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ASRI DURAHSHONI ADABIYOTI FORSII TOJIKI

Az jihati inkishofi nazmi klassiki asri X nakhustin ruzgori durakhshi adabiyoti khalqi tojikro tashkil medihad. Adabiyoti in davra na faqat ogozi taraqqii adabiyoti klassikii tojik ast, balki dar sayru takomuli on chun asos ahamiyati buzurg dorad. Dar in davra ustodi shoiron Rudaki va dar okhiri on sukhanvari jahoni Firdavsi zindagi va ejod mekardand. Abuali ibni Sino niz az nobigahoi asr bud. SHahidi Balkhi (vaf. 937) az duston va hamkoroni Rudaki buda, ba du zabon — arabi va tojiki sher meguft. U bo olimi mashhuri sohai falsafa Zakariyoi Rozi (vaf. 945) dar masoili gunoguni ilmi bahsu munoziraho payvasta, fikrhoyashro dar shakli risola menavisht. Vay khattoti purhunare ham bud. Aksari adiboni digare, ki dar in asr ruzgor ba sar meburdand, niz sohibi shuhrati khose buda, dar adabiyoti tojik bo faoliyati ejodii khud  maqomi arjmandero sohib shudand. Abushakuri Balkhi, Kisoyii Marvazi, SHahidi Balkhi, Daqiqi, Murodi, Farolovi, Husravoni, Gurgoni, Tohiri, CHagoni, Munjik, Abdulfathi Busti, Maysari va digaron namoyandagoni barjastai adabiyoti in davra meboshand. Dar zamonhoi badina kam ba nazar merasad, ki  dar yak asr in qadar sukhanvaroni sohibmaqome ba kamol rasida boshand, ki doroyi tabi salimu istedodi fitri boshand.

Bale, poyai  haqiqii  adabiyoti  navini  tojik dar  asrhoi IX—X guzoshta shudaast. CHaro adabiyoti in davra adabiyoti navin va poyai taraqqiyoti  minbadai adabiyoti tojiku fors nomida meshavad? CHunki  to in zamon adabiyoti tojik yo ba zabonhoe, ki badan az bayn raftand, navishta  shudaast, yo ba  zaboni  arabi talif gardidaast, ki  zaboni baroi khalq begona bud. Az asri    IX sar karda adabiyoti tojik ba zabone ofarida meshavad, ki bo on imruz ham  mardumi mo guftugu dorand. Zaboni osori Rudaki, Daqiqi, Firdavsi, Abuali Sino va digaron az jihati tarkibi lugavi, tabiru ifodaho, vositahoi  tasvir, sarfu  nahv  va  tarzi  talaffuz  az zaboni hozirai tojik farqi kullie nadorad. Bar zammi  in,   ananahoi   asosii   adabiyoti  tojik  dar   hamin zamon ba vujud omada, minbada inkishof yoftand. Asosi nazariyavii adabiyoti tojik va talabhoi    estetikii on dar hamin davra  guzoshta  shud. Janrhoi  navhoi asosii adabiyoti mo dar nasru nazm—qissa, qissa andar qissa, hikoyat, qasida, gazal, ruboi, qita, masnavi, khelhoi gunoguni doston mahz dar hamin asrho tavlid gardida, ba nizom darovarda shudand va minbada taraqqi kardand. Vazni aruz va tarzi hatmii qofiyabandii khos baroi har  yak navi sheri tojiki  niz dar hamin davra   ustuvor  gardid.  Hamai   in  payvandhoi   nogusastanie meboshand,  ki  adabiyoti  asrhoi   IX—H-ro bo tamomi davrahoi adabiyoti minbadai mo payvast   menamoyand  va tamomi in  adabiyotro chun yak adabiyoti tomi doroi qonunho, talabho, hadafho va ananahoi ustuvor jilva medihand.

Tavlid, sabzish va takomuli adabiyoti tojik dar asrhoi IX—X zaminahoi khosi tarikhi dosht, ki muhimtarinashon az inho iborat budand: tashakkuli khalqi tojik, tasisi davlathoi mustaqili tojikon, boloravii khudshinosii mardum, hamchun zaboni adabiyotu ilm maqom yoftan va zaboni rasmii davlati qabul gardidani zaboni forsii dari, inkishofi shahrho chun markazhoi ilmu hunaru savdo, dastgirii hokimon az ahli ilmu adab va amsoli inho. Hanuz soli 1926, ba munosibati nashri «Namunai adabiyoti tojik»-i Ustod Ayni, alloma Said Nafisi (1896—1966) dar maqolai khud «Sarzamini poki  niyokonam» nazishta bud: «SHuaroi Turkiston maruftarin ashori forsiro surudaand. SHahrhoi buzurgu obodi in nohiya, ki az qadimtarin shahrhoi Eron shumurda meshavand, misli Bukhorovu Samarqandu Balkh, to zamone, ki avlodi Temur saltanat kardand, hamesha dorulilmi Eron budand. Hanuz badetarinu zebotarin shohkorihoi memoronu kishtisozoni Eronro dar Bukhorovu Balkhu Samarqand metavon yoft. Buzurgoni Eron aglab az in sarzamin barkhostaand. Har kitobi forsi, ki mekhonem, hamesha moro ba yodi in vodii niyokon meandozad. CHi qadar padaroni mo dar on jo madfun shudaand! To avositi qarni duvozdahum satre yaz tarikhi Eron nest, ki  yak bor ismi Bukhoro yo Samarqandu Balkh dar on burda nashuda boshad. Orzui man in ast, ki in sarzamini poki  niyokoni khudro ziyorat kunam va yak bor dar umri khesh zaboni shirini porsiro az zaboni samarqandiyonu bukhoroiyon bishnavam».55

Donishmandi mujarrabi eroni Mahmudi Mudabbiri roje ba gird ovardan, tashkhisu intiqodi osori shoironi gumnom yo, durusttarash, bo iborai khudi musahheh, shoironi bedevoni qarnhoi SH, IV, V hijri tadqiqoti shoistaero anjom doda, tahti unvoni «SHarhi ahvolu ashori shoironi  bedevon  dar  qarnhoi  3, 4, 5  hijrii qamari»  kitobero soli

1370/1991 dar Tehron ba tab rasond, ki ba tarif mearzad. In muhaqqiqi  pukhtakor  dar  asosi  221  manba  va  adabiyoti ilmi 58 bayti mutafarriqai 7 shoiri asri 3 hijri, namunai osori 59 shoiri zamoni Safforiyon, Tohiriyon  va  Somoniyonro,  ki  bazeho dar  qalamravi  Oli

Ziyoru Oli Buvayh mezistand, jam ovarda, tamomi shakli kitobatu farqi matni on ashorro sabt kardaast. Az in shoiron, ba gayr az «SHoh-noma»-i Firdavsi, «Donishnoma»-i Maysari (4481bayt), «Gushtospnoma» va ashori parokandai Dakiqi (1308 bayt), hamchunin, osori dastrasi Rudaki (1045 bayt), ki mustaqilona ba chop rasidaand, ba nomi 54  shoir  1820  bayt gird ovarda shudaast. Tibqi tadqiqi Mahmudi Mudabbiri, alhol az zamoni Saljuqiyonu Gaznaviyon 164 shoir shinokhta shudaast, ki az onho 164 hazoru 593 bayt imruz dastras ast. Az jumla, 15 manzumai buzurgu khurd, 11 devonu majmuai ashori shoironi in ahd boqist, ki qarib hama ba tarzi alohida ba chop rasidaand, 56 ki «SHohnoma» (49529 — 53882 bayt), «Bejannoma» (1900 bayt) va «Barzunoma»-i Atoii Rozi (taqr. 38000 bayt), «Varqavu Gulshoh»-i Ayyuqi (2239 bayt), «Garshospnoma»-i Asadi (9110 bayt), «Visu Romin» (8897 bayt)-i Fakhriddini Gurgoni, «YUsufu Zulaykho»-i Amonii Hurosoni (5976 bayt) az on jumla buda, Mahmudi Mudabbiri masnavii Badoei «Rohat-ul-inson» yo «Pandnomai Anushervon»-ro dar kitobi khud joy dodaast, ki hamagi 436 baytro tashkil medihad.57

Az ruyi on ki Nasri I mardi dindoru khiradmande buda, sherro khub mesurud, uro chun adibe fozil yod kardaand. Konuni adabii Somoniyon hanuz dar Samarqand garm budaast. Bukhoro, ki az soli 892 poytakhti Somoniyon qaror girifta bud, dar okhiri asri IX – ibtidoi asri X ba markazi buzurgi ilmivu adabii mamlakat tabdil yoft. Dar darboru berun az on mahfilho va anjumanhoi adabivu ilmi garmu gardon budand.

Nakhustin   shoirai   forsu   tojik   Robiai     dukhtari Kab niz  dar  hamin  qarn  zindagi  va  ejod  kardaast. U  zodai Balkhi bostoni buda, dar husnu jamol, fazlu kamol, zehni tezu qudrati shoiri ba forsii   dari va arabi mashhur bud.

Sayyohi arab Ibni Havqal, ki dar zamoni Mansur ibni Nuh  (962—977) ba Bukhoro omada bud,  dar   asari  khud   «Surat-ul-arz»   menavisad:   «Dar miyoni sarzaminhoi islomi shahre bosafotaru zebotar  az  Bukhoro nashunidavu  nadidaam. CHun ba boloi kuhandizi on biravi, beruni shahrro chunon mebini, ki sabzaho ba osmoni obi payvastaast, guyi osmoni kabud bar bisote sabz kham shudavu kokhho chun siparho tibbiyotivu multi menamoyand, yo ba soni sitoragoni osmon dar miyoni obhoi safedu durakhshonand».58

Adiboni qarnhoi badina bo iftikhor chun namunai ibrat az shoironi on davr yod mekunand.

Manuchehrii Domgoni dar qasidae yak idda shoironi mashhuri Hurosonro, ki garaz az Huroson hamon kishvari Somoniyonu poytakhti on Bukhorost, nom mebarad:

Dar Huroson Bushuaybu Buzar, on Turki Kashi

V-on Saburi Porsi v-on Lukarii CHangzan.

On du Gurgonivu du Rozivu du Valvolaji,

Se Sarakhsivu se, k-andar Sugd buda mustakan…

Az Bukhoro panju panj az Marvu panj az Balkh, boz

Haft Nishopurivu se Tusivu se Bulhasan,

K-az faroz oyandu sheri ustodam bishnavand,

To garizi ravza binandu tabii nastaran!

           Dar qasidai digar Manuchehri mefaroyad:

Bulalovu Bulabosu Busaliku Bulmasal

V-on ki omad az navoeh v-on ki omad az Hari.

Az hakimoni Huroson gu SHahidu Rudaki,

Bushakuri Balkhivu Bulfathi Busti, hokazi?!

Gu: «Biyoedu bibined in sharif ayyomro,

To kunad hargiz shumoro shoiri kardan kazi!

           Manuchehri dar in porchahoi sheri baroi azamati Unsuriro boz ham bolo bardoshtan buzurgoni adabiyoti zamoni Rudakiro yod mekunad, ki shohidi digari etirofi sarvaqtivu barvaqtii eshon ast.

SHoirone, ki ba forsi sherhoi baland gufta, to darajai sohibdevoni rasidaand, tanho dar asri IH paydo shudaand. Ammo tamomi adiboni asrhoi IX— X zaboni arabi va bazehoyashon zabonhoi sugdi, pahlavi, bokhtari, khorazmi, hatto yunoni va yahudiro niz medonistand, ba forsiyu arabi sher meguftand. Az avvalin shoirone, ki ba forsi sheri pukhta guftaand, inho malumand: Abuhafsi Sugdi, Muhammadi Vasif, ki soli 867 dar madhi YAkub ibni Laysi Saffori ba porsi qasidae guftaast, Hanzalai Bodgisi (vaf. 834), Bassomi Kurd, SHahidi Balkhi, Mahmudi Varroq (vaf. 835), Firuzi Mashriqi (vaf. 897), Abusaliki Gurgoni, Muhammad ibni Mukhallad va Masudi Marvazi. Az sherhoi in shoiron faqat porahoi parokanda ba dast omadaast, ki dar kitobhoi tarikhu lugat chun sanadu misol sabt gardidaand, ki dar bolo darjashon namudem. Bo in hama, malum meshavad, ki sheri asrhoi IX—X forsii tojiki dar shaklhoi qasida, gazal, jqita, dubayti, ruboi va masnavi navishta shuda, az jihati mavzu madh, pand, akhloq, ishq va tarikhro faro megiriftaast.

