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BAHSI BINOYIVU NOBINOYI

Masalai kuri modarzod budan va yo badtar, dar okhirhoi umrash, kur karda shudani Ustod Rudaki az masoili base toriki zindagii ust. Bazeho uro tirachashmu  iddae kuri modarzod mekhonand. Baze aslan ba in masala diqqate namegumorand. Az in guzashta, masalai kuri, kurii modarzodi yo tirachashmii Rudaki hanuz purra hal nashudaast. Sadriddin Ayni, Badeuzzamoni Furuzonfar, Abdurahmon Tohirjonov kuri modarzod budani Rudakiro tarafdori mekunand va, hatto, komilan onro ba isbot rasonidani meshavand. Said Nafisi, Abdulgani Mirzoev, Holiq Mirzozoda, I. S. Braginskiy, Alokhon Afsahzod va digaron meguyand, ki Rudakiro dar okhiri umr kur kardaand va dalelashon hamon akhborotest, ki «va qad samala fi okhiri umri» («dar okhiri umr ba chashmonash mil kashidaand» — A. A.) meboshad. Az ulamoi urupoi avvalin shuda Herman Ete hanuz dar soli 1873 kuri modarzod budani Rudakiro dar asosi tadqiq va sanadhoi tasvirii korburdai Ustod rad karda bud. Badho S. Nafisi, A. Mirzoev, X. Mirzozoda va digaron in aqidai uro payravi kardand. Tadqiqoti kolbadshinosi-mardumshinosii M.M. Gerasimov az rui jamjamai Rudaki shahodat medihad, ki uro badan, dar okhirhoi umrash kur kardaand.

Daqiqi va Nosiri Husrav az tirachashm budani Rudaki khabar medihand, ki onro ba tamomi anvoi kuri haml kardan mumkin ast, vale dar borai chi nav kur budani shoiru az chi sabab tirachashm budanash dalele nameorand. Daqiqi mefarmoyad:

Ustod SHahid zinda boyisti

V-on  shoiri tirachashmi rushanbin.

Nosiri Husrav meguyad:

Ashori zuhdu pand base guftast

On tirachashm shoiri rushanbin.

Guftori Firdavsi ham az «Kalilavu Dimna»-ro nazm kardani Rudaki khabar doda, muammoro namekushoyad. Badguyii Abuziroai Gurgoni niz az hamin qabil ast, vale beshtar bar on ishora mekunad, ki shoir muddati durudaroze kur budaast:

Agar ba davlat ba Rudaki namemonam,

Ajab makun, sukhan az Rudaki na kam donam!

Agar ba kurii chashm u biyoft getiro,

Zi bahri geti man kur bud natvonam!

Roje ba kurii Rudaki Samoni, muallifi «Tarikhi Siston» va Nizomii Aruzi Samarqandi   chize nameguyand. Vale Abuhayyoni Tavhidi (vaf. 400/1010) va Avfi kuri modarzod budani Rudakiro sarehan takid kardaand. Abuhayyon khabar medihad: «va qila ar-Rudaki   va kona    akma    va huva-l-lazi    valada amo…» («az Rudaki pursidand va u akma bud va in on ast, ki kur az modar zoida shuda boshad»). Muhammadi Avfi barobari istifodai jumlai «az modar nobino   omada», boz chandin kalimai hammanii arabii modarzod kur, vale botinan  rushanbin budani  Rudakiro takror  namuda,    menavisad: «Rudaki az navodiri falaki budaastu dar zumrai anom az ajoibi ayyom. Akma  (yane kuri modarzod — A. A.)  bud,    ammo khotirash   ibrati Hurshedu Mah bud; basar nadosht, ammo   basirat dosht, makhfufe bud asrori latif bar vay makshuf; mahjube bud az goyati lutfi tab mahbub; chashmi zohir basta dosht, ammo chashmi botin kushoda». Boz meguyad: «Az modar nobino omada». «Akma»-ro Aliakbari Nafisi chun «kuri modarzod», Muhammad Muin ba tarzi «nobinoi modarzod, kuri modarzod»116 sharh dodaand.

Dar osori boqimondai khudi Rudaki az kurii u darake nest. Faqat dar yak joy tarkibi «kuri kardan» vomekhurad, ki beshtar manon aysh rondan va khudro ba gaflatu farogat zadan va zindagiro nodida angoshtanro medihad. Ammo murojiati u ba Maj, ki roviyash bud, kasro mumkin ast ba shubha   barad, ki shoyad kuri modarzod boshad. Vale naboyad faromush kard, ki rovi doshtani shoironi kasbi dar qadim yak amri mamul buda, aksar ashori onhoro dar mavoridi khos qiroat mekardaand. In ast sheri mavridi bahs:

Ay Maj, kunun tu sheri man azbar kunu bikhon,

Az man dilu sigolishu az tu tanu ravon!

