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Afzoishi nashvii rastaniho ba vositai navda

Afzoishi pushidatukhmon yo rastanikhoi guldor bo rohi jinsi va nashvi amali megardad. Afzoishi nashvii rastanihoi guldor dar tabiat vase pahngar- dida buda, khususan odamon onro baroi afzoish dodani ziroathoi kishovarzi va rastanihoi oroishi purmahsul istifoda mebarand. Ba in maqsad chunin uzvhoi nashvi — resha, poya va bargro vase is- tifoda mebarand.

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Hamin tavr, tavassuti uzvhoi nashvi afzun shudani rastanihoro afzoishi nashvi menomand. Bisyor rastanihoi khudruy bo afzoi- shi tukhmi, inchunin bo rohi nashvi afzoish meyoband.

Bisyor usulhoi gunoguni afzoishi nashvii rastanihoi kishta ma- lumand SH • Muhimtarini onho, afzudani rastani bo qalamcha, farguch, bo rohi payvand kardani mugjavu qalamcha, shinondani lunda, piyozak va taqsimi reshapoya meboshad.

Dar rastaniparvari beshtar usuli bo qalamcha ziyod kardani rastani mamul ast. Qalamcha juzi yagon uzvi nashvi meboshad. Safedor, bed va digar rastaniho dar muhiti sernam yo obi az navdahoi ruizaminiashon reshahoi ilovagi paydo karda, afzun shuda metavonand. CHunin rastanihoi khonagi, az qabili tradeskansiya, guli begoniya, sadbarg, yorongul va hinogul az qalamchai poya (navda) ziyod meshavand.

Anjir, ar-ar, safedor, bed, qot va baze buttavu darakhtoni digarro bo qalamchai poya ziyod mekunand. Bo in maqsad bahori barvaqt pesh az kushoda shudani mugjaho qalamchahoi yaksolai chubshudaro, ki 25-30 sm darozy dorand, ba khoki narmu sergizo meshinonand. Dar qalamchaho to tiramoh reshahoi ilovagi inkishof meyoband. On goh qalamchahoro dar vaqti baroi shinondan munosib ba joi doimi mekuchonand.

Kartoshka, noki zaminiro ba tufayli lundahoyashon afzo- ish medihand. Dar holati kam budani lundahoi tukhmi, kartoshkaro ba tufayli chashmakmugja va neshhoyash afzoish dodan mumkin ast.Bopiyozak boshad, sir, lola, nargis, zanbaq va gayrakhoro afzoish medihand. YAkto piyozaki onho metavonad yakchand mugjapiyozak (“piyozaknasl”) hosil kunad.Usuli bo farguch ziyod kardani rastaniho gunogun ast. Usuli az hama osonash (qulayash) dar fasli bahor navdai navrasro ba zamin kham mekunand, to ki qismi mobaynii navda ba zamin ra- sad. Sipas, dar qismi poyonii navda, poyontar az mugja, pustlokhro burida joi buridai navdaro ba zamin jafs karda, ba boloyash khok mepushonand.

Nugi navdaro ba bolo rost karda ba chubi takyagoh mebandand. Dar joi buridai pustlokh tiramoh re- shahoi ilovagi mesabzand. On goh navdaro az butta yo darakhti navras judo karda ba joi doimi meshinonand. Qot, bektoshy, anjir, anor va baze rastanihoi digarro bo usuli farguch ziyod mekunand YA.

Baze rastaniho, masalan, shahtuti zamini metavonad tavassuti poyai khazandaash (tanobak), ki tobiston dar rastanii modari inkishof meyobad, afzoish kunad. Az bandi in guna tanobakhoi ba zamin pahngardida reshahoi ilovagi va navdahoi rost mesabzand .