Dar qalamravu darbori Safforiyon surudani qasida rasm shuda bud. Muvofiqi khabari «Tarikhi Siston» (asri XI), soli 867 amiri Saffori YAqub ibni Lays ba Hirot hujum ovarda, zafar meyobad, ki «shuaro ba sharafi u sherhoi arabi guftand… YAqub, ki mardi nokhondae bud, az mani ogoh nashud… Pas Muhammad ibni Vasif sheri forsi guftan giriftu avvalin kase az Ajam bud, ki sheri porsi guft».59

Barhaq, az jihati inkishofi nazmi klassiki asri X nakhustin asri durakhshoni tarikhi adabiyoti forsii tojiki ba hisob meravad. Adabiyoti in davra na faqat ogozi tarakqii adabiyoti klassikii forsu tojik ast, balki dar sayri takomuloti minbadai on chun asos maqomi buzurge dorad.

Dar in zamon adiboni ziyode asar menavishtand. Dar ibtidoi on ustodi shoironi forsilison – Odamushshuaro Abuabdullohi Rudaki (858—941) va dar okhiri on sukhanvari jahoni Hakim Abulqosimi Firdavsi (934—1020) zindagivu ejod mekardand, ki be takidi nomu osorashon azamatu hashamati adabiyoti forsii tojiki tasavvurnopazir ast. Ustod Ayni durust mefarmoyad: «Tojikon dar asri dah Ustod Rudaki — buzurgtarin nobigai zabonu hunarro ba zuhur rasonidand, ki tamomi khalqhoi farsizabon dar adabiyoti olamshumuli forsi rahini minnati in ustodand. Az miyonai tojikon va dar asri dah baromadani Ustod Rudaki yak hodisai tasodufi nabuda, balki ifodakunandai istedodu barjastagii in khalq ast. Dar hamon asru zamon baromadani Husravoni, SHahidi Balkhi, Murodii Bukhoroi, Daqiqi va digar shuaroi buzurg va bad az zamoni Rudaki va bevosita ba zamoni u rasidani Firdavsi, Farrukhi, Unsuri, ki hamagi az shoironi buzurgand, in qavli moro isbot mekunad».60

Harchand, ba istisnoi Daqiqivu Firdavsi, az osori adabii aksari adiboni asri X namunahoi kame to zamoni mo boqi mondaand, dar asl onho khele sermahsul budaand. Rudaki, Ammorai Marvazi, Murodi, Abulhasani Ogoji, Munjiki Tirmizi va digar shoironi sohibdevoni zamon sohibi obruyi kalonu maqomi buzurgi jamiyati budand. Sarvaru ustodi tamomi adaboni asr Ustod Rudaki az zumrai onhoe bud, ki dar natijai muhiti sozgori farhangi va sistemai musoidi parvarish chun Forobi, Al-Horazmi, Abubakri Rozi, Firdavsi, Beruni, Abuali ibni Sino, Abumuhammadi Hujandi, Balami va amsoli inho dar 16—18-solagi tamomi donishhoi zamoni khudro faro girifta, bo sukhani pukhta dar ravnaqi ilmu adabiyot sahmi muhim guzoshtaast. Vay dar tarikhi khalqi tojik avvalin ustodi sukhan ast, ki  tajribavu muvaffaqiyathoi aslofi khudro dar sohai adabiyot jambast namuda, bo shevai sahli mumtane ashori balandsanati dar lafz khubu ba mani oson suruda, dar sheri khud masalahoi muhimmi ijtimoi, ishqi poku beoloish, zeboihoi tabiati diyorro bo tamomi tarovatu rangu bu, buzurgii inson, andeshavu pindori mardumro doir ba    sulhu osoishu odamiyat bo ruhi mutaharriki  insonparvarona, obrazhoi  notakror va jiloi falsafi chunon inikos namudaast, ki abri bahor, boroni nayson, chah-chahi  bulbulu  andaleb,  parvozi uqobu parastu, khonishi soru amsoli inho dar peshi nazarho zindavu ravshanu guyo jilvagar  meshavad.

Dar sheri Rudaki targibi muhabbat ba  Vatan, ehsosi gamu shodii khalq, tarannumi khirad, ahvoli ahli zahmat va digar masalahoi dogi zindagi chun akse bar oyina munakis gardidaand, ki badan kasero muyassar nashudaast.

Az hamasroni Rudaki nomi se nafar dar abyoti boqimondai ustod erod meshavad, ki SHahid, Murodi va Farolovi meboshand, ki, yaqinan, shuaroi zabardasti zamon budaand. Dar borai Murodi Ustod Rudaki mefarmoyad:

Murd Murodi, na, hamono, ki murd,

Margi chunon khoja na korest khurd!

Abulhusayn Muhammad Murodi az Bukhoro buda, anisu jalisi Rudaki budaast, ba arabi niz sher meguftaast. Az ashori forsii   u du bayt boqi mondaast, ki janbai akhloqi doshta, dar bebaqoyii hashamatu ganj va noguzir budani marg bahs mekunad:

Az hashamu ganj chi faryodu sud,

Marg kunad bar sari tu tokhtan!

Roje  ba  Abuabdulloh  Muhammad ibni  Musoi Farolovi,   ki az sherhoi    u 55  misra boqi mondaast, va Abulhasan  ibni    Husayni  Varroqi    Jahudonakii Balkhi Rudaki meguyad, ki faqat Farolovi va SHahid shoir buda, digaron rovi meboshand:

SHoir    SHahidu    shuhra    Farolovi

V-in digaron ba jumla hama rovi!

Farolovi umri daroz dida (Mani rahi piru sustpoy shudam, — Natavon roh kard be bolod), madhu sheri oshiqona (Zi chashmi masti tu olam kharob ast, — Ba bandi zulfi tu dilho giriftor), manzaranigori (Meg chun turke oshufta tir andozad, — Barq tir ast mar uro magaru rakhsh kamon?!), hajvu tanz va pandu andarz mesurudaast:

CHun naboshad binoi khona durust,

Begumonam, ki zer risht oyad!

SHahidi Balkhi (vaf. 937) niz az dustonu hamnishastonu hamkoroni Rudaki buda, ba arabi niz sher meguft. Vay az donishmandoni buzurgi asr dar falsafa, hikmat va kalom ba shumor rafta, bo faylasufi buzurgi zamon Muhammad ibni Zakariyoi Rozi (vaf. 925) roje ba masalahoi gunoguni falsafa bahs namuda, baroi rad kardan va tasdiqi fikri yakdigar risolaho navishta, bo dalelhoi aqli va naqli fikri khudro bayon mekardand. Az in jo malum meshavad, ki u dar falsafa va hikmat bisyor mohir budaast. Az merosi forsii u taqriban 90 bayt boqist. Farrukhii Sistoni (nimai avvali asri XI) SHahidro dar sher hamradifi Rudaki meshumorad:

SHoironat chu Rudakivu SHahid,

Mutribonat chu Sarkashu Sarkab.

SHahid  khushnavisi mohir va dar ejodi gazali oshiqona mashhur buda,  az  margash  Rudaki khele mutaallim gashta budaast. SHahid «dar bobi lazzat va ilmi ilohi va sukunu harakat va  meod va dar in masoil nuquze bar Rozi va Rozi niz kutube dar raddi u navisht».61

Abusulaymoni Mantiqi dar kitobi «Sivon-ul-hikmat» navishta budaast, ki SHahid mefarmoyad: «Nakhustin fazilati lazzoti nafsoni bar lazzoti jismoni davomu ittisoli onhost, zero lazzoti nafs dar natijai masarrate, ki u bo vujudi matlubi khud monandi hikmatu ilm ba dast meovarad va ba sababi iqone, ki ba fazilati on bar umuri digar dorad, doimu muttasil ast va sipari nameshavad va inqito namepazirad. Ammo lazzati badan bastagi ba vujudi quvvai hosa dorad va ba hamin sabab munqazi va zoil ast va basurat tabaddul va istihola mepazirad».62

Muhtaviyoti abyoti boqimondai SHahidro madhiya, ishq, vasfi tabiat, pandu andarz, hikmat, tanqid va amsoli inho tashkil medihad:

Hazor kabk nadorad dili yake shohin,

Hazor banda nadorad dili khudovande!

YO:

Dardo, ki dar in zamonai gamparvard,

Hayfo, ki dar in bodiyai umrnavard,

Har ruz firoqi duste boyad did,

Har lahza vidoi hama meboyad kard!

Dar vasfi mashuqai tangdahon mefarmoyad:

Dahon dorad chu yak pista, labon dorad ba may shusta,

Jahon bar man chu yak pista  bad-on pistadahon dorad.

Mazmuni bisyor baythoi SHahidro nakuhishi akhloqi noshoista tashkil medihad:

Az chi tavba nakunad khoja, ki har jo, ki buvad,

Qadahe may bikhurad, rost kunad zud harosh?!

Nigorishi zebo, alfozi pukhta va ohangi pand az khususiyathoi mumtozi ashori SHahid ast. U khonandai khudro ba taqvodori va neknomi davat menamoyad, ki in khasoil guzarnomaest ba suyi jannati barin:

Hama diyonatu din varzu neknomi kun,

Ki suyi khuldi barin boshadat guzarnoma!

Alhaq, SHahid az adibonu mutafakkironi nomii adabiyoti asri X forsi tojiki buda, bisyor khosiyathoi sheru donishi zamonaro tajassum doshtaast.

Dar kori bolo burdani farhangu madaniyat, khosa adabiyoti zamoni Somomiyon, naqshi vazironi eshon base buzurg ast, ki goliban namoyandagoni mashhuri ahli fazli zamon budand. Dar in kor, qabl az hama, Abulfazl Muqammad ibni Abdullohi Balamiro boyad nom burd, ki hanuz az zamoni Ismoil ibni Ahmadi Somoni (279—295 h.) ba korhoi devoni mashgul shuda, dar ayyomi hukumati Nasr ibni Ahmad (914—943) besh az bist sol dar masnadi vaziri nishasta bud. U shakhse donishmand, pokdin, bofarhang, raiyatparvar, dust va homii Rudaki buda, chun adibi chiradast va faqehi sohibmaktabash niz yod kardaand. Vay hamrohi Abuabdulloh Ahmad ibni Muhammadi Jayhoni, Abutayyibi Atibi va digaron dar ravnaqi  adabiyot, oyin, shahrdori va shahrsozi naqshi buzurge bozidaast. Odatan, guftahoi Balamiro chun qavli shakhsiyati mutabare, chun burhone dalel meorand. Mullo Samoni dar «Kitob-ul-ansob» meguyad: «va kona Abulfazl al-Balami vaziri Ismoil ibni Ahmad – volii Huroson yaqul: «Laysa lil Rudaki fi-l-Arab va-l-Ajam nazir».63 YAne, chunon ki Abulfazli Balami – vaziri Ismoil ibni Ahmadi volii Huroson mefarmoyad, «Rudakiro dar Arabu Ajam monande nest».

Dar nimai duvumi qarni dahi melodi kori in vazironi botadbirro Abualii Jayhoni, Abuali Muhammad ibni Muhammad davom doda, dar ustuvor gardidani poyahoi zaboni forsii   tojiki khidmati arzandaero ba jo ovardaand. Ba vija, ba zaboni forsi tarjuma  shudani «Tarikh»-u  «Tafsiri  Tabari»  etibori in zabonro khele bolo bardosht, miqdori shoironi forsiguy niz chandin bor afzuda, mavzui osori onho rangintar gardid. YAke az dostonhoi purrai to zamoni mo mahfuzmondai on davr dostoni Maysari meboshad, ki  roje ba ilmi tibb talif gardidaast.