Kuri kunemu boda khuremu buvem khush,

Busa dihem bar du laboni parivashon!

Ammo, baraksi guftavu davihoi mavridi nazar, az aglabi abyoti Ustod pay burdan mumkin ast, ki u na   tanho mardi zebovu  bino,  balki   nihoyat  nozukbine ham  budaast:

Hamesha chashm zi zulfakoni chobuk bud,

Hamesha gush zi mardumi sukhandon bud.

YO:

Nazar chi guna biduzam zi bahri didani ruyat,

Zi khoki man hama nargis damad ba joyi giyoh!

Dar bayti avval «zi» manii «suy» va «taraf»-ro dorad. Dar bayti duvum tabiri «chashm dukhtan» manii «duru daroz nigoh kardan»-ro dorad, ki in du amal khosi odamoni binost. Az in guzashta, dar osori Rudaki abyote boqi mondaast, ki bo khabari «didam» meoyad:

Pupak didam ba havolii Sarakhs,

Bongak barburda bar abr – andaro!

CHodarake didam rangin bar uy,

Rang ba si guna bar on chodaro!

YO:

Dar rohi Nishopur dehe didam bas khub,

Angashbai uro na adad budu na marra!

YO in ki:

Istoda didam on jo duzdu gul,

Ruy zishtu chashmho khamchun dugul!

 

Va yo:

Mehr, didam, bomdodon chun bitoft,

Az Huroson suyi Hovar meshitoft.

Dar qitai zerin boshad, shoir ba hamsuhbati khud voqeai ba didaashro bo hayajon naql karda, didani uro talab mekunad:

Murg didi, ki bacha z-u bibarand,

CHov-chovon – dar astu juyon ast?!

Boz chun bargirift parda zi ruy,

Karvadandonu pushtchavgon ast?!

Beshubha, chunin sukhanonero, ki natijai didoru mushohida hastand, tanho odami rushanchashm oshkorovu guvoro metavonist biguyad. Ayshu nushhoi payopayi Rudaki, safarhoyash ba Nishopur, Hirot va Sarakhs, rishu muyro hangomi piri siyoh kardan, majlisoro budanash niz dalelhoeand, ki rushanchashm budanashro tasdiq mekunand. Qarobati sheri Rudaki bo tabiat, barjastagii ruhiyai tarabu shodi dar on, davati hameshagii u ba muborizavu amal, sayu kushish va duri justan az hamai on chi ki moyai anduhu susti boshad, burhoni digarest, ki chunin ashorro shakhse, ki modarzod badbakht va yak umr dar azob boshad, nametavonad biguyad. Ammo behtarin daleli in davo chistonu tashbehoti korfarmudai Ustod Rudakist. CHahor porchai poyonro mutolia kuned. Magar shakhsi kuri modarzod metavonad junin nozukona husni masobai yakchand chizro bibinad?  Hargiz!

Bunafshahoi tari khayl-khayl bar sari kuh,

CHu otashe, ki ba gugird bardavid kabud!

Biyoru, hon, bideh on oftob, k-ash bikhuri,

Zi lab furu shavadu az rukhon baroyad zud!

 

Va:

Ba zulf kaj, valekin ba qaddu bolo rost,

Ba tan durust, valekin ba chashmakon bemor!

YO:

Zamone barq purkhanda, zamone rad purnola,

CHunon chun modar az sugi arusi sezdahsola!

Va gashta z-in parandi sabz shokhi bedi bunsola,

CHunon chun ashki mahjuron nishasta jola bar lola!

Ustod Rudaki hangomi manzaranigori dar ashori khud na faqat az abri siyoh yakhcha boridan, khandidani lola, ba kishti monand budani abru, ba mavj shabeh budani chini peshoni, shoridani kafk az dahoni ushturi mast, zulfakoni chavgoni mashuqa, fokhtagun shudani havovu ob, rukhro bo nokhun shudgor kardani zanoni azodorro ba qalam doda, ranghoi safedu siyohu qir, yoquti surkh, sharobi lal va amsoli inro ba tasvir ovarda, dar ashyoi gunogun monandihoi ajibero darmeyobad va ba in vasila ba manzarahoi tabiati dilraboi kuhiston va dashtu homuni Huroson zebu jon mebakhshad. SHoir, ki tamomi umr anisu hamrozi tabiati zeboi diyor bud, bo tarzi adoi shevo na tanho ovozi murgonro ba gush merasonad, balki husnu raftorashonro rassomona dar nazarho jilva medihad. Javonii khudashro chun bargi lolavu piriashro chun sebi pajmurda medonad, ki hamai in natijai mushohidahoi daqiq ast, ammo tashbehhoi zerinro na tanho kasi bino, balki mardi bosavodu az mashuqavu may lazzatgirifta metavonad biguyad:

Zulfi turo «jim» ki kard? — On, ki u

Holi turo nuqtai on «jim» kard!

