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ANTISEPTIKA

anticeptikaANTISEPTIKA (Antiseptica; az anti… va yun. septikos – maddanok), majmui tadbirhoest baroi bezarar gardonidani jarohat va tamomi on chi ki hangomi muolija istifoda meshavad. A.-ro bar ziddi bakteriyahoe, ki ba jarohat vorid shudaand, kor mefarmoyand, az in ru on beshtar ahamiyati tabobati dorad; aseptika boshad, ba jarohat roh yoftani bakteriyahoro peshgiri mekunad, az in jihat ahamiyati on profilaktiki ast. To paydoishi moddahoi antiseptiki bemorihoro bo rohi jarrohi kam tabobat mekardand, zero badi jarrohi orizahoi gunogun (saromos, ufunati khun va g.) ba vujud meomadand. Bazan orizahoi jarrohi bisyor va dukhturon majbur meshudand shubai jarrohii bemorkhonaro muvaqqat bandand. On vaqtho hanuz malum nabud, ki sababgori orizahoi jarrohi mikrobho meboshand. Binobar in paydoishi orizaho ba tasiri kim-kadom mabdai bemoriovar (ba nom «miazmaho») vobasta karda meshud.
Tabiati orizahoi siroyatro dukhturi majori I. Zemmelveys va jarrohi mashhuri rus N.I. Pirogov durust dark kardand. Pirogov paydoishii «miazmaho»-ro bo jarohati gazakgirifta aloqamand mekard. Onho guyo az jarohathoi varamida, fasodnok va boftahoi mavtshuda hosil gashta, dar havoi palatahoi bemorkhona pahn meshavand va ba bemoron siroyat mekunand. I. Zemmelveys harchand zani zoyandaro manbai ufunat medonist, vale baroi muqarrar namudani mabdai kasaliovar – angezandai sepsisi badi zoish malumoti kofi nadosht. Ba aqidai u pahnkunandai ufunat na havoi palatahoi tavalludkhona, balki khudi kormandon meboshand. Az hamin sabab I. Zemmelveys bo mahluli ohaki khlornok shustani dasti momodoya va asbobhoro ba amal jori kard. Dar natija bisyor zanhoi zoyanda az tabi badi zoish emin mondand.
S. 1863 mikrobiologi fransavi L. Paster sobit kard, ki pusish va turshshavi ba faoliyati mikroorganizmho vobasta ast. Jarrohi anglis D. Lister dar asosi tadqiqoti L. Paster va mushohidahoi khud ba