Abusaid Husayni Sabzavori (tav. 908) mardi fozilu donishmande buda, dar ilohiyot, sarfu nahv, fiqhu hadis, adabiyotu riyoziyot dasti tavono doshta, sher ham meguftaast, vale ashorash purra az bayn raftaast. Kitobhoi «Masobih-ul-qulub», «Rohat-ul-arvoh» va «Munis-ul-ashboh», «Bahjat-ul-manohij», «Goyat-ul-marom fi afozil-il-kirom» az talifoti   u meboshand.

Abusahli Saluqi. Nomi u Muhammad ibni Sulaymon (906—969) buda, dar Isfahon ba dunyo omada, ulumi mutadovilaro faro girifta, dar Basra donishi khudro takmil medihad. Sipas dar Isfahon ba kasbi mudarrisi mashgul meshavad. Badan, bo davati ahli Nishopur ba on shahr  omada,  to  okhiri umr mudarrisi mekunad va dar fiqh, hadis, sarf, nahv, balogat va kitobat nom mebarorad. Az qarori malum, vazifai qoziyulquzzoti Hurosonro niz ba zimma doshtaast. SHerhoi khub ham meguftaast, ki az bayn raftaand. «SHams-ul-maoli» nom talifotero niz ba qalami u mansub medonand, ki az on ham darake nest.

  Abushakuri Balkhi zodai Balkhi bostoni buda, soli ba dunyo omadanashro khudash  303 hijri nishon medihad, ki ba 915 melodi barobar meoyad.  Balkh bad az Bukhoro duvumin shahru viloyate bud, ki dar ahdi Somoniyon adiboni ziyodero ba kamol rasonidaast. Az mahsuli ejodii Abushakuri Balkhi nisbatan beshtar abyot boqi mondaast. Abushakur chande dar dargohi Nuh ibni Nasri Somoni (943—954) khizmat mekard. SHoiri masnavigu bud. Gayr az masnavii «Ofarinnoma», ki soli 947 surudaast, az gufti ustod Said Nafisi, boz sohibi du masnavii digar buda, ki yake dar vazni hazaji musaddasi maqsur, duvum dar bahri khafifi musaddasi makhbuni mahzuf suruda shudaast. «Ofarinnoma» kalontarin masnavii Abushakur buda, az on 372 bayt boqi mondaast. «Ofarinnoma» masnaviest pandu akhloqi, ki bo sabku uslubi sodda va pukhta nigorish yofta, doir ba sitoishi khiradu nakukori, vasfi donishu khirad, nakuhishi dusti bad va jaholatu toriki bahs karda, bisyor porahoi on ba arabi ham bargardonida shudaand.

Abyoti zerin az «Ofarinnoma»-and, ki hadafi shoiru ejodi dostonashro huvaydo megardonand:

Du chiz anduh az dil ba berun barad:

Rukhi dustu ovozi mardi khirad.

Va:

Zadan mardro chub bar tori khesh

Bih az bozgashtan zi guftori khesh!

«Ofarinnoma», barhaq,  badi «Kalilavu Dimna» va «Sindbodnoma»-i Rudaki, duvumin masnavii dastrasi pandivu akhloqi ba zaboni tojiki buda, sunnati adabii Rudakiro    davom medihad.    CHunonchi, dar sabki piri shuaroi Ajam, dar sitoishi    khirad Abushakur chunin mefarmoyad:

Hiradmand guyad khirad podshost,

Ki bar khosu bar om farmonravost.

Hiradro tani odami lashkar ast,

Hama shahvatu orzu chokar ast!

Abushakur bo iftikhor izhor medorad, ki ba tufayli qalami khud har qadare zaru nuqra khohad, metavonad  paydo bikunad, ki daleli qadru qimati balande doshtani sheru shoir – khomavu sukhan dar on zamonaho meboshad:

CHu dinor boyad maro yo diram,

Faroz ovaram man zi nugi qalam!

Abushakur, bo vujudi istedodu maqomi balandi adabii khud, shakhsi furutane budaast, ki khazinai behududi ilmu donishro faro girifta boshad ham, onro hamesha nokifoya meshumoridaast:

To bad-on jo rasid donishi man,

Ki bidonam hame, ki nodonam!

Dar khaqiqat, inson har qadare, ki donishu ilmro beshtar faro girad, hamon qadar ba kashfi navi asrori olamu odam shavqmandtar meshavad. Abushakur donishomuzii payopayi maqsadnokro, khususan dar javoniyu kudaki, taqozo mekunad, chun muallimi akhloq qadru mavqei jamiyatii insonro ba darajai ilmu donishu hunari u medonad:

Bad-on kush, to zud dono shavi,

CHu dono shavi, zud volo shavi!

Na donotar on kas, ki volotar ast,

Ki volotar on kas, ki donotar ast!

Ba aqidai Abushakur, donishro dar ovoni kudakivu javoni (barnoi) faro giriftan zarur ast:

Ba hangomi barnoivu kudaki

Ba donish tavon yoftan ziraki.

Kase, ki donishmand meshavad, dar jamiyat arjmand megardad, zero donish ast, ki mushkilihoi insonro oson mekunad:

Kase, k-u ba donish barad ruzgor,

Na u bozmonad, na omuzgor.

Jahonro ba donish tavon yoftan,

Ba donish tavon rishtanu boftan!

SHoir khavfi hujumhoi ajnabiro ba sarzamini khud ba nazar girifta, pand medihad, ki insoni haqiqi boyad hamesha az dushman barhazar va nisbat ba on oshtinopazir boshad:  

Ba dushman – barat ustuvori mabod,

Ki dushman darakhtest talkh az nihod!

Darakhte, ki talkhash buvad gavharo,

Agar charbu shirin dihi mar varo,

Hamon mevai talkh orad padid,

Az u charbu shirin nakhohi mazid!

Har qadar dushmanbadbiniro talqin namoyad, hamon andoza qadri dustu dustiro bolo mebardorad. U durust mefarmoyad, ki dust gamgusoru madadgor, pushtu panohu quvvati dili har inson ast. Dar dunyo az dusti bihtar nimati manavie nest. Hulosai shoir pandest guvoro baroi avlodash:

SHavad dust az dust orosta,

CHu bo emani mardum az khosta.

Hama chiz piri pazirad, bidon,

Magar dusti, k-on bimonad javon!

Az jihati suftagi, purmazmuni va soddagi hikmathoi Abushakur hukmi maqolu zarbulmasalro giriftaand.

Abulabbosi Rabanjoni. Mavzei Rabanjon dar nazdikihoi Bukhoro (mavzee az sarzamini Sugd) joy girifta budaast. Abuabdullohi Fazl ibni Abbos yo SHaykh Abulabbosi Rabanjonii Bukhoroi, ba qavli sohibi «CHahor maqola» , dar vatani khud bo shoiri nom barovarda, sipas ba doirai adabii Somoniyon roh meyobad. Az osori u hamagi shash bayt boqist, ki dar marsiyai Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni (914—943) suruda shudaast:

Podshohe guzasht hurnajod,     Podshohe nishast farrukhzod!

3-on guzashta zamoniyon gamgin,

3-in nishasta jahoniyon dilshod!

Bingar aknun ba chashmi aqlu bigu,

Har chi bar mo zi Ezid omad, dod!

Gar charoge zi peshi mo bardosht,

Boz shame ba joyi u binhod!

V-ar Zuhal nahsi khesh paydo kard,

 Mushtari niz dodi khesh bidod!

Abulmasali Bukhoroi az hamsuhbatoni Abulmuayyadi Balkhi va Sipehrii Bukhoroi buda, bist bayti u to zamoni mo rasidaast. Qasida, masnavi va gazal meguftaast. Pandu andarz, akhloq va sitoishi ishq mundarijai osori Abulmasal ast:

Kase beayb nabvad dar zamona,

Rutabro rasta boshad dar miyona!

CHu gardad ogah khoja zi kornomai man,

Ba shahriyor rasonad sabuk chakomai man.

Abulhasani Lukari Ali ibni Muhammadi Gaznavi nomu nasab doshta, shoiri nimai duvumi asri X buda, changro neku menavokhta va ba Lukarii CHangzan maruf budaast. Zodgohash Lukar ast az shahrhoi nazdiki Marv. Abulhasan Nuh ibni Mansuri Somoni va vaziri u Ubaydulloh ibni Ahmadro madh meguftaast. SHoiri qasidasaro va gazalgu buda, az guftori u 19 bayt dastras shudaast, misli:

Ubaydulloh ibn Ahmad — vaziri shohi Somoni, Hametobad shuoi dod az on purnur peshoni!                Ba surat odami omad, ba mani nuri subhoni,      Hudoyo, chashmi bad khoham, k-az on surat bigardoni! Bukhoro khushtar az Lukar, Hudovando, hamedoni, Valekin kurd nashkebid az dugi biyoboni!

Muvofiqi gufti Muhammad Avfi, Abulhasani Lukari dar adabiyoti forsu tojik qasidai tamommatlaro asos guzoshtaast, ki namunai on abyoti bolost.

Abulabbosi Abbosi az shoironi asri X ast, ki nomash dar qasidai Manuchehri, ki dar sitoishi Unsurist, zikr megardad (on qasidaro qablan yod karda budem). Asadii Tusi dar «Lugati dari» az u abyoti ziyode meorad. Dar kitobi «Ashori hamasroni Rudaki» 66 bayti Abulabbosi Abbosi darj shudaast, ki mazmunhoi liriki-ishqi, porchahoi hamosi, shikvoyi, madhi va hajviro faro megirad. Az hamin abyot malum megardad, ki dar sohahoi gunoguni sher dasti qavi doshta, az shoironi zabardaste budaast, ki az jihati sabki nigorish guftori u ba guftahoi Rudaki bisyor ham nazdik ast:

Zi khonu monu qarobat ba gurbat aftodam,

Bimondam on jo besozu bargu angushto!

SHeri Abulabbos az janbai akhloqu pand va hikmat niz kholi nest:

Taboe gar sutuni tu, sutunro ham bipusad bun,

Napusad on sutun hargiz, k-ash az toat zani koza!

Abulabbosi Abbosiro az shoironi Movarounnahr guftaand.

Abulmuayyadi Balkhi dar zamoni Nuh ibni Mansur (976—997) zistavu ejod kardaast. Dar javoni suhbati Rudakiro daryoftaast. SHoiru nosiru jugrofidon buda, asari mansurash «Ajoib-ul-buldon», «SHohnoma»-ash, ki qismati «Garshospnoma»-ro hovist, dostoni «YUsufu Zulaykho»-yash malum ast. To zamoni mo bist bayti Abulmuayyad, ki dalerivu nakukoriro targib menamoyand, rasidaast, ki abyoti zerin az on jumlaand:

Dalere, ki tarsad zi paykori sher,

 Zani zoj khonash, makhonash daler!

YO:

Malul mardumi kolusu bemahal boshad,

Makun, nigoro, in khuvu tabro bigzor!

Tohiri CHagoni az umaroi CHagoniyon buda, ba qavli Avfi, uro ashori latifi obdor ast. Munjiku Daqiqi az darboriyoni u budaand.

Abulmuzaffari Tohir ibni Fazl ibni Muhammad soli 987 favtidaast. Az u 27 bayt boqi mondaast, ki asosan az gazalu ruboi iborat buda, dar mavzui ishq, shikoyat az nosomonihoi ruzgor va zindagii talkh bahs mekunand:

Dilam tang dorad bad-on chashmi tang

Hudovandi deboi firuzarang!

Ba chashm u gavazn astu raftor kabk,

Ba kushish chu gur astu kibr u palang!

Sukhan guftanash talkhu shirin du lab,

CHunon, k-az miyoni du shakkar sharang!

Abulfavorisi Fanoruzi az Fanoruz nom mahalle dar qaribihoi Samarqand va nomu nasabash Abulfavorisi Hoja Amid buda, dar  ahdi Nuh ibni Mansuri Somoni, soli 339 hijri (950—951 melodi) «Sindbodnoma»-i hindiro ba dari gardondaast. Asli asari Abulfavoris az bayn rafta, tahriri jadidi Zahirii Samarqandi (asriHP) to zamoni mo boqist, ki dar Istambul (1948), Tehron (1953) va Dushanbe (1971) nashr shudaast.