V-on dahani tangi tu, guyi, kase

Donakake nor ba du nim kard!

Porchai zerin ham metavonad natijai binishi insoni nihoyat daqiqnazar boshad:

CHun bachchai kabutar minqor sakht kard,

Hamvor kard paru biavgand muyi zard,

Kobukro nakhohad, shokh orzu kunad,

V-az shokh suyi bom shavad boz girdgard!

Porchahoi ovardashuda kuri modarzod budani Rudakiro ba kulli rad mekunand. Ammo kur karda shudani u va yo kur shudanash hanuz ba tahqiqi ilovagi muhtoj ast. Dar holi hozir faqat gumon kardan mumkin ast, ki shoyad Ustod Rudaki dar pironsoli giriftori yagon bemorii chashm shuda boshad — nazdikbin va yo durbin. Ba har hol, khudi u khatro khonda nametavonistaast va az hamin sabab dar soli 320/932 bo suporishi Balami «Kalilavu Dimna»-ro ba vay mekhondaandu ba rishtai nazm mekashidaast. In hodisaro Abulqosimi Firdavsi chunin ba qalam medihad:

«Kalila» ba tozi shud az pahlavi,

Bad-in son, ki aknun hame bishnavi.

Ba tozi hamebud to gohi Nasr,

Bad-on gah, ki shud dar jahon shohi Nasr.

Garonmoya Bulfazli dasturi uy,

Ki andar sukhan bud ganjuri uy,

Bifarmud, to forsii dari

Navishtandu kutoh shud dovari.

V-az on pas chu payvasta roy omadash,

Ba donish khirad rahnamoy omadash.

Hamekhost to oshkoru nihon

Az u yodgore buvad dar jahon.

Guzorandaro pesh binshondand,

Hame noma bar Rudaki khondand.

Bipayvast, guyo, parokandaro,

Bisuft inchunin durri ogandaro.

Vale, bo vujudi kuri va yo tirachashmii davroni piri, Ustod Rudaki hamon olufta, majlisnishin, bazmoro, nadim va baroi Nasri II Ahmadi Somoni shakhsi mutabar budaast. Binobar in, rishi khudro khizob, yane siyoh mekard, liboshoi orosta mepushid. Hatto, badkhohonash in raftori uro zeri tana megiriftand. Husravoni kinoyatomez meguyad:

Ajab oyad maro zi mardumi pir,

Ki hame muyro khizob kunand.

Bo khizob az ajal hame narahand,

Heshtanro charo azob kunand?!

Mahz dar tanai Rudaki gufta shudani qitaro javobi Rudaki sobit menamoyad:

Man muyi kheshro na az on mekunam siyoh,

To boz navjavon shavamu nav kunam gunoh!

CHun jomaho ba vaqti musibat siyah kunand,

Man muy az musibati piri kunam siyoh!

Voqean, dar har dui in sher ham ishorae ba kurii Rudaki nest. Muvofiqi akhbori «Tarikhi Siston» (qarni XI), soli 321/933  Rudaki bo khohishi Nasri II ibni Ahmadi Somoni, dar vaqti volii Siston budani Jafar ibni Muhammad ibni Hasan ibni Lays, ki yake az sarlashkaroni Nasr ibni Ahmad  —Mokon ibni Kokiro, ki bar ziddi Nasr isyon bardosht, sarkub namuda, asir girifta bud, qasidai «Modari may»-ro insho namud, ki onro dar majlisi sharobi Nasri II va sodoti u mekhonad va az mamduh dah hazor dinor inom megirad.

Soli 325/936 dusti Rudaki — shoiri tavono SHahidi Balkhi vafot kard. Rudaki dar sugvorii rafiqi shafiqi khud marsiyai jongudoze guft,ki to hol az sugnomahoi riqqatovari adabiyoti forsii tojiki ba hisob meravad:

Korvoni SHahid raft az pesh

V-oni mo rafta giru meandesh.

Az shumori du chashm yakto kam

V-az shumori khirad hazoron besh!

Tushai joni khesh az u biraboy,

Pesh, k-oyad-t margi poyogesh!

Marsiyai Rudaki dar margi digar shoiri tavono Abulhasani Murodi, ki az dustoni hamsuhbat, yoroni hammaslak va shogirdoni barumandi ustodi panjrudi bud, niz taqriban dar hamin solho (936—940) insho shudaast. SHoir dar on aqidai niyogoni shoirro dar borai padar budani osmon, modar budani zamin, badi marg ba osmon raftani jon va ba zamin andarun shudani jism va ba joni mutlaqi kull payvastanu jovidon gardidani joni afrodi neknihodro ifoda menamoyad:

Murd Murodi, na, hamono, ki murd,

Margi chunon Hoja na korest khurd!

