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Adabiyot va ilm dar asri XVI

Vaziyati siyosie, ki az avvali asri XVI dar Movarounnahr va Huroson faroham omad, ba hayoti adabi va ilmi zarbai sakht rasonid. Hirot hamchun yak markazi madanii khalkhoi forszabon ahamiyati khudro az dast dod. Namoyandagoni ilmu fan, adabiyot va sanat ba har taraf parokanda gardidand. CHandin nafari onho ba Bukhoro muhojir shudand. CHunki in shahr dar nimai duvvumi asri mazkur hamchun markazi madani mashhur gashta, sol az sol dar on jo shumorai madrasaho ziyod gardid.

Bo vujudi mushkilihoi malum adabiyot va ilmu fan dar in davra to yak daraja rivoj yoft. Muallifi asri XVI, tazkiranavis — Hoja Hasani Nisori 250 nafar khodimoni ilmu adabi zamonashro nom burdaast, ki aksari onho dar tarikhi khalqi tojik maqome ishgol kardaand. Az bayni adiboni on davra Zayniddin Vosifi bo asarhoi khud malumu mashhur gashtaast. U soli 1485 tavallud yofta, dar Hirot, Bukhoro, Samarqand, Toshkand va digar shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona umr ba cap burd. Asari sarguzashtii u “Badoe-ul-vaqoe” nom doshta, dar on simoi shahrhoi on zamona ba tavri barjasta tasvir yofta. rusumi adabii davraashro nishon dodaast. Vosifi hamchun navisandai mushohidakor bisyor nuqsonhoi usuli idorai davlati khoniro ifsho menamoyad.

 “Badoe-ul-vaqoe” na faqat shohasari nasri badei, inchunin sarchashmai muhimi tarikhist.

SHoir va muarrikhi nomi Kamoliddini Binoi hamzamoni Vosifist. U soli 1453 dar Hirot, dar oilai ustoi hunarmandi binokor ba dunyo omada, soli 1512 dar Qarshi qatl shud. Binoi dar ovoni javoni ba shahrhoi Eron safar karda, soli 1495 ba Samarqand meoyad. Dar in jo u shohidi jangu nizohoi bayni voriooni saltanattalabi Temuriyon va SHayboniyon gardid.

Binoi dar darbori SHaybonikhon obru va nufuz paydo kard, ki khon navishtani voqeahoi lashkarkashii khudro ba u suporidaast. Binoi olim va adibi purmahsul ast. Dar bayni osori u devonho masnavii “Behruzu Bahrom”, qasidai “Majma-ul-garoib”, asarhoi tarikhii “SHayboninoma” va “Futuhoti khoni” shuhrati beshtare paydo kardaand. Binoi dar musiqi “Nukhrani” va “Savtunnaqsh” barin ohangho niz dosht.

Asari Binoi “SHayboninoma” az tarikhi zindagi va lashkarkashihoi Muhammadi SHayboni rivoyat karda, voqeahoi tarikhiro taqriban to soli 1505 faro megirad. ‘‘Futuhoti khoni” niz oidi SHaybonikhon va tarikhi khonadoni SHayboni malumot doda, bo voqeahoi soli 1504 poyon meyobad. In du asar yakdigarro purra karda, sarchashmahoi mukhimtarini tarikhi ba khisob meravand.

SHoir, tarikhnavis va ohangsozi tojik Binoi yake az simohoi barjastai madaniyati khalqi tojik bud.

Badriddini Hiloli shoiri gazalsaroi asri XVI bud. U soli 1470 dar Astarobod tavallud yofta, soli 1529 dar natijai hajviyai ba Ubaydullokhon navishtaash bofarmoni u ba qatl rasid. Gayr az devoni gazaliyot ba qalami Hiloli boz se doston — “Layli va Majnun”, “Sifot-ul-oshiqin” va “SHohu gado” taalluq dorad.

Dar nimai duvvumi asri XVI, pas az on ki Abdullokhoni II hokimiyati mutamarkazi khudro ba vujud ovard, hayoti ilmi va adabi dubora ehyo gardid. Dar in davra az doirai hunarmandon yak zumra shoironi barjasta dar arsai adabiyot zuhur namudand, ki az bayni onho besh az hama Abdurahmoni Mushfiqi mashhur meboshad. U soli 1538 dar Bukhoro dar khonavodai hunarmand ba dunyo omada, soli 1588 dar hamin shahr vafot kard. Mushfiqi dar davrai tahsili madrasa ba shergui pardokht va ilmhoi asosii zamonashro azkhud namud. U dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik az ustodoni buzurgi gazal hisob meshavad.