Abualii Balkhi. Abuali Muhammad ibni Ahmad, bino bar gufti Aburayhoni Beruni dar «Osor-ul-boqiya», yake az adibonu muarrikhonest, ki «SHohnoma»-ro ba zaboni forsi ba nasr nigoshta, ki tarikhi shohoni Ajamro az Kayumars to Sosoniyon faro megiriftaast. Lekin nuskhahoi on aknun mafqudand.

Abuziroai Gurgoni. Abuziroa Muammarii Gurgoni shoiri nimai duvumi asri X buda, dar okhirhoi hukmronii Davlati Somoniyon ba darbor roh yofta, qasida mesurudaast. Az u 11 bayt boqi mondaast. U hamon kasest, ki dar borai Rudaki gufta bud:

Agar ba davlat ba Rudaki namemonam,

Ajab makun, sukhan az Rudaki na kam donam!

Agar ba kurii chashm u biyoft getiro,

Zi bahri geti man kur bud natvonam!

Abuziroa shoirest dunyobezor, ki shoyad azobu kulfati ruzgor uro ba chunin holat rasonida boshad. Mumkin ast, ki navmediyu yas dar sheri Abuziroa yak priyomi adabi boshad:

Jahonshinokhta gashtam ba ruzgori daroz,

Niyozu noz bididam dar in nishebu faroz.

Nadidam az pasi din hech bihtar az hasti,

CHunonki nest pas az kofiri batar zi niyoz!

Harchand   Abuziroa   ba   Rudaki   monand   nabudani khudro ibroz medorad, abyoti boqimondai u bo sherhoi Rudaki va Abushakuri Balkhi khele hamohangand:

CHi pushi javshani gaflat, ki ruze

Tu boshi tiri mihnatro nishona!

Amal bo umrat-andar nih ba miyor,

Nigah kun, to kujo gardad zamona!

Abuishoqi Juybori. Juybor az mahallahoi Bukhorost. Ismi shoir Ibrohim ibni Muhammad buda, az kasbi dehqoni tamini ruzgor mekardaast. Manzarahoi tabiat bo holati psikhologii qahramoni liriki dar sheri u tavam tajassum yoftaand:

Ba abr pinhon kard oftobi tobonro,

Ba sabza binhuft on lolabargi khandonro.

Ba suyi har du mahash bar du shokh rayhon bud,

Ba shokhi murd bipayvast shokhi rayhonro.

Bute, ki khastadilonro ba busa darmon ast,

Dareg dorad az in darddida darmonro.

Ba abri nayson monam kunun man az gami u,

Sazad, ki sanati khub ast abri naysonro.

Ba yak guzar, ki sahargoh bar guliston kard,

Bihisht kard sarosar hama gulistonro!

Az ofaridahoi Abuishoqi Juybori hamagi haft bayt boqi monda boshad ham, malum meshavad, ki u sherro pukhta,  bo sanathoi  farovoni badei  va sukhanhoi suftavu sara meguftaast.

Daqiqi. Abumansur Muhammad ibni Ahmadi Daqiqi az sukhansaroyoni buzurgi asri X meboshad. Soli tavalludi u aniq malum nest, vale azbaski vafotash soli 978 voqe gardida, ba rivoyate dar vaqti margash 47-sola budaast, soli 931-ro zamoni tavalludi u shumurdan imkon dorad. Dar kitobhoi tarikhu tazkira, ki sharhi holi shoironro faro megirand, uro az Samarqand, Marv, Tus va Hirot guftaand. Ammo olimi buzurg Aburayhoni Beruni (973—1048), ki muosiri Daqiqi bud, Balkhro zodgohi Daqiqi yod mekunad.

Binobar hamin, soli 1978, ba munosibati 1000-solagii ruzi vafoti u khotirai Daqiqi bo Qarori makhsusi YUNESKO (Muassisai baynalkhalqii farhangii nazdi Sozmoni Milali Muttahid) tajlil gardida, Balkhi budanash etirof karda shud. Sababi samarqandi, marvazi, tusi va hiroti donista shudani u on ast, ki Daqiqi dar Bukhoro va CHagoniyon, ki hamchun viloyat vodii Hisori imruza va yo hozira viloyati Surkhandaryoi Uzbakistonro faro megirift, niz zindagi kardaast.

Daqiqi ovozi khushi saroyandagi doshta, az ilmhoi zamoni khud ogoh buda, hamchunin, zabonhoi arabi, pahlavi va sugdiro khub medonistaast. Payravi oyini boboyonash buda, mazhabi zardushti doshtaast. Parastishi mazhabi zardushti va, umuman, mayl ba ananahoi madanii milli, on vaqtho khele purquvvat shuda, dar asri dah yak nav istiqloljuyii khalq az tasiri arabho va ztiroz nisbat ba mafkurai tabaqai hukmron bud.

 Zardushtiyone, ki dar on zamon boqi monda budand, chun odamoni bomarifat ba guzashtai ajdodi khud, makhsusan zabon, urfu odat, etiqod va tarikhi on dilbastagii benihoyat doshtand. Mahz az mubadon — peshvoyoni oyini zardushti, ki donandayu nigahdorandai tarikhi khalq budand, chandin varianti «SHohnoma» navishta girifta shuda bud.

 Daqiqi niz dar masalai az nav zinda kardan va ba nazm darovardani dostonhoi qahramonivu tarikhii khalqhoi eroninajod, ki tojikon az on qabiland, khizmati arzandae kardaast. Vay pesh az Firdavsi bo suporishi amiri Somoni Nuh ibni Mansur, ki solhoi 975—997 hukumat rondaast, ba nazmi «SHohnoma» sar mekunad. Nazmi «SHohnoma» baroi on ba Daqiqi supurda meshavad, ki hanuz dar javoni hamchun shoiri tavono, donandai zabardasti guzashtai puriftikhori khalq, dustdori fidoii obu khoki sarzamini khud shinokhta shuda bud.

 Daqiqi az «SHohnoma» qismati dostoni Gushtospro ba nazm medarorad, ki murakkab az hazor bayt ast. Mazmuni dostonro sharhi podshohii Gushtosp, paydoishi Zardusht, janghoi mazhabii Gushtospu Arjosp, ki podshohi Turon ast, tashkil medihad. Daqiqi Turonro dar Hitoy medonad. Azbaski Daqiqi sarguzashti Gushtospro naql mekunad, «SHohnoma»-i uro «Gushtospnoma» niz guftaand.

«Gushtospnoma» yo «SHohnoma»-i Daqiqi bo nazmi mahkami soddayu ravonu purmani insho shudaast. Dar on goyai istiqloli manavi, siyosi va iqtisodi vobasta ba muhofizati Vatan va sharafu nomusi khalq ba miyon guzoshta meshavad. Hamchunin, goyai ba davlati markazi az ruyi vijdon itoat kardani gumoshtaho dar viloyatho targib karda meshavad. In kori najibi Daqiqi ba sababi margi u, ki az tarafi mukholifoni goyavivu mazhabiash tashkil karda shuda bud, qat gardid. Ammo nazmi «SHohnoma» qat nashud, zero manfiati halqu vazi siyosii kishvar, ki dar khavfi tahdid va tajovuzi ajnabiyon monda bud, zarurati muhofizati Vatan va kushishi zinda gardonidani rasmu oyini guzashtagon talab mekard, ki nazmi «SHohnoma» davom doda shavad. Ba in amri pursharaf Firdavsii buzurg kamar basta, kori sarkardai Daqiqiro davom dod. Firdavsi qismati nazmkardai Daqiqiro az jihati mazmun, goya va sheriyat pisandida, onro aynan ba «SHohnoma»-i khud bo nomi sohibash hamroh namud.

Firdavsi «SHohnoma»-ro dar vazni intikhobkardai Daqiqi davom dod, ki mutaqoribi musammani maqsur buda, manoi musamman hashtgona va manoi maqsur kutohshuda meboshad. In vazn dar asrhoi minbada chun vazni dostonhoi qahramoni, ki dar adabiyotshinosii umumijahoni dostonhoi epiki va ba tojiki dostonhoi hamosi meguyand, rasm shud. Vazni kutoh va ruknhoi barobari on nazmi in nav dostonhoro langardor va purhashamat jilvagar menamoyad.

Daqiqi dar navhoi digari sher niz asarhoi barjasta ofarida, sohibi devoni azime budaast. Devoni Daqiqi farogiri qasida, gazal va qita budaast, ki hamai onho ba janri liriki dokhil meshavand.

Qasidayu gazalhoi Daqiqi namunahoi behtarini nazmi asri X tojikro tashkil medihand. Hudi u niz ishorae dorad, ki dar in du navi sher mashhur budanashro ifoda menamoyad:

Maro jued zi chandin sheri shohon,

Zi chandin oshiqona sheri dilbar!

Daqiqi dar navhoi digari sheri tojiki niz asarhoi barjasta ofarida, dar onho zeboihoi mashuqa, shujoatu daleri, husni bahor, jilvahoi tabiat va amsoli inhoro tarannum mekunad:

Kosh, ki andar jahon shab nesti,

To maro hijroni on lab nesti!

Zakhmi aqrab nesti bar joni man,

Gar varo zulfi muaqrab nesti!

V-ar nabudi kavkabash dar zeri lab,

Munisam to ruz kavkab nesti!

V-ar murakkab nesti az nekuvi,

Jonam az ishqash murakkab nesti!

V-ar maro be yor boyad  zistan,

Zindagoni, kosh, yo rab, nesti!

Bar zammi ohangi gushnavozu ruhparvar, tasiri emotsionalii gazali boloro nidoi «kosh, ki» va «kosh», majozi «zakhmi aqrab» («aqrab»-kajdum, «muaqrab»-kajdummonand)-i zulf, majozan ba manoi dandon istifoda shudani «kavkab» (sitora) barjasta ba nazar merasonand, ki shakli zeboi sherro bo mazmuni dilraboi on khele muvofiq kardaand.

Daqiqi dar surudani ashor az tashbehu istiora, majozu kinoya va muqobilguzori ziyod istifoda mebarad. Hamai vositahoi ejodi badeii u sodda, zamini, didashavanda, fahmo va ba idrok nazdik meboshand, misli:

SHabi siyoh bad-on zulfakoni tu monad,

Saped ruz ba pokii rukhoni tu monad!

YO:

Ba zulf kaj, valekin ba qaddu qomat rost,

Ba tan durust, valekin ba chashmakon bemor.

Vale na hamai ashori Daqiqi shodob az suvari khayoli didashavanda meboshand. Ba porasheri poyon tavajjuh farmoed:

Barafkand, ay sanam, abri bihishti,

Zaminro khilati urdibihishti!

Bihishti adnro gulzor monad,

Darakht- orosta huri bihishti!

Zamin bar soni khunoluda debo,

Havo bar soni nilanduda vashti…

CHunon gardad jahon hazmon, ki guyi,

Palang ohu nagirad juz ba gushti!

Professor Rasul Hodizoda khotirnishon menamoyad, ki «tasviri bahor dar in sheri Daqiqi bo obrazhoi mujarrad (abstrakti) sokhta shudaast: abri bihishti, khilati urdibihishti, bihishti adn, huri bihishti-hama tasvir va tashbehhoi abstrakti va aqloniand, ki ehsosi onho ba tarzi jismoni nomumkin ast. Dar bayti okhirin boshad, Daqiqi tashbehi nihoyat pushida (ba iborai ilmi badei klassiki, «tashbehi muzmar»)-ro ba kor burdaast, ki chigunagii vazi tabiatro tasavvur kardan dushvor ast: jahon, yane tabiat, — meguyad shoir,— har zamon chunon digargun meshavad, ki gumon mekuni palang ohuro dar gushti ba changash medarorad. Dar in jo shoir shoyad onro dar nazar doshta boshad, ki havo misli palang dar vaqti ba ohu daraftodan khashmolud (tiragii abr) meshavad va dar qahr megurradu sadoi purkhashm mebarorad».64

Hushbakhtona, miqdori chunin abyot dar ashori boqimondai shuaroi asri X khele ba nudrat ba chashm merasad.