Joni giromi ba padar boz dod,

Kolbadi tira ba modar supurd!

Oni malak bar malaki raft boz,

Zinda  kunun shud, ki tu guyi, bimurd!

Koh nabud u, ki ba bode parid,

Ob nabud u, ki ba sarmo fasurd!

SHona nabud u, ki ba muye shikast,

Dona nabud u, ki zaminash fashurd!

Ganji zare bud dar in khokdon,

K-u du jahonro ba jave meshumurd!

Qolabi khoki suvi khoki fikand,

Joni khirad suyi samovot burd!

Joni duvumro, ki nadonand khalq,

Misqalae kardu ba jonon supurd!

Harchand dar marsiyahoi shoir muvofiqi darboyisi in navi adabi ohangi anduhu judoi az dustoni sobiq va yoroni muvofiq ba gush merasad, Ustod dar misrai duvumi marsiyai SHakhidi Balkhi va bayti okhiri marsiyai Murodi (Homushi kun chun nuqat, ero malik — Nomi tu az daftari guftan suturd) ishorahoe ba pirii khud ham dorad. Dar qasidai «Modari may»  niz   az notavoni va pirii khud khabar medihad:

Madh rasul ast, uzri man birasonad,

To bishinosonad durust miri sukhandon

Uzri rahii kheshu notavonivu piri,

K-u ba tani khesh az in nayomad mehmon!

Vale dar abyoti boqimondai hej yake az in osor az fojiai shoir darake nest. Faqat ba khotir boyad ovard, ki solhoi 937—943 darbori Nasri II tamoman ba maydoni dasisavu mojaro, igvovu kashokash, qatlu jazo tadbil yofta, dar natija, soli 326/938 Balami az vazorat ronda shuda, soli 330/942 sardori harakati qarmatiyai Bukhoro Muhammadi Nakhshabi ba qatl rasid. Margi asrorangezi vazironi sobiq Balami, Musabi, Jayhonii Duvum niz natijai hamin igvogarivu nobasomoniho bud. SHoyad qasidai «SHikoyat az piri» niz dar hamin solho, vale qabl az kur karda shudani shoir, ejod gardida boshad. Qitahoi zerini Rudaki niz, ki gubori hasrate bar chehrai onho aftodaast, boyad dar hamon ruzhoi purmojaro navishta shuda boshand:

Dardovu hasrato, ki maro davri ruzgor

Be olatu siloh bizad rohi korvon!

CHun davlate namud maro, mahbate fuzud,

Be karzane, shigift, nabudast rohi on!

Va:

CHun bargi lola budamu aknun

CHun sebi pajmuridae ba ovangam!

Bayti poyon khabar medihad, ki shoir yaku yakbora, ba tarzi nogahoni giriftori fojiae shuda budaast:

Oy darego, ki murdzori maro

Nogahon bozkhurd barfi vagesh!

Az hamai  fojiaho,  nobasomoniho va    betartibiho Rudaki khulosai falsafi barovarda, jahonro chun ramzi badbakhti tasvir mekunad:

Juz ba modandar namonad in jahoni gurbaru,

Bo pisandar  kina dorad hamchu bo dukhtandaro!

I. S. Braginskiy   dar qitai zerin   ba kur karda shudani shoir ishorae daryoftaast:

Nigorino, shunidastam, ki gohi mihnatu rohat

Se perohan salaf budast YUsufro ba umr-andar.

YAke az kayd shud purkhun, duvum shud chok az tuhmat,

Savum -YAqubro az bush rushan gasht chashmi tar!

Rukham monad bad-on avval, dilam monad bad-on soni,

Nasibi man shavad dar vasl on perohani digar!

Pas, khulosai mantiqi mebaroyad, ki badi soli 325/938 ba chashmoni dardmandi saroyandai orzuhoi khalq va muborizi ziddi istibdod Rudaki, bo vujudi piri va tirabasarii u, jabran mil kashidand. Dar in mavrid boyad ba guftai Najoti bigaravem, ki soli 709/1309 dar kitobi «Basotin-ul-uqalo» gufta bud: «Va qad samala fi akhiri umrihi» (yane «dar poyoni zindagi chashmashro mil kashidand»). 117

In fojiaro Ustod chun bozii nokhushi ruzgor tahammul namuda, bo vujudi shikasti qalb. galayoni anduhu ranj, tazyiqi girdobi mashaqqat va giriftori ba vartai balovu gam sarbalandona pushti sar namuda, tufoni hasratu ozurdagihoro ba sheri khud roh nadod. U dili ummedparvar dosht. Ba fikram, hamin sabab ast, ki az osori u nishonai oshkore az fojiai kur karda shudanash nametavon paydo kard.

