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DEZAKTIVATSIYA

dezaktivasiyaDEZAKTIVATSIYA (Desactivatio), dekontaminatsiya, bo maqsadi peshgirii zahroludii odamon nest kardani moddahoi radioaktiv az tekhnika, libos, mahal, bino, manbai ob. Moddahoi radioaktivro az tani odam bo rohi bezarargardonii sanitari dur mekunand.
D.-ro hangomi oloishi radioaktivii muhiti atrof, ki dar natijai falokat dar tajhizoti yadroi, vayron kardani tekhnikai bekhatari (dar asnoi bo izotophoi radioaktiv kor kardan) yo kashondani partovhoi radioaktiv ba amal meoyad, meguzaronand. D. dar vaqti jang baroi barham dodani oqibati tasiri yaroqi yadroi ba amal barovarda meshavad. Dar istehsolote, ki kormandonash bo moddahoi radioaktiv sarukor dorand, D.-ro az rui naqsha meguzaronand.
Az chizhoi muhofiz dur kardani moddahoi radioaktiv yagona vositai muboriza bar ziddi oloishi radioaktivi ast. Surati tajziyaro sust yo tez kardan imkon nadorad. Az in ru, alhol tajziyai radioaktivii elementhoro idora kardani inson imkonnopazir ast. Moddahoi radioaktiv misli mikroorganizmho nobud yo chun moddahoi khimiyavi betasir karda nameshavand. Vazifai asosii D. darajai oloishi onhoro hattalimkon kam kardan ast. Bo in maqsad az usulhoi fiziki, khimiyavi, fizikiyu khimiyavi va biologi istifoda mebarand. Mas., changi radioaktivi boloi yagon obektro ba tavassuti usulhoi fiziki (shustan, bo latta pok kardan, bo asbobhoi regposh toza namudan va g.) dur mekunand. Agar usuli fiziki naf naorad, D.-ro ba tariqi khimiyavi va fizikiyu khimiyavi (mahluli kislotaho, ishqorho, vositahoi shuyanda va dig. payvasthoe, ki bo moddahoi radioaktiv komplekshoi halshavanda hosil mekunand) guzaronidan mumkin ast.
Odditarin usuli D.-i sarulibos afshondan va bo chutkayu changkashak toza kardani onho ast. Agar in korho samara nabakhshand, ashyoro dar jomashuykhonahoi makhsus bo vasoiti sintezi bezarar megardonand.
Baroi D.-i moeot az vositahoi kafkovar, halkunanda va g. istifoda mebarand. Gayr az in, baroi D.-i ob filtrhoi biologiro kor mefarmoyand.
Baroi D.- i gizoe, ki dar khaltacha girifta shudaast, khaltacharo toza meshuyand; qabati boloi gizoi kushodaro boshad, girifta mepartoyand. Dar asnoi bo moddahoi zudtajziyai radioaktiv oluda shudani ob, khurokvori va g. onhoro baroi kam gashtani radioaktiviyat (az hisobi tajziyai tabii) chand ruz nigoh medorand.
D. bo quvvai khudi yo bo kumaki tashkiloti makhsusi mudofiai grajdani guzaronda meshavad. Sifati D.-ro bo asbobhoi dozimetri va radiometri nazorat mekunand. Hangomi D. odamon boyad az vasoiti muhofizat istifoda barand, liboshoro takroran az nazorati dozimetri guzaronand, badi D. ba bezarargardonii purrai sanitari faro girifta shavand.

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