protozoiro onho ba vujud meorand. Az in qabil bemoriho khususan amyobiaz, leyshmaniozho, lyamblioz, varaja, toksoplazmoz va g. khavfnok meboshand.
Hasharot va kanahoi parazit mutobiqan angezandai entomozho va akarozho mahsub meshavand. Ba entomozho miazho (uzvu boftai hayvonotu odamro illatnok kardani kirminai pashsha), inchunin dermatozoonozho – bemorihoi pust, ki az gazidani shabush, pashsha, khomushak va g. sar mezanand, dokhil meshavand. Horishak yak navi akaroz meboshad.
Angezandahoi B. p. muvaqqati va doimi meshavand. Angezandahoi muvaqqati bevosita dar tabiat yo manzili odamon zindagi karda, faqat baroi gizo az chand soniya (pashsha, khomushak, magilmak va g.) to chand ruz (kanaho) ba odamon darmeaftand. Angezandahoi doimi boshand, dar berun yo daruni jismi odam (shabush, gelmintho, soddatarinho ) zindagi mekunand.
Angezandahoi B. p. vobasta ba joygiri dar organizm ektoparazit (beruni) va endoparazit (daruni) meshavand. Ektoparazitho muvaqqatan (pashshaho, gurmagas, khomushakho va g.) yo doimi (shabush) dar pust yo mui odam joy megirand. Endoparazitho dar uzvu boftahoi gunogun, mas., shush, jigar, ruda, khun, mayna, mushakho sokin meshavand. Parazithoi pust dar qabati pust (kanai khorishak, kirminai gurmagasi meda – dar marhalai avvali inkishof) va parazithoi daruni dar javfi badan, mas., bini, gush, dahon, rohi peshob va g. zindagi mekunand. Baze angezandaho (mas., ankilostoma) dar davrahoi gunoguni inkishof dar organizmi odam joy ivaz menamoyand. Odami bemor yo hayvoni kasal manbai siroyati B.p. meboshand.
Angezandahoi B. p. ba organizmi odam tavassuti pust, dahon, maqadu mahbal, surokhi peshobroha va bini roh meyoband. Vobasta ba tarzi intiqoli angezanda B.p. gizoi, tamosi, transmissivi (siroyathoi intiqoli) va g. meshavand. Hangomi B. p.-i gizoi angezandaho (gelmintho, amyobaho, lyambliyaho va g.) ba organizm dar mavridi istemoli khuroki bo parazitho siroyatnok (mas., gushti bo kirminai trikhinella yo mohii bo kirminai tasmakirm oluda) yo oshomidani obi iflos dokhil megardand. Onho ba organizm metavonand az kosavu tabaq va dasti iflos niz vorid shavand. B. p.-i tamosi ba odam az shakhsi bemor (yo hayvon), ob, khok va asbobu anjomi ruzgor meguzarand (khorishak, shabushnoki, ankilostomidoz). B. p.-i transmissiviro hasharot, mas., magmilakho (angezandai leyshmanioz) va pashshai varaja pahn mekunand.
Intiqoli angezandai B. p. ba tavassuti havo az ehtimol dur ast, vale takhmin mekunand, ki tukhmi kijja va askarida metavonad ba vositai gardu chang pahn gashta, ba rohi nafasi odam aftad.
Siroyati B. p. vobasta ba tarzi zindagii angezanda dar har fasli sol yo faqat dar mavsimi muayyan va hatto dar vaqti muayyani yak shaboruz (mas., baze pashshaho az jinsi anofeles ba odam qaribii shom yo shabona hamla namuda, uro giriftori varaja megardonand) ba amal meoyad.
Angezandai B. p. boftayu uzvhoro illati mesozad; mahsuli mubodilai moddahoi on organizmro zahrolud karda, boisi avj giriftani hassosii allergi va vaznin guzashtani bemorihoi dig. megardad.
B. p.-ro dukhtur tabobat mekunad. Baroi muolija doruhoi ziddi bakteriya, inchunin gemoterapiya, vitaminho va g.-ro istifoda mebarand.
Baroi peshgirii B. p. ijroi chunin tadbirho noguzir ast: oshkor va muolija kardani bemoron va homiloni parazitho; bo rohi dezinfeksiya va dizenseksiya nobud kardani parazitho; hifzi muhit az pasafkandi odam va jonvaron, ki angezandai B. p. dorand; barham dodani imkoni az parazitho siroyat yoftani odam; bo tavsiyai dukhtur istifoda burdani usulhoi profilaktikai khimiyavi dar nohiyahoe, ki B. p. ruy dodaand; hifzi odamon az hujumi bandpoyhoi parazit (istifodai repellentho, libosi muhofiz, pashshakhona) va g.
Ad.: Qamardinov H.K., Tropicheskie i parazitarnie bolezni cheloveka, D., 2003; Hamon muallif, Infeksionnie i parazitarnie bolezni cheloveka, D., 2009.

H. Q. Qamardinov.

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