E. E. Bertels az bayti poyon natija megirad, ki Rudaki baroi payravi shakhsi volomaqome budanash kur karda shuda bud va az hamin sabab az u madad mepursad:

Sadri jahon, jahon hama torikshab shudast,

Az bahri mo sapedai sodiq hamedami?!

In hama bahsu barrasiho baroi ahli tahqiqu davo lozim ast. Ammo mardumi oddi dar hamai davru zamonho Rudakiro bo sheri poku nobash meshinokhtandu ba lahzahovu vaqoei gunoguni zindagonii u chandon kore ham nadoshtand. Dar bayni mardum beshtar ashori oshiqona, pandu andarz va baythoi nishotovari u shuhrat doshtaandu dorand. Tazkiraho beshtar hamin guna ashori Ustodro darj namudaand.

Alloma Said Nafisi dar asosi tashbehoti ashori boqimondai Rudaki ba khulosae meoyad, ki mavsuf kuri modarzod nabuda, tanho dar poyoni umrash kur karda shudaast. A. Mirzoev ba S. Nafisi purra hamfikr budani khudro ibroz doshta menavisad: «Mumkin ast dar voqeai az tarafi Said Nafisi ishorashuda, dushmanon ba tiragii chashmi shoiri buzurg va holati vay rahm nakarda, uro ham ba kulli nobino gardonda va az darbor ronda boshand».118

Soli 1958 qabri Ustod Rudakiro kushoda, jasadi uro az on barovardand. Antropologi mashhuri shuravi professor M. M. Gerasimov ustukhonhoi kosakhonai sar (jumjuma) va hamai boqimondahoi jasadi shoirro az jihati anatomi tashreh namuda, abyoti dastrasi Rudakiro omukht va ba khulosae omad, ki «Rudaki na faqat dar unfuvoni javoni, balki dar zamoni kamolot ham bino bud».119 Sipas M. M. Gerasimov ustukhonhoi jasadi Rudakiro tadqiq namuda, natija megirad, ki «Rudaki bo hulai ohani gudokhta kur karda shudaast».120

S. Nafisi menavisad: «Volotarin dalel bar in, ki Rudakiro dar poyoni zindagi kur kardaand, in ast, ki dar soli 1336 (barobar ba 1957 — A. A.) dar Tojikiston, dar nohiyai Rudak, dar rustoi Panjrudak, dar shimoli Samarqand, dar guristoni kuhane, ki Abusadi Idrisi dar «Tarikhi Samarqand» guri Rudakiro dar hamon jo nishon dodaast, pas az kovish joygohi qabri vayro yoftand va dar on jo ustukhonhoi vay az zeri khok berun omad. Dar kosai chashmi vay, dar jumjumaash asari sukhtagivu barkhurd bo jismi gudokhtae paydo shud va musallam shud, ki vaqte jismi gudokhtaero dar chashmoni vay furu burdaand va on chi Najoti gufta bud, ki chashmi vayro mil kashidaand, sobit shud. Dar sutuni faqaroti vay niz asari shikastagi padidor bud va donishmandon guftaand, ki baroi kur kardani vay va nazdik kardani chehraash ba akhgare, ki sababi gudokhtani otashu ustukhoni jumjumavu kosai chashmu kurii vay shudaast, sarashro ba rui otash kham kardaandu muqovimat kardaast, ustukhoni pushtash shikastavu shikastagii on oshkor ast va dar ustukhoni pusht boqi mondaast».121

CHunin ast zindagii purshebu faroz va ibratomuzi khurshedi osmoni adabi forsu tojik Abuabdulloh Jafar Rudaki! In bud ogozu anjomi farzandi buzurgi khalqi tojik!