CHunin alafhoi begonai guzaro (ashaddi) — gumoy, ajiriq, buymodaron va gayraho ba tufayli reshapoyaashon afzoish mekunand, Reshapoyai mustahkami in rastaniho ba magzi khok daromada, bo surati tez afzoish karda, dar kishtzor vase pahn meshavand. Hatto badi yakchand ruzi khishova az juzhoi reshapoyai dar dokhili khok mondai, masalan, gumoy az sari nav navdahoi nav sabzida mebaro- yad. Baroi tamoman nest kardani gumoy tamomi reshapoyai onro az zamin kanda partoftan lozim ast.

Dar sharoiti tabii afzoishi rastaniho borohi payvand nihoyat kam vomekhurad. Lekin dar bogdori usuli payvandkuniro az zamonhoi qadim to injonib isgifoda mebarand. CHunin darakhtoni mevagiro, az qabili seb, murud, nok, olu, gelos, olubolu, zardolu, tut va gayrahoro bo rohi payvand ziyod mekunand. Baroi in mugja- chashmak yo qalamchai darakhti payvandshavandaro ba tanai niholi khasak (takpayvand) mepayvandand. Niholi khasak yo takpayvandro ba tavri makhsus intikhob mekunand. Vay boyad reshahoi nagz inkishofyofta doshta, nisbat ba sarmo va khushki tobovar va ba khoki ser- gizo kamehtiyoj boshad. Niholi khasak az donak (tukhm)-i darakhtoni meva sabzonida meshavad. Mugjachashmak yo qalamchai rastanii kish- taro, ki baroi payvand kardan giriftaand payvanddust (pay- vandshavanda) menomand. Niholi khasakero, ki ba on payvand mekunand, takpayvand meguyand.

Qalamchapayvand va mugjapayvandro dar mavsimi shiradav, vaqte ki mugjahoi payvandust holo ba sabzish shuru nakardaand, me- guzaronand. Baroi qalamchapayvand qalamchahoi payvanddustro ba tanai payvandak bo usulhoi mamul mepayvandand YA. Baroi bo muvaffaqiyat anjom yoftani payvand boyad kambiyai payvandust ba kambiyai payvandak nafisona jafs basta shavad.
Baroi mugjapayvand navdai yaksolai darakhti mevaro istifoda mebarand . Avvalo pahnaki barghoi onro kanda, faqat dumcha- ashro boqi memonand. Pustlokhi bekhi tanai niholi khasak (takpay- vand)-ro bo kajkordi tez ba shakli T chok mekunand. Bad pustlokhi buridashudaro ehtiyotkorona az tana kovok (judo) karda, az navdai navi payvandust mugjai khele khub inkishofyoftaro bo hamrohii buridai tunuku nafisi chubash (daroziash 2-2,5 sm) girifta, ba zeri choki pustlokhi takpayvand dokhil mekunand. Bo lif joi payvandro mahkam mepechonand, tavre ki mugja az lif berun monad.

Agar payvand az rui koida guzaronda shuda boshad, badi 2-3 hafta payvandtak bo payvandust payvast meshavad. Bahori soli oyanda az mugjai payvandi’ navda mesabzad. CHun qoida, tanai (poyai) niholi khasakro bolotar az joi payvand buridan lozim ast. Badi 2-3 sol niholi payvandshuda ba navniholi navi intikhobshudai mevai bogi tabdil meyobad. Onro ba joi dilkhoh kuchat kardan mumkin ast.

  1. Kadom usulhoi afzoishi navdahoi ruizaminiro medoned?
  2. Qalamcha chist?
  3. Bo usuli farguch kadom rastanihoro afzoish dodan mumkin ast?
  4. Kadom rastaniho tavassuti reshapoya, lunda va piyozak ziyod karda meshavand?
  5. Payvand chist?
  6. Niholi khasak boyad chi guna khususiyatho doshta boshad?
  7. Qalamchapayvand az mugjapayvand chi farq dorad?
  8. Afzoishi nashvi dar tabiat va hayoti inson chi ahamiyat dorad?
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