Barobari in, Daqiqi qasida, gazal, ruboi, qita va dubaytihoi zeboi purmuhtavo niz gufta, liriki mohire bud:

Daqiqi chor khislat barguzida

Ba geti az hama khubivu zishti:

Labi yoqutrangu nolai chang,

SHarobi lalu keshi zarduhishti!

Nihoyat, Daqiqi qurboni dasisai dushmanoni davlati Somoni meshavad: gulomi turkash uro ba qatl merasonad.

Qasidavu gazalhoi Daqiqi dar asrhoi bad shuhrati ziyod doshtaand, vale yodgori jovidoni u hamon «Gushtospnoma»-i vay ast, ki yak  bakhshi  «SHohnoma»  va  sarmashqi   Firdavsi  dar  bunyodi asari    hamnomi bezavoli u gardidaast.

Ammorai Marvazi. Abumansur ibni Muhammad marvaziyulasl buda, dar bayni solhoi 1004—1014 az olam guzashtaast. U marsiyae dorad, ki dar  sugvorii okhirin  podshohi sulolai Somoni – Abuibrohim ibni Nuh ibni Mansur (997—999) gufta shudaast. Dar sitoishi Sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi niz madhiyae dorad. Muvofiqi malumoti sarchashmaho, az Marv berun naraftaast. Bayti u «Andar gazali khesh nihon khoham gashtan, — To bar labi tu busa zanam, chun-sh bikhoni» dar doirahoi ahli tasavvuf khele shuhrat doshtaast, ki in holatro kitobi «Asror-ut-tavhid fi maqomoti SHaykh Abusaid» takid kardaast.

Az Ammora 108 bayt aknun dar dast ast, ki az zavqi balandi u darak medihand:

On zogro, nigoh kun, chun meparad?!

Monandi yake qirgun chalipo!

YO:

Bo changi sugdiyonavu bo boligu kabob

Omad ba khoni chokari khud khoja bo savob.

Andarzu nasihatu hakiqat barkhe az abyoti  Ammoraro ba gunai digar zeb medihand:

Garra mashav bad-on, ki jahonat aziz kard,

Ay bas azizro, ki jahon kard zud khor!

Mor ast in jahonu jahonjuy morgir,

Az morgir mor barorad hame dimor!

Vasfi may, sitoishi mamduh,  andarzu hikmat    va shukhi muhtavoi abyoti digari Ammora meboshand:

CHaro, ki khoja bakhilu zanash javonmard ast?!

Zane, chi guna zane?! — Simsoidu lunba!

Tasviri manoziri tabiat niz dar guftori Ammora latifu neku ba nazar merasad:

Jahon zi barf agar chand goh simin bud,

Zumurrad omadu bigrift joyi tudai sim.

Bahorkhonai kashmiriyon ba vaqti bahor

Ba bog karda hama naqshi kheshtan taslim.

Ba davri boda hama ruyi nekuvon, guyi,

Pashiz sokhta az gul ba pushti mohi shamim!

Barrasii abyoti boqimondai Ammora nishon medihad, ki mavsuf az shoironi zabardasti zamonash va dar ejodi qasidavu masnaviyu gazal ustod buda, ashorash na faqat dar zamoni zindagiash, balki minbada ham  dar  bayni  aqshori gunoguni jomia shuhrat doshtaast. Sufii nomi

Abusaidi  Abulkhayr  (967—1014)   mazmuni   orifonai bayti zayli Ammoraro base mepisandidaast:

Andar gazali khesh nihon khoham gashtan,

To bar labi tu busa zanam, chun-sh bikhoni!

Abutayyibi Musabi. Nomi shoir Muhammad ibni Hotam, kuniyatash Abutayyib va takhallusash Musabi meboshad. Vafotash soli 938 ittifoq aftodaast. Az shoironi hamkoru hamnishini Rudaki buda, ba zabonhoi arabi va forsi sher menavishtaast. Bo Balami dusti mevarzidaast. Ba joyi Balami ba mansabi vazorat nishastani Jayhoniro namekhostaast. Az sababi khilofi amri amir baromadan kushta meshavad. Saolabi ashori ziyodi arabii Musabiro dar «YAtimat-ud-dahr» darj kardaast.

Qasidai forsii u boshad, bo ohangi tanqidii khud tafovut dorad:

Jahono, hamono fasuniyu bozi,

Ki bar kas napoyivu bo kas nasozi!

Abushuaybi Haravi. Ismi in adib Solih ibni Muhammad buda, zodgohash Hirot ast. Az guftori Abushuayb 14 bayt boqi mondaast, ki janbai ishqi dorand:

Duzakhikeshe, bihishtiruyu qad,

Ohuchashme, halqazulfe, lolakhad!

Silsilajade,   bunafshaoraze,

K-ash Siyovush afdaru Parviz jad…

Gar bibakhshad husni khud bar zangiyon,

Turkro, beshak, ba zang oyad hasad!..

Bashshori Margazi ham ba forsi va ham ba tozi sher meguftaast. Az u qasidae boqi mondaast, ki doroi 31  bayt astu monandi qasidai «Modari may»-i Rudaki az tarzi tayyor kardani    sharob    va khususiyathoi shodibakhshi on qissa mekunad:

Razro Hudoy az qibali shodi ofarid,

SHodivu khurrami hama az raz buvad padid!

Az javhari latofati mahz ofarid raz,

On k-u jahonu khalqi jahonro biyofarid…

Anguri toki u nagirad, vasfi u shunav,

Vasfi tamom guft, zi man boyadat shunid!

SHokiri Bukhoroyi. Nomu nasab, jarayoni zindagi, soli tavalludu vafot va navishtajoti u malum nest. Az on ki faqat dar «Lugati dari» va ««Al-mujam» az guftori u 35 bayt iqtibos shudaast, malum megardad, ki shoiri tavonoe budaast. Vasfi sharob, sitoishi mashuqa, tarannumi ishq, madhu sito, pandu hikmat, tanzu shikoyat, nakuhishi chizparasti mazmuni asosii abyoti dastrasi SHokiri Bukhoroiro tashkil medihand:

Ruyi maro hajr kard zardtar az zar,

Gardani man ishq kard narmtar az dukh.

Dukh- hamon lukh, yane pakholi tibitmonandest, ki az bargi nay mebaroyad.

Dar madhi kase meguyad:

Ba gome sipard az Hito to Hutan,

Ba yak tak david az Bukhoro ba Vakhsh!

Ravnaqi iqtisodiyot, shukufoii mamlakat, rivoji adabiyot, rushdi hunarhoi zebo va inkishofi sokhti davlatdorii Somoniyon dar ahdi in khonadon kishvari moro dar hududi Hilofati Arab dar surati davlati khele mumtoz jilva dod, ki dar natija tarikhnigoron va ahli ilm ba maqomi voloi Oli Somon dar tarikhi eroninajodon qoil shuda, naqshi muhimmi davlatashonro dar tarikhi mardumoni oriyoinasab etirof kardaand Hanuz soli 1353 h. sh., ki barobari soli 1974 ast, duktur Azizullohi Bayot — ustodi Donishgohi «SHahid Bihishti» dar Tehron gufta bud: «Agar Somoniyon ba jahonbini namerasidand, Eronu eroni chunon dar tamaddunu zaboni tozi mustahkam meshud, ki imruz chun Misru SHimoli Afriqo va Suriyavu Iroq juzvi qalamravi zabonu tamadduni arab ba shumor meraft».65 Buzurgivu azamati in khonadonro az in bihtaru rushantar ifoda kardan imkon nadorad, harchand gunae az onro bisyor muhakqiqoni qablu bad az in ham bayon kardaand.

Hakim Maysarii Sugdi az tabiboni shoirpeshai Sugd buda, ba forsii dari va arabi chandin kitob doshtaast. Soli 324 hijri (935 melodi) zoida shuda, asari marufi khudro taqriban dar 47-solagiash anjom bakhshida, nomi onro khudash «Donishnoma» meguyad, ki dar bahri hazaji musaddasi mahzuf, ba zaboni forsi, insho gardida, dar asl  4500 baytro faro megiriftaast. Nuskhai yagonae, ki az on boqi mondaast (Kitobkhonai millii Poris, № — 7799 — 3101) ba khatti nastaliq, soli 852 khijri (1448 melodi), kitobat shuda,66 hovii 4481 bayt ast. Kotibash Mahmudi Tabrezii «SHohnoma»-khon meboshad. Ba gufti khudi  muallif,  u soli 367 hijri ba talifi noma pardokhta,  soli  370  ba  itmomash rasonidaast67, ki ba solhoi 978 va 981 melodi rost meoyad:

 

Biyanjomid «Donishnoma»-i man,

Baromad z-u murodu komai man.

Ba soli sesadu haftod budem,

K-az in noma hame pardakhta shudem…

Man az du bistu du se burguzashtam

Va devoni javoni barnavishtam.

         Va:

Man in guftorro andom dodam,

Va «Donishnoma» avval nom dodam.

Man inro guftam andar mohi shavvol,

Ba shastu sesadu haft omada sol.

Ba forsi, na arabi, surudani «Donishnoma»-ro muallif in tavr sharh medihad:

Biguyam tozi, arna porsi nagz,

Zi har dar man biguyam moyavu magz.

Va pas guftam:-Zamini most Eron,

Ki besh az mardumonash porsidon.

V-agar tozi kunam, neku naboshad,

Ki har kasro az u neru naboshad.

Dari guyam-sh, to har kas bidonad,

Va har kas bar zabonash — bar bironad.

Kunun piri khiradmandash bikhonad,

Hama rohi pizishki z-u bidonad.

Dar borai mamduhi khud meguyad, ki sohibi khirad, donish, neki, charbguyi, dod, nekkhuyi, mardi, savori, rodi va burdborist.68

«Donishnoma»-i Maysari az lihozi sabki nigorish, mazmunhoi akhloqi va pandiyotash loiqi tavajjuh ast. Maysari tamomi donishro ba chahor bakhsh: sitorashinosi, handasa, tib va ilmi din judo namuda, izhori aqida mekunad, ki inson nujum (sitorashinosi) va hayatro nadonad ham, metavonad zindagii khub guzaronad. Ammo be donistani tib, ki asosi zindagi va vositai omuzishi ilmi din ast, zindagi ba vahshoniyat tabdil megardad. Maysari mefarmoyad:

Sutuni har chi az donish chahor ast,

Du z-on hamvora mardumro ba kor ast.

Nakhustin z-u sitora, k-ash bidoni,

Hama oyinhoi  u bikhoni.

________________________

 

Bidoni sar ba sar raftori uro,

Zi nekiyu badi kirdori uro.

Digar donish, turo guyam, kadom ast,

Mar uro handasa zi Rum nom ast.

SHumurdan, garna paymudan-sh bunyod,

Jahon az donishi u hast obod!

CHi choh astu chi boloyu baland ast,

Burun orad ba paymudan, ki chand ast.

Savum donish pizishki — donishi tan,

Ki tanro doshtan bihtar zi javshan!

CHahorum donishi dini khudoyi,

K-az u yobad tan az duzakh rahoyi!

Sitora gar nadoni, z-u guzir ast,

V-agarchi donishi khubu hajir ast,

Jahon paymudan archi sudmand ast,

 Ham on kas, k-ash nadonad, begazand ast.

Pizishkirovu dinro gar nadoni,

Ziyon ast injahonu onjahoni!

YAke tanro zi bemori bisuzad,

Digar jonro zi donish barfuruzad!

Sitoishi dono va qadri donishmand mazmuni asosii bisyor bobhoi dastonro faro megirad. Maysari fikri khudro bo guftori shakhsiyathoi buzurgi tarikh (Paygambari akram, Nushervoni odil, Hazrati Ali ibni Abetolib) taqviyat medihad. Az jumla, «Qadri inson az ruyi donishi ust» (Naku guftast Nushirvon ba khonish, — Ki mardumro buvad arzish ba donish) meguyad u, dar asosi pandi Anushervon, ki Hazrati Ali ham dar hamin mani farmudaast: «Mardumro baho chandon, ki donad».