Betartibiho, benazmiho, besariho, pareshoniho va jaholatu tiragii sinfi hokim, ki ba qadri maqomi suturg va khizmathoi buzurgi Ustod Rudaki narasida, ba juz bizan, bikush, kur kun … chizi digarero namedonistand, ustodi benaziri sheri forsi va farzandi shuhravari khalqi tojikro jisman az miyon burdand. Aslan, dar zamoni Somoniyon, ba vija, dar davrahoi avvali hukmronii onho, payravoni adyon va keshu oyinhoi gunogun dar sarzamini Huroson ozodona amal mekardand. Binobar shahodati sayyohi arab Muqaddasi, dar ahdi Somoniyon dar Movarounnahru Huroson jarayoni hamagonii    dini mavjud nabud. Na faqat mazhabu jarayonhoi    islomi, hatto adyoni gunogun arzi  vujud mekardand. Dar mavzehoi gunoguni ziyode bisyor yahudiho, nasroniyon, asnofi majus, az qabili zardushtiyon, monaviyon, otashparaston va garavandagoni    oyinhoi butparasti    va sanamparasti, gabrho mezistand. Istakhri va Ibni Havqal sarzamini Gurro dorulkufr menomand. Otashgohu dayri mugonro qarib dar har viloyatu navohi didan mumkin bud. Ibodatkhonahoi yahudiyon dar Maymanavu  Balkh   va   monastirhoi   nasroniyon  dar  Samarqand,  Urgut, Horazm amal mekardand. Muqaddasi khabar medihad, ki dar Hurosonu Movarounnahr nufuzi hanafiyon beshtar ba nazar merasida, ba istisnoi viloyathoi SHosh, Elok, Tus, Niso, Abevard, Tiroz, Sigoj, dar muzofoti Bukhoro, Sanj, Dandonakon,    Isfaroin, Juvayn shofeimazhabho  aksariyatro tashkil  medodand.  SHofeiho dar Hirot, Siston, Sarakhs, Marv, Nishopur niz dida meshudand. Dar Siston, navohii Hirot, dar Karukh   va Astarobod khorijiyon ziyod budand. Dar Nishopur payravoni mutazila,  qarmatiho,  sheiho zist  mekardand.  Qarmatiho dar Fargona, Huttal, Guzgon, Marvrud   va Samarqand khonaqoh doshtand. Safedjomagon, ki payravi Muqannaand, dar rustohoi Haytal  (Usrushana, Sugd, Bukhoro, Isfijob, SHosh va Fargona) hayot ba sar meburdand. Ba qavli muallifi «Hudud-ul-olam», dar Vakhon, sohilhoi rudi Marv gabroni ziyode zindagi mekardand. Dar  Samarqand monaviyon otashgohe doshtand,  ki Nagushok meguftand.

Az ruyi malumoti   Narshakhi,   dar nazdikii Bukhoro Moh nom bozore vujud dosht, ki butu sanamhoi gunogun mefurukhtand. Dar Bukhoro marosimi Kini Siyovush pos doshta meshud. Dar Eron ham jarayonhoi mazhabii mukhtalif va adyonu keshhoi gunogun amal mekardand. Mutadilan ahli tashayyu, shofeiho, hanafiho, hanbaliho, molikiyon, qodiriho, sufiho va gayra dar Fors, SHeroz, Ray, Hamadon, Isfahon, Qum, Huziston, Ahvoz va viloyathoi hamsoyai onho (Iroq, Basra, Kufa, Bagdod) ozodona hayot ba sar meburdand. Zardushtiyoni ziyod, nasroniho va kalimiho niz kam nabudand, Ruhoniyoni in jarayonhoi mafkuravi bayni khud mubohisahoi garmu jushon barpo menamudand. Hurofot va taassubi dinivu mazhabi khele zaif ba nazar merasid. Dar solhoi okhiri saltanati Nasri II (914—943) in mubohisaho ba ikhtilofhoi shadid tabdil megardidand. Hususan, ikhtilof bayni sunniho va ahli tashayyu ruz ba ruz avj girifta, gohe bo zadukhurdhoi khunin anjom mepaziruft. Hurujhoi botiniyon, ki onhoro beshtar qarmatiyon meguftand, ba bisyor betartibiho, shurishu isyonho sabab meshud. Haq ba jonibi Abdulgani Mirzoev ast, ki gufta bud: «Qarmatiho-ismoiliho hamchun ahli mutazila ba mubohisahoi ilmi va bahsu munozira, falsafa va ilmhoi aqli beshtar mayl doshtand. Makhsusan, ba hikmati YUnoni Qadim ahamiyati khose medodand, zero dar muborizahoi goyavi-fikri falsafa va hikmat tavonotarin aslihai onho hisob meshud».122

Bad az on ki taassubi dini avj girifta, lashkariyoni turku ruhoniyoni sunnivu jamoat yak shudand, dar okhiri asri X melodi (qarni 4 hijri) hamai ashkhosi baroi sinfi hokim nomatlub qarmati shumurda, berahmona nest karda meshudand. In ravand az okhirhoi zamoni hukmronii Nasri II (914—943) ogoz gardida, toraft avj girifta, dar zamoni Mahmudi Gaznavi (998—1030) ba avji alo rasid.