Mushfiqi soli 1567 ba darbori Abdullokhon kashida shud va ba darajai “malikushshuaro” rasid.

Mushfiqi bisyor qasidahoi madhi navishtaast, ki qisme az onho baroi omukhtani tarikhi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona dar asri XVI hamchun sarchashmai tarikhi, khizmat mekunand. U dar shakli qita va ruboi yak qator tarikhhoi qobili tavajjuhe dorad, ki dar onho sanahoi lashkarkashi va muhoribahoi muhim, vafoti shakhsoni tarikhyi az takht faromadan va yo ba takht nishastani yagon shoh, solhoi itmomi binohoi mashhur va osori memorii asri XVI inikos yoftaand. In qismati ejodiyoti shoir baroi omukhtani tarikhi asri mazkur, khususan, tarikhi memori ahamiyat dorad.

Ba gayr az shahrhoi kalon, dar mahalho niz shoiru mardumi donishmand kam nabudand. Masalan, dar okhirhoi asri XVI dar Hisor Ishratii Hisori, Garibii Hisori va digaron hayot ba cap burdaand.

Dar asri XVI tarikhnigori ham dar bayni ilmhoi zamon mavqei khosro ishgol kardaast. YAke az muarrikhoni barjastai in asr Hondamir bud, Soli 1475 u dar Hirot tavallud shuda, soli 1535 dar Dehli vafot kardaast. Hondamir dar asarash “Habib us-siyar” voqeahoi tarikhi umumi va tarjimai holi odamoni mashhurro bayon karda, sharhi hodisahoro to soli 1510 rasonidaast. Inchunin u muallifi asarhoi “Dastur-ul-vuzaro”, “Humoyunnoma” buda, jildi haftum va qismi khotimai asari marufi muarrikhi nomi Mirkhon — “Ravzat-us-safo”-ro navishtaast.

Dar asri mazkur asari tarikhi az tarafi Fayzullohi Ruzbikhon bo nomi “Mehmonnomai Bukhoro” navishta shud. In kitob ba hayoti siyosi, iqtisodnyu ijtimoi, madani, tarzi zamindorii feodali, istifodai mehnati gulomon dar khojagii khalq, kharidu furushi onho, yodgorihoi memorii Samarqandu Bukhoro bakhshida shudaast. “Mehmonnomai Bukhoro” roje ba tarikhi asrhoi XV-XVI sarchashmai muhim meboshad.

YAke az shoir va muarrikhoni barjastai darbori Abdullokhoni II Hofiz Tanish bud. U soli 1549 dar Bukhoro tavallud shuda, soli 1635 dar hamin shahr vafot kard.

Merosi ilmiyu adabii Hofiz Tanishro asari tarikhii ba Abdullokhon bakhshidai u “Abdullonoma” yo “SHarafnomai shohi”, du devoni gazalu kasoid va masnavi tashkil medihad.

Asari tarikhii Hofiz Tanish “Abdullonoma” baroi omukhtani hayoti snssiyu ijtimoi va adabii asri XVI ahamiyati kalon dorad.

Solhoi 1539-1540 dar Uroteppa muarrikhi maschohi — Hofiz Masudi pisari Usmoni kuhistoni asari buzurgkhajmi khud “Tarikhi Abulkhayrkhoni”- ro navishtaast. Dar in kitob voqeahoi tarikhii asri XV va qisman pesh az on aks yofta, sarchashmai nodiri asri mazkur ba shumor meravad.

YAke az sarchashmahoi nodiri tarikhi va adabii asri XVI asari Bobur Mirzo “Boburnoma” meboshad. In asardar borai Movarounnahr, Afgoniston, Hinduston, shahrhoi on joyho malumoti daqiq medihad. Dar “Boburnoma” voqeahoyu hodisaho aniq va tasirbakhsh ifoda yoftaast. Dar in asar roje ba Jomi, Binoi, Hiloli, Behzod va digar arboboni ilmiyu adabi malumoti nodir paydo kardan mumkin ast.

Madrasan Kuhna dar Hisor /asri XVI/.
Madrasan Kuhna dar Hisor /asri XVI/.

Dar shahrhoi kalonu khurdi Osiyoi Miyona shakhsoni sohibmalumote budand, ki onho ba ruynavis kardani asari muallifoni nomi mashgul meshudand. Bo in mehnati purmashaqkati khud onho sababgori az nasl ba nasli digar yo az yak asr ba asri digar guzashtani asarhoi nodiri niyogoni mo gashtaand.

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