 Az in guftaho ba khulosae omadan mumkin ast, ki na aslu nasab va irqu najod boisi imtiyozi inson ast. Bar zammi donish, ba inson neki varzidan obru mebiyorad (Hama neki kunad, neki sigolad, — Zi neki bar pushaymoni ki nolad?). Kas metavonad az nekivu nakukori ba saodati har du jahon noil gardad (Ba neki yobad in har du jahon mard, — Kase didi, ki bar neki ziyon kard?). Digar, guftori khub, rosti, sakhovat niz az khislathoi pisandidai insonist (Agar nonat naboshad ganduminruy, —Sukhan bore ba khon-bar gandumin guy!). Bedodi, zulm va javr, dar andeshai hakim Maysari, nishoni notavonist.

Muallif dar mavridi tashrehi badan tamomi amrozi malum va doruhoro bayon mekunad. Ba qavli u, gayr az piri va marg, iloji hamai ranjho mavjud ast:

Valekin margro chora nadonam,

Ba joyi marg bechora  bimonam.

Ba vasilai «Donishnoma» hakim Maysarii Sugdi sunnati Ustod Rudakiro dar bakhshi surudani masnavihoi ilmi payravi va rivoju dastgiri namuda, ananai tanzimi masnavii «Davroni Oftob»-ro idoma dodaast.

Kisoyii Marvazi, chunon ki az nisbaash barmeoyad, zodai shahri Marv ast. Abulhasan Majduddin Ishoq nom dorad. Az shoironi nimai duvumi qarni X – nimai avvali qarni XI meboshad. Soli tavalludashro bo ruzu moh khudash 27 shavvoli 341 hijri qayd mekunad, ki ba 17 marti soli 953 barobar ast:

Ba sesadu chihilu yak rasid navbati sol,

CHahorshanbavu se ruz monda az shavvol,

Biyomadam ba jahon, to chi guyamu chi kunam,

Surud guyamu shodi kunam ba nimatu mol!

Ba qavli Said Nafisi, u qarib sad sol hayot dida, taqriban soli 1049 az dunyo guzashtaast.

Kisoyi shoiri khele tavonost. Gazalu qasidaro neku meguftaast. Vasfi mayu mashuqa, holati oshiq va zuhuroti gunoguni ishqro tarannum mekunad, ki in mazmun muhtaviyoti gazalgunaho va tashbibi qasidahoi uro tashkil medihad:

Qomati chun sarv ravonash nigar,

On labi shirinu zabonash nigar!

Kushishi on chashmi siyohash bibin,

Hushshiyi on tang dahonash nigar!

Kisoyi ustodi chihranigorivu manzaranigorist. Obrazho va suvari khayoli u khele ravshan ba chashm ayon buda, az kamoli mahoratash darak medihand:

Nilufari kabud, nigah kun, miyoni ob

CHun tegi obdodavu yoquti obdor!

Hamrangi osmonu ba kirdori osmon,

Zardish dar miyona chu mohi dahu chahor!

CHun rohibe, ki du rukhi u solu moh zard

V-az mitrafi kabud rido kardavu izor!

Dar asri X rang kardani muy odat (shoyad odati ahli darbor) budaast, ki Kisoyi niz ba on ishora dorad:

Az khizobi manu az muy siyah kardani man

Gar hame ranj khuri, besh khuru ranj mabar!

Garazam z-in na javonist, bitarsam, ki zi man

Hiradi pir bijuyandu nayoband asar!

Kisoyi ba khotir meorad, ki dar ahdi Somoniyonu Balamiyon zindagi, chunon ki dar zamoni Mahmudi Gaznavi shud, nabud. Albatta, u khele bad shudani zindagi, betartibi va rivoji bozori zulmu javrro dar nazar dorad, ki Rudakivor meguyad:

Ba vaqti davlati Somoniyonu Balamiyon

CHunin nabud jahon, bonihodu somon bud.

Ashori rangorang va anvoi gunoguni sheri Kisoyi daleli qudrati shoironai ust, ki abyoti zerin daleli ravshani davostand:

Gul nimatest hadyafiristoda az bihisht,

Mardum karimtar shavand andar naimi gul.

Ay gulfurush, gul chi furushi baroi sim?!

Az gul aziztar chi sitoni ba simi gul?!

Jaman az Kisoyi aknun taqriban 260 bayt dastras ast.

Abulabbosi Imomi niz az shoironi okhiri asri X — ibtidoi asri XI buda, muallifi «Al-mujam» SHamsi Qaysi Rozi dar isboti harfi ravii qofiya du bayt az u misol meorad:

Du chashmak pur zi bandi chashmbandon,

Du yoqutak hamesha khand-khandon!

YAke mar tandurustonro gamu dard,

YAkero suy  dardi  dardmandon!

 

Abulfathi Pindor ham az shoironi hamin zamon ast. Nomi uro Abulfath Kamoliddin ibni Abunasr Hotiri Rozi (vaf. 1010) qayd kardaand, ki chande dar doirai adabii Majduddavlai Daylami (997—1029) shirkat varzida, ba zabonhoi pahlavi, arabi va dari sher meguftaast. Kitobi lugate ham doshtaast bo nomi «Muntakhab-ul-furs», ki az on dar ayni zamon madrake dar dast nadorem.

Du bayti zerin az jumlai 54 bayti boqimondai merosi ustand, ki baso maqbulu Rudakivor ofarida shudaand:

Lahni uro manu bayti pahlavi,

Zakhmai   rudu samoi  khusravi!

Va:

Mushkinkilke, saru bunboloe,

Vo du chashmi shahloyu chi shahloe?!

Abulhasani Ogoji Ali ibni Ilyos nom doshta, zodgohash Bukhorost. Soli 977 uro ba darbori Nuh ibni Mansuri Somoni davat namudand. Ba arabi va forsi sher meguftaast. Uro shoiri sohibdevon guftaand, vale imruz devonash az bayn rafta, holo az on faqat 39 bayt dar dast dorem, ki dar nosozgorii ruzgor, avji bozori zulm, beqadrii ilmu hunar va amsoli in suruda shudaand:

Turo fazilat bar kheshtan tavonam did,

Valek fazlat nomardumistu bekhiradi!

Abuabdullohi Valvolaji. Abuabdulloh Muhammad ibni Solehi Valvolaji, ki maruf ba Navoehiyi Marvazi bud, dar ahdi Somoniyon shoiri ustod shinokhta shudaast. Az merosi adabii u du qita dubayti boqist, ki yake in ast:

Simdandonaku basdonaku khandonaku shukh,

Ki jahon on-k bari mo labi u zindon kard.

Labi u biniyu guyi, ki kase zeri aqiq

Ba miyoni du gul — andar shakare pinhon kard!

Abunasri Margazi az shoironi asri X buda, Asadii Tusi dar «Lugati furs» in bayti uro zikr mekunad:

Nestiro hast kunad tunbali u,

Hastiro nest kunad farhastash!

Munjiki Tirmizi. Nomash Abulhasan Ali ibni Muhammad buda, bo laqabi Munjiki Tirmizi maruf ast. Ba shahodati muallifi «Tarikhi ehyo-ul-muluk» Munjik nomi yake az qariyahoi sharqii shahri Tirmiz buda, shoir bo nomi zodgohi khud va Hakim Munjik shuhrat paydo kardaast. Soli tavalludu margi u ravshan malum naboshad ham, az qarinaho metavon ba khulosae omad, ki dar nimai duvumi qarni X ba shoiri pardokhta, chande dar doirai adabii hukmroni CHagoniyon Tohir ibni Fazli CHagoni shirkat varzida, faoliyati adabiro davom dodaast.

Munjik az shoironi sohibdevon ast. Ba qavli Nosiri Husravi Qubodiyoni, devoni Munjik dar Movarounnahru Huroson dargard buda, onro dar Ozarboyjon niz mekhondaand. Qatroni Tabrezi chand joyi nofahmoyashro az Nosiri Husrav pursida megirad.

Munjik gazalu qasida va ruboivu qita dorad, vale dar hajvu tanz bemonand budaast. Ba mahorati hajvnigorii Munjik Muhammadi Anvari va tazkiranigoroni badina bahoi baland medihand. Az jumla, Rizoqulikhoni Hidoyat menavisad: «Munjik marde tezzabon, hazloyin, tundtab, zabonovari boligu nuktadon bud, ki kase az tiri tabash narastivu az kamandi hajvash najasti; sinai ahli kinaro ba hijo khastivu dasti ahli zabonro ba kamandi hazl basti».69

Bo kamoli taassuf metavon taqid kard, ki az merosi ganii Munjik namunahoi kame to zamoni mo rasidaand, ki dar «Ashori hamasroni Rudaki» hamagi 517 bayti on gird ovarda shudaast. Namunae az on:

Ay majlisiyoni hazrati shoh,

Daryoi shumo nahang dorad!

Az bahri Hudo, maro bigued,

To noni shumo chi rang dorad?!

Pandi  digar:

CHaro-t rish daroz omadaastu bolo-t past?!

Muhol boshad bolo chunonu rish chunin!

Dar zarurati tabibi dono va vaziri botadbir  mefarmoyad:

Baso tabib, ki moya nadosht, dard afzud,

Vazir boyad, mulki hazorsola chi sud?!

Vaziri nav sitadi, k-u zi royi bemani

Ba gushi mulk – andar fikand karri zud.

CHu mulk kar shavadu nashnavad murodi malik,

Du chiz boyad – dinori zardu tegi kabud!

Robiai Balkhi nakhustin shoirai forsu tojik, dukhtari Kab buda,  dar asri X zindagi va ejod kardaast. Uro barodarash dar javoni bo gunohi ishq dar hammom bugi karda kushtaast. Robia ba Bektosh, ki gulomi barodarash bud, dil basta bud. Sarguzashti shurangezi Robiai Balkhi bisyor adibonro ba ilhom ovardaast. SHoiri buzurg SHaykh Attori Nishopuri (asri HSH), Rizoqulikhoni Hidoyat (asri XIX) va chand navisandai hamzamoni Tojikistonu Afgoniston dar borai u asarhoi badei navishtaand.

Robia dar surudani ashori oshiqona ustod buda, sherhoi ishqii Rudakiro sarmashqi ejodi khud qaror medodaast. Az guftori Robia ba ovardani faqat yak namuna iktifo mevarzem:

Kosh-k tanam boz yofti khabari dil,

Kosh-k dilam boz yofti khabari tan!

Kosh-k man az tu birastame ba salomat,

Oy, afsuso, kujo tavonam rastan?!

Aksari adiboni digare, ki dar in asr ruz bz sar meburdand, niz sohibi shuhrati khos buda, az Bukhoro, Balkh, Marv, Samarqand, CHagoniyon, Tirmiz, Hirot, Sarakhs, Gurgon va Nishopur barin shahrho va bisyor muzofoti Movarounnahru Huroson mansha girifta, beshtarinashon dar Bukhoro, ki dar ahdi Somoniyon markazi buzurgi ilmivu adabi hisob meyoft, jam omada budand. Dar zamonhoi badina kam ba nazar merasad, ki dar yak asr in qadar sukhanvaroni sohibmaqome ba kamol rasida boshand, ki sohibi tabi salim va istedodi fitri boshand.

Adabiyoti  asrhoi  IX—X tojik az jihati  mavzu nihoyat gani buda, mavzuhoi asosii on az inho iboratand: muborizai abadii neki bo badi, hikmat, falsafa, pand, hasbi hol, madh, hajv, tanqidi illathoi jamiyat, hazl, ishq, hamosa, rukhdodhoi tarikh, doston, qissa, vasfi tabiat, vasfi Navruzu Mehrgonu Sada, shodboshi va gayra. Mahz dar hamin zamon talabi estetikie pesh guzoshta shuda bud, ki sher boyad dar qolabi sukhanhoi fahmo bo javhari mani orosta gardida, hikmatu lazzat doshta boshad. Hususan, mavzuhoi muhofizati Vatan. muboriza bar ziddi istilogaroni khoriji, taloshi istiqlol, bo nazari ibrat ba guzashta va sobiqai qavmho nigaristan va sitoishi obu khoki diyor dar adabiyoti in davr baland sado medihand. Kofist, ki yak bayti Firdavsiro ba khotir ovarem:

Hama sar ba sar tan ba kushtan dihem,

Az on bih, ki kishvar ba dushman dihem!