CHunonki zikrash dar sahoifi pesh guzasht, dar sohibistiqlol va mustahkam gardidani Davlati Somoniyon sahmi Ismoili Somoni  (892—908) khele buzurg ast. «Ismoili Somoni az muborizai ommai khalq baroi istiqloliyat    istifoda   burda,    nakhustin  bor   pas  az   istiloi   arab sarzamini dar natijai zadukhurdhoi dokhili pareshongardidaro muttahid namud va davlati buzurgi mustaqile ba vujud ovard. Vay dar barobari barham dodani hukumati Safforiyon, hokimiyati khudro na tanho dar Movarounnahru Huroson mustahkam kard, balki ba yak qator viloyathoi sharqi va shimolii Eron sohib gardida, istiqloliti haqiqii davlati tashkilkardai khudro nisbat ba khilofati arab tamin namud».123

Ismoili Somoni soli 892 poytakhti Somoniyonro az Samarqand ba Bukhoro kuchond, chunki ba kishvar az tarafi sharq hujumi khoriji tahdid namekard, dar on samt viloyatho dar amon va dur az khavf budand. Ammo az garb bimi hujumi kuchmanchiyon, ki har goh ba mavzehoi sarhadi hamla ovarda, onhoro gorat mekardand, hej kam nameshud. Goho bo khiyonati posbononi sarhad — marzbonon goratgariho base tashvishovar meshudand.

Bo vujudi chunin kushishu tadbirho, davlati shuhratmandu ovozador solhoi okhiri qarni X dar natijai ikhtilofhoi shadidi sinfi, ba khusus az sinfi hokim norozi shuda, az on ru gardondani ommai mehnatkash, muqobilati quvvahoi markazgurez bo khukumati markazi, raqobati avlodii namoyandagoni somoni baroi ba dast ovardani toju takht, adovati ahli darbor va kormandoni devonho, fitnavu khiyonati sarkardagoni lashkari kiroyai turk, bo dushmanoni khoriji hamdast shudani marzbonho, rivoj giriftani taassubi dini va gayra, ba darajae notavon shud, ki az shukuhu ravnaqu qudrati peshinai on osore namond. Az in jihat, digar natavonist ba hujumi dushmanoni khoriji muqobilat nishon dihad. Soli 992 bodiyanishoni turk, ki qarokhoniho nom doshtand, Bukhororo zabt kardand. Amiri Somoni Nuhi II (976—997) bo Mahmudi Gaznavi onhoro az kishvar dur andokht. Ammo soli 999 dar natijai hujumi navbati Bukhoro tamoman ba dasti qarokhoniho guzasht. Bo hamin Davlati buzurgi Somoniyon az bayn raft.

Az ibtidoi asri XI sar karda, badi barham khurdani Davlati Somoniyon, dar bayni tojikon judoi aftod. Sarzamini yagonai onho taqsim gardida, khudashon ba davlathoe tobe shudand, ki hokimonashon ajnabiho budand. Ammo khalqi ejodkori tojik hej goh naguzosht, ki madaniyatash tamoman ba khok yakson shavad.

Kamoloti ejodii Rudaki chun ustodu sarvari adiboni Bukhorovu Somoniyon dar hamin ayyom surat girifta, na tanho dar darbor, balki dar bayni khalqu guruhhoi rushanfikri shahr shuhrati tamom yofta bud. In shuhratu nufuzi shoir dar pironsoli afzun gardida boshad ham, ranju zahmathoi Rudaki dar in ayyom bo shuhrati shoirivu kulfathoi piri mahdud nameshud. Sinfi hukmron dar taqibu ozori u rohi ifrotro pesh girift. In sabab dosht, zero khonadoni Somoniyon, ki dar avvali hukmroni ba payravoni mazhabho, firqakho, hatto dinho betaraf bud, badan dar in jabha siyosati khudro ditarguna kard. Az soli 919 sar karda  dar  qalamravi  Somoniyon  tabligoti qarmati chun junbishi siyosi va nahzati ijtimoi purzur gardid. Qarmatiho guruhi purquvvati siyosie budand, ki dar asri IX paydo shuda, dehqonon, bodiyanishinon, ahli hunar, bakhusus onhoero, ki az tartiboti mavjudai mazhabi rasmii islom norozi budand, muttahid mekardand. Manii qarmat kutoh ast. Sababi chunin nom giriftani in jarayon dar on ast, ki asosguzori on Hamdon ibn al-Ashas qomatu poyhoi kutohe doshtaast. Dar zamoni Somoniho qarmatiya hamchun harakati khalqi mohiyati ziddifeodali doshta, bo faoliyati rohbari qarmatihoi Bukhoro Muhammadi Nakhshabi az ruyi baze khususiyathoi ozodikhohi-demokratiyash etibor paydo karda bud. Tasiru nufuzi on to darajae bud, ki amironu vaziron va shakhsoni digari sohibetibor maylash mekardand. Nasr ibni Ahmad ham ba onho tavajjuh dosht. Az tarafi digar, dar okhirhoi zamoni Nasr ibni Ahmad taassubu khurofoti mazhabi avj girift. Bisyor odamoni rushanfikr bo tuhmati qarmati budan ba mujozot giriftor meshudand. Ruhoniyoni islom va darboriyoni irtijoi hamai mukholifoni khudro qarmati menomidand, ba bedini aybdorashon mekardand. Lashkariyon boshand, mekushtandu goratashon mekardand.

Nizomulmulk voqiai bo gunohi qarmati az takht mazul gardidani Nasri II va ba joyi u amir  barguzida shudani pisari Nuh ibni   Mansurro mufassal naql karda, takid menamoyad, ki in kor az sababi az rohi sunnat baraftodan va mazhabi bad giriftan, yane talimoti qarmatiro az Muhammadi Nakhshabi paziruftani Nasri II rukh dodaast. Nuh barobari ba takht nishastani khud ba poyi padarash band basta, uro mahbus mekunad. Peshvoyoni harakati qarmati  (botini)-ro niz ba habs megirad. «Pas Hasan va Makot va Mansuri CHagoni va Ashasro, ki botini shuda budand, gardan    bizadandu dar shahrho aftodandu har kiro, ki az eshon meyoftand, mekushtand… Haft shabonaruz dar Bukhorovu navohii u megashtandu gorat mekardandu chunon shud, ki dar Movarounnahru Huroson yake az eshon namondand».124 Albatta, in bahonae bud, ki aglab bo tuhmati qarmati budan ba    qatl rasida, khalq gorat meshud. Rudaki az betartibiho, amaliyoti ziddikhalqii quvvahoi judoiandozi markazgurez va rivoji khurofoti mazhabi ba tang omada, dar safi odamoni peshqadami vatandustu khalqparvaru razmandavu    paykorju meistod.

Malum meshavad, ki Rudaki az benizomi va khiyonathoi ahli darbor amirro borho ogoh kardaast (Agar amiri jahondor dodi man nadihad, — CHahorsola navidi maro ki hast khirom?). Vale aglab az jonibi shohi zamon tarafdori nadida, muztarib  megardid. Va, nihoyat, hatto az on pushaymon gardid, ki dar in darbor khizmat kardaast:

Base nishastam man bo akobiru ayon,

Biyozmudamashon oshkoru pinhoni.

Nakhostam zi tamanno, magar dasturi,

Nayoftam zi atoho, magar pushaymoni!

Sinfi hokim in raftori bebokonai shoirro tahammul karda natavonist, oqibat Rudakiro niz qarmati shumurda, molu mulkashro musodira karda, ba chashmonash mil kashida, kurash kardand. Mil kashidan az qabehtarin mujozoti hukkomi feodali bud, ki bo lulachai filizzii tasfon gavharaki chashmi odamonero, ki az jihati mafkura khatarnok shumurda meshudand, dog mekardand.

Gumon meravad, ki dar hamin vaqt avvalin bor osori Rudaki suzonda shuda boyad boshad. Rudakii piri notavon ozor yoftavu jazo girifta, avval ba Samarqandu sipas ba dehaash bargasht. Hamai yoronash uro ba ogushi navozishu gamkhori giriftand. Bad az se soli ba zodgohi khud bargashtan, yane soli 329/941, Rudaki olamro padrud guft. Jasadi uro dar sahni bustoni Panjrud ba khok supurdand.

Mohho guzashtand. Mohho ba solho tabdil gashtand. Az on solho asrho ba vujud omadand. Soli 1926 Hukumati Tojikiston buzurgii Ustod Rudaki va ahamiyati voloi ejodiyoti sukhanvari nomiro ba nazar girifta, qarori makhsus qabul namud, ki har sol dar ruzi Navruz bo nomi «Ruzi Rudaki» jashni khos guzaronida shavad. Raso yak hazoru sad sol sipari shud. Soli 1958 ba zodruzi Sultoni shoironi Ajam Abuabdullohi Rudaki yozdah asr pur gasht.

Mardumi sukhanparvari tojik va jahoniyoni mutamaddin az tufoni hazoron havodisi tarikh namunahoi guftori hakimona va hikoyathoi oshiqonai in ustodi behamtoi sukhanro to ba zamoni mo ovarda rasondand va durdonahoi nazmi voloi uro ovezai gushi mukhlisonash gardondand. Donoyoni olam dar buzurgdoshtu sitoishi Rudakii jovidon kitobho navishtand, sunnathoi asosguzoshtai uro takmilu tarvij dodand. Alhaq,

                   Nomi uro, ki medorand imruz,

                   Hast az on sheri anjumanafruz!

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