Zero shoiri jahonshumul, alhaq, durust mefarmoyad:

Hama mulki Eron saroyi man ast,

Ki neku badash az baroyi man ast!

Baroi chunin Vatan bedareg jon dodan mearzad. Bar boloi in, sunnati achdodii mo budaast, ki murdani banomro az zinda  budan dar bandagivu  khidmati dushman avlotar meshumorad:

CHunin guft mubad, ki murdan ba nom

 Bih az zinda dushman bar u shodkom!

Pandu andarzu nisihat, khususan talimi odobi nek, targibi insofu adolat, sitoishi hunar va vasfi ilmu donish, tavsifi khirad, tarannumi dusti qismati barjastai adabiyoti asri H-ro tashkil medihand.70 In mavzu dar osori Rudaki, SHahidi Balkhi, Abulmuayyadi Balkhi, Abulhaysami Gurgoni, Munjiki Tirmizi, Abushakuri Balkhi baquvvattar ba nazar merasad. «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Rudaki ganjinai hikmat budaast. Adiboni hamzamoni Rudaki ilmu donishro sarvati bebahoi manavi, najotdihanda az tangdasti va mahrumiyatho donista, etirof mekardand, ki jamiyat hamesha ba ilm ehtiyoj dorad. SHakhs boyad dar kudakiyu javoni ilmu hunar az khud kunad va to zamone, ki zinda ast, az omukhtan gofil namonad. Maqomi shakhs dar jamiyat ba donish, adab va hunarn u vobasta ast, na ba aslu nasab.

Tanqidi illathoi jamiyat, nobarobarii ijtimoi, fasodi akhloq va    hazlu    shukhi   dar    guftori   Rudaki,    Ammora,   Kisoyi,    SHahid,  Abushakur, Habboz (vaf. 953)  va Munjik beshtar ba nazar merasad. Onho az shikamparastii sarkardagon, beadolatii hokimon, bemuruvvatii amaldoron, tangdastii ahli donish va holi badi ahli zahmat shikva mekunand. Ba qavli SHahidi Balkhi,

Agar gamro chu otash dud budi,

Jahon torik budi jovidona.

Dar in geti sarosar gar bigardi,

Hiradmande nayobi shodmona!

SHoironi in davra hangomi tasviri insonu tabiat dar bayni onho irtiboti hayratangezero dark namuda, baroi ifodai fikri khud az on mohirona istifoda burdaand. Tashbehho, tazodho, vasfho va istiorahoi tabii hama az in du manbai jahoni moddi girifta shudaand. Rudaki mefarmoyad:

CHamani aqlro khazoni agar,

Gulshani  ishqro  bahor  tuyi!

Ishqro gar payambari, lekin

Husnro ofaridagor tuyi!

SHoironi asri X khususan dar tavsifi jilvahoi bahor, nigorishi manzarahoi tiramoh va tasviri lahzahoi zimiston ustodivu hunarmandii hayratovare nishon dodaand. Dar in guna tasvirhoi eshon kas tabiati zindai hamesha dar nahzatu harakatro mebinad.

Dar gazalu tagazzul va nasibhoe, ki dar onho sukhan az ishq meravad, lazzati ishq va kayfu safoi oshiq az in lazzatgiri tarannum meyoband, ammo az hijron, firoq va dardi judoi osore ba nazar namerasad, zero kanizon va gulomoni turk, ki kharida meshudand, dar har mavrid bemalol metavonistand, ki chun vositai dilkhushi istifoda gardand (Ay kharidor, man turo ba du chiz: — Ba dilu jonu mahr doda zabun). In mashuq metavonad mardi lashkari boshad. Binobar hamin, chobuksavori, berahmi, gazabnoki, nooshnoi va soyiri sifathoi jangovarona chun sifathoi khubi mashuq vasf karda meshavand.

Tahriru jam ovardan va sara namudani «SHohnoma» dar asri X ehtiyoji manavii khalk bud, ki ba sababi ziyod shudani khavfi hujumi kuchmanchiyon bar ziddi Davlati Somoniyon, az bayn raftani istiqloliyati milli va nizohoi dokhili ruz ba ruz meafzud, toraft beshtar tavajjuhi ahli qalam va mardoni siyosatro ba khud jalb mekard. Soli 957, bo suporishi sarlashkari Somoniyon Abumansur Muhammad ibni Abdurazzoq, chandin mubadi zardushti «SHohnoma»-e murattab sokhtand, ki chun «SHohnomai Abumansuri» mashhur gasht. Soli 983 Abulmuayyadi Balkhi va badi se soli u Masudii Marvazi «SHohnoma»-hoi khudro talif namudand. Iqdomi Daqiqi dar in joda qadami jiddie bud, ki  baroi ejodi «SHohnoma»-i Firdavsi roh kushod.

Qissayu dostonho dar navu qolabi masnavi talif meshudand. Dostonhoi qahramoni, hamosavi (epiki), ishqi va akhloqi dar hamin navi nazm ejod gardidaand. Haft masnavii Rudaki, az jumla «Kalilavu Dimna» va «Sindbodnoma», se masnavii Abushakuri Balkhi (tav. 915), ki yake az onho «Ofarinnoma» ast, «SHohnoma»-i manzum, «YUsufu Zulaykho»-i Abulmuayyadi Balkhi namunahoi barjastai dostonsaroyi va qissapardozii on zamon ba hisob meravand. Dar tarkibi nomi aksari onho omadani juzi «noma» ba doston budanashon ishorat mekunad. Mahz dar asri X avvalin dostonhoe, ki mavzuashon,  misli     «Donishnoma»-i Maysari, ilm ast, ba maydon omadand, ki asosguzori in navi doston niz Ustod Rudaki buda, masnavii u «Davroni Oftob» roje ba ilmi nujum (astronomiya) budaast.

Navi  az hama rivojyoftai  nazmi  asri  X qasida bud. Mavzui qasida beshtar madhu vasf, gohe falsafa, shikoyat, hasbi hol va gayra meboshad. Asosguzori qasidai mukammal dar adabiyoti forsi, chunon ki ishora shud niz Ustod Rudakist. Bisyor shoironi davr qasida navishtaand. Az jumla, Majduddin Abdulhasan Kisoyii Marvazi (953—1049) niz ba surudani qasidahoi falsafi, akhloqi va hikmatomez mashgul budaast. Tanho qismati muqaddimavii qasidahoyash mavjudand, ki ba vasfi bahor, ishq, javoni, khushguzaronii umr, jashnu idho va amsoli inho bakhshida shudaand.

Gazal  ham chun  navi pisandidai  lirika inkishof meyoft, ki bo musiqi aloqai zich doshta, asosan bo ohang suruda meshud. Ustodoni in navi sher dar asri X  Rudaki, SHahid, Daqiqi, Robia, Husravoni, Munjik va digaron gazalhoi khudro bo mazmunhoi oshiqona, vasfi bahor va lazzathoi zindagi orosta, dar ifoda sukhanhoi narmu tashbehoti nozukro istifoda kardaand.

Buzurgtarin hamosai  millii dunyo «SHohnoma»  meboshad, ki tahriri avvali onro Abulqosimi  Firdavsi soli 994 ba okhir rasonda bud. In asar bo azamati hajm (120 hazor misra), sanati baland va mazmuni oli mumtoz  buda, tarikh,  falsafa,  akhloq,  aqoid,  muqaddasot,  odob  va  pindori  eroniyonro oid ba    ofarinishi olam,  sirishti  odami,   mohiyati   rukhdodhoi  tabiat,   maqomi jonu khirad dar zindagii

mardum qissa mekunad.71

Muallifi «SHohnoma»-i bezavol Abulqosim Mansur ibni Hasan Firdavsi soli 934 dar dehai Boji nohiyai Tabaroni viloyati Tus dar oilai ashrofzodai zamindor, ki on vaqtqo dehqon meguftand, ba dunyo omadaast. Vay dar madrasa ulumi zamonaro amiq omukhta, zaboni pahlavi, oyini zardushti, aspsavori, tirandozi, shamsherzani, gushtingiri va ilmi harbro azbar karda bud. Ammo diqqati uro besh az hama tarikhi niyogon ba khud mekashid. Az ovoni javoni    sher meguft, qissayu afsonahoro  jam   mekard.   Bo  in   maqsad shahru  dehoti ziyodro   gasht,   «Avasto»,   «Hudoynoma»   va   amsoli   inhoro omukht va soli 975 ba talifi «SHohnoma» shuru namuda, qarib 20 sol ranj burd, to ki tahriri  nakhustini onro  ba  itmom  rasonad. Vale  vazi  kishvar  chunon noorom  bud, ki Firdavsi natavonist shohasari khudro  ba  hokime taqdim  dorad.  Dar in  miyon, soli 999, Davlati Somoniyon az bayn rafta, Movarounnahr ba dasti Qarakhoniyon guzashta, dar Gaznin Sulton Mahmud  (998—1030)    hukumati    khudro    poydor      kard. Firdavsi asari khudro az nav tahrir karda, dostonhoi  navero ba  on  ilova    namuda, jo-jo    ba  sitoishi Mahmudi Gaznavi pardokht va tahriri okhirini onro, ki solhoi 1010—1014 anjom doda bud, ba Sulton Mahmud peshkash namud. Vale Mahmud peshkashi shoirro napaziruft. CHaro? Baroi on ki Firdavsi tarikh, etiqodot, keshu oyini eronihoro sitoish namuda, khalqro davat menamud, ki bar ziddi ajnabiyon, gosibon, hokimoni benajodu badasl ba nabard barkhezad. Hamchunin, Firdavsi Zahhokro chun arab ba qalam doda, Kovusu Afrosiyob barin shohoni Turonu turkro chun aqraboi Ahriman tasvir mekunad. Ba gufti shoir, Mahmud,

CHu andar taborash buzugi nabud,

Nayorist nomi buzurgon shanud!

Firdavsi, badi dilozurdagiho va ovoragardiho, soli 1021 dar zodgohi    khud    olamro   padrud   guft.  Uro   dar   bogi   padarash  ba  khok supurdand. Inak on jo oromgohi muhtashame qad afrokhtaast. Mujassamahoi shoir dar Tus, Tehron va Dushanbe qad afrokhtaand. Dar Tojikistonu Eronu Afgoniston sadho kuchayu khiyobon, maktabu muassisai ilmi va gayra nomi Firdavsiro giriftaand, ki kokhi shuhratu muhabbatu siposashro begazand nigah medorand.

«SHohnoma»-i Abulqosimi Firdavsi az lihozi shaklu mazmun asari tomu mukammali badei buda, dar on sarguzashtu tarikh va voqeahoi rivoyativu tarikhii 50 podshohi Eronzamin, az Kayumars to zamoni Sosoniho, Nushervoni odil va YAzdigurdi SH bo badeiyati baland tasvir shuda, tadrijan padid omadani fuluzot, kishovarzi, zuhuri paygambaron Zardushtu Moni va Mazdak, muborizai quvvahoi neki bo hidoyati Ahuramazdo va neruhoi badi bo sarparastii Ahriman, nabardi Kovai ohangar bar ziddi Zahhoki Moron, ki tukhmi insoniyatro az ruyi Zamin nest kardan mekhost, jori gardidani jashnhoi milli (Navruzu Sadavu Mehrgon), muboriza alayhi jahlu nodoni va amsoli inho bayon megardad. Zararu  ziyoni manmani (dar misoli Jamshed), barodarkushi (dar misoli Erajro nobud kardani Salmu Tur), oqibatu zararhoi johtalabi (dar misoli janghoi Eronu Turon, bo igvo pisaroni khudro kushtani Rustamu Afrosiyob) va gayraro takid, goyahoi podshohi odil, sulhu osoish, fuqaroparvari, muhofizati obu khoki Vatan va hifzi nangu nomusro targib mekunad. Rustamu ajdodu avlodi u, zanoni daler Gurdofarid va Manijayu Farangis baroi bakhtu saodat talosh mevarzidand. Ramz bo bazm va hamosa bo sitoishi khirad, tarannumi ishqu akhloq omekhta tasvir meyobad; talosh bo devho, nabard bo Zahhoku Afrosiyob, muboriza bo lashkari arab va, nihoyat, hajviyai Firdavsi dar haqqi Sulton Mahmud qadri shoirro dar nazari khalq volo megardonad. «SHohnoma» doroi va iftikhori tamomi insoniyat ast. Haq ba jonibi Firdavsist, ki gufta bud:

Namiram az in pas, ki man zindaam,

Ki tukhmi sukhanro parokandaam!

SHoir Kisoyii Marvazi vazi falokatboru nobasomoni zamon, ruzgori puroshub va kasod shudani bozori sherro dar Bukhoro mushohida namuda, bo afsusu nadomat gufta bud:

Ba vaqti Davlati Somoniyonu Balamiyon

CHunin nabud jahon, bonihodu somon bud.

Dar borai sheri zamoni Somoniyon metavon boz chandin sahfai digar navisht, vale az in mohiyati masala digar nameshavad. Faqat manzarai on rangintar jilva menamoyad. Ammo vazi adabiro biduni barrasii nasri on tasavvur kardan az imkon berun ast. Binobar hamin, yak nigohi mukhtasar ba nasri on zamon meandozem.

Nasri badeii forsu tojik zodai asri X ast. Mahz dar hamin asr, khususan dar ahdi Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni   (914—942)    va Nuh ibni Mansur    (977—997), nasri forsii tojiki na tanho tavlid yoft, balki ba poyai balandi inkishof rasid. Ammo doirai gustarish va taraqqiyoti on    ba darajai nazmi on zamon nest. Se navi nasr dar  asri X malum  bud:  YAkum, asarhoi mansure, ki az gird ovardani rivoyatho, qissayu afsonaho, tarikhnomaho va  voqeanomahoi peshin tasnif shuda budand. Namunai mumtozi on hamon «SHohnoma»-hoi mansur meboshand, ki mashhurtarini onho ba qalami  Abulmuayyadi   Balkhi   mansub   budaast.   «SHohnoma»-hoi  Abuali  Muhammad ibni  Ahmadi Balkhi va shoir Abumansur Muhammad ibni Abdurazzoq niz malumu mashhur budaand. Kitobhoi «Akhbori Bahman», «Akhbori  Faromarz»,  «Akhbori   Rustam»,  «Kitobi   Garshosp», «Akhbori Somi», «Akhbori Kayqubod» az hamin silsila   asarho   meboshand.   Hamchunin,     «Akhbori   Rustam»-i Ozodsarv,  «Akhbori  Narimon»,  «Akhbori  Som» va amsoli inho    malum    budaand. Asari    digare, ki dar in    qolab ba  vujud omadaast,    «Marzbonnoma»-i Marzboni    pisari    Rustam    ast, ki    ba    lahjai   tabaristoni talif gardidaast. In navi asarho beshtar dar shakli qissa andar qissa navishta shudaand. Hikoyathoi khurd asosan dar dokhili asarhoi qissa andar qissa va asarhoi tarikhi joy doda meshudand.

Duyum, kitobhoe, ki az zabonhoi pahlavi, arabi, hindi va gayra tarjuma shudaand. YAk namunai khubu khurdi in nav asarho «Zafarnoma»-i Abuali ibni Sino dar oyini davlatdori meboshad, ki badho nomi «Piruznoma»-ro girift. Asli on az pandu hikmathoi adlu dod va akhloqii Buzurgmehri Bakhtagon (asri VI) iborat buda, Abuali ibni Sino onro soli 997 az pahlavi ba forsii dari gardonidaast.

Seyum, nasri fanni, yane asarhoe, ki roje ba sohahoi gunoguni ilm, khususan tarikhu jugrofiya va fiqh talif gardida, dar onho hikoyatu rivoyathoi adabi niz naql karda meshavand. «Tarikhi Balami», «Tarikhi Siston», «Dar ahkomi fiqhi Hanafi», «Ajoib-ul-buldon»-i Abulmuayyad, «Hudud-ul-olam» (soli tal. 984) va amsoli inho az on qabiland.

 Nasri asri X az takalluf va iboratoroyii suni bari bud. Dar on jumlahoi kutoh, ki magzi sukhanro ifoda mekunad, beshtar ba kor raftaandu kalimahoi arabi khele kam ba nazar merasand.

Dar okhiri asri X — ibtidoi asri XI dar Eroni Garbi niz adabiyoti forsi arzi vujud namuda, dar Gurgon, Ray, Isfahon, SHeroz va gayra base inkishof yofta bud, ki ananavu sunnathoi Rudaki, Munjiku Daqiqi va amsoli onhoro omukhta, idoma medodand va Movarounnahru Huroson chun markazi adabiyotu farhang va hunari forsi boqi mondand.

Dar asrhoi XI—XII, aniqtarash badi barham khurdani Davlati Somoniyon va barqaror shudani davlathoi Gaznaviyon va gayra, yane az okhiri solhoi asri X to panjyaki avvali asri HSH, to zamoni istiloi mugul, chandin bor doirahoi navi adabiyot tashkil shudandu az bayn raftand. Har goh davlate tasis meshudu shahrero poytakhti khud intikhob mekard, on jo doirai adabi shakl megirift. Adibonu olimon dar on marokizi farhangi gird meomadand. Barobari barham khurdani davlatho marokizi madani ham az bayn meraftand va yo khele zaif meshudand. Albatta, dar viloyatho, khususan dar shahrhoi kalon, hamesha konunhoi adabi gardon budand. Vale raviyai purquvvatro hamesha adabiyoti markazho tashkil mekard, zero, bar zammi on ki dar markazho tasisi doirai adabiyoti darbori rasm shuda bud, dar onho hunarmandon, ahli shahr va ziyoiyon cham meomadandu az baynashon adibon ba voya merasidand.

CHaro adabiyoti in davra adabiyoti navin va poyai taraqqiyoti adabiyoti minbadai forsu tojik nomida meshavad? CHunki to in zamon adabiyoti tojik yo ba zabonhoe, ki badan az bayn raftaand, navishta shudaast, yo ba zaboni arabi talif gardidaast, ki baroi khalq begona budand. Az asri IX sar karda adabiyoti tojik ba zabone ofarida meshavad, ki bo on imruz ham mardumi mo guftugu menamoyand. Zaboni osori Rudaki, Daqiqi, Firdavsi, Abuali ibni Sino va digaron az jihati tarkibi lugavi, tabiru iboraho, vositahoi tasvir, sokhti sarfivu nahvi va tarzi talaffuz az zaboni hozirai adabii tojik chandon farqe nadorad. Bar zammi in, ananoti asosii adabiyoti tojik dar hamon zamon ba vujud omada, minbad inkishof yoftand. Asosi nazariyavii adabiyoti tojik va tobishhoi zeboparastii on dar hamon davra guzoshta shudaast. Janrho va anvoi asosii adabiyoti mo dar nasru nazm — qissa andar qissa, hikoya, qasida, gazal, ruboi, qita, masnavi, khelhoi gunoguni doston mahz dar hamin qarnho tavlid gardida, ba nizom darovarda shudand va minbada takomul yoftand. Vazni aruz va tarzi hatmii qofiyabandii khos baroi har yak navi sheri tojiki niz dar hamin davra ustuvor gardid. Hamai in payvandhoi nogusastanie meboshand, ki adabiyoti asrhoi IX— H-ro bo tamomi adabiyoti badinai mo payvast menamoyand va tamomi in adabiyotro chun yak adabiyoti tomi doroi qonunho, talabho, hadafho va ananahoi ustuvor jilva medihand.

Tavlid, sabzish va takomuli adabiyoti tojik dar asrhoi IX—X zaminahoi khosi tarikhi dosht, ki muhimtarinashon az inho iborat budand: tashakkuli khalqiyati tojik, tasisi davlathoi mustaqili tojikon, boloravii khudshinosii mardum, hamchun zaboni adabiyotu ilm maqom yoftanu chun zaboni davlatii rasmi qabul gardidani zaboni forsii dari, inkishofi shahrho chun marokizi ilmu hunar va savdo, dastgirii hokimon az ahli adab va amsoli inho.

Toza budani mazmunho, ravonii fikr, soddagii kalom, tabii budani zabon, baroi zehn guvoro budani vositahoi tasvir, ki dar yakjoyagi sahli mumtanero ba vujud meorand, khosi nazmi asri X meboshand. Sahli mumtane manoi soddagii balandmazmunu zeboyii dushvorofarinro dorad, ki du namunai zerin az nasri asri X isboti guftahoi bolo buda metavonand:

 «To jahon bud, mardum girdi donish gashtaand. Va sukhanro buzurg doshtavu nekutarin yodgori sukhan donistaand. CHi andar in jahon mardum ba donish buzurgtar va moyadortar. Va chun mardum bidonist, k-az vay chize namonad, bad-on kushad, to nomi u bimonad va nishoni u gusasta nashavad» (Az muqaddimai «SHohnomai Abumansuri»).

«CHunin guyad Ibni Mutei Balkhi, ki dar Hinduston… darakhtest bar sari kuhe dar miyoni daryo va miyoni on darakht chihil dar khona astu dah dar dukon dar sitabri on darakht. Va dukonho hamesha puri matohovu qumoshhost gunogun. Va bar har matoe bahoi on navishta, to har faqire yo amire va har kas, ki matoe khohad, bikharad, va har jinse ba chand. Va on jo hech mardum naboshand, chunon chi eshonro binand. CHun kishti on jo rasad, bidorandu dar on dukonhovu khonaho ravandu narkhho barkhonand, baho barsanjandu binihand va on mato bardorandu biravand. Va hargiz kas on jo mardum nadidaast. Va agar kase chize bargirad va baho on jo nanihad, az miyoni on darakht berun natavonad omadan. Va harchand, ki gardand, rohi berun omadan nayoband. CHun matoro boz jo nihand yo bahoi on binihand, roh yobandu berun oyand. Va in sakht azob ast» (Az «Ajoib-ul-buldon»-i Abulmuayyadi Balkhi).

Dar nazmi in davra tashbehhoi khayoli, tavsifhoi  vahmi,  muboligahoi az  fahm  dur,    iborahoi muglaq dida nameshavand. Tanho baze kalimahoyashon kuhna shudaand. Masalan, dar bayti zerin irtiboti holu monandihoi tabiatu inson khele ravshanu binovu tabii ba qalam ovarda shudaand:

Sarv ast on yo bolo? Moh ast on yo ruy?

Zulf ast on yo chavgon? Hol ast on yo guy?

Va yo:

Abr hame giryad chun oshiqon,

Bog hame khandad mashuqvor.

Rad hame nolad monandi man,

CHunki binolad ba sahargoh zor.

Barhaq, shoironi asri X khususan dar tasnifi jilvahoi tabiat beshtar dodi sukhan dodaand. Az hamin nuktai nazar ba barfiyai zerini Abulhasani Ogoji tavajjuh farmoed, ki khele shoirona nigoshta shudaast:

Bar havo darnigar, ki lashkari barf

CHun kunad andar u hame parvoz:

Rost hamchun kabutaroni safed,

Rohgumkardagon zi haybati boz!

Adabiyoti asrhoi IX—X bo ejodiyoti dahanakii khalq aloqai mustahkame dosht. Az osori khalqi qissayu afsonaho, zarbulmasalu maqolho va tabirhoi khalqiro megirift. Ohangnokii surudu taronaho va chakomahoi khalqi namunai ibrati adiboni buzurg budand. Dar navbati khud, bisyor asarhoi ustodoni sukhan mazmunan va yo dar shakli hikmat ba folklor guzashta, moli khalq meshudand.

Adabiyoti asri IXX, ki zodai Movarounnahr — sarzamini nozanini tojikon ast, bo tamomi muvaffaqiyathoyash asosi minbadai taraqqiyoti adabiyoti klassikii tojiku forsro tashkil dodaast. Buzurgii bisyor sukhanvaroni on davr imruz ham etirof karda meshavad. Avvalin sabki on — sabki movarounnahri (turkistoni) dar hamin davra ba vujud omad. Mahz dar hamin davra vazni aruz ba khususiyathoi zaboni adabii tojik — forsii darii onruza muvofiq gardonida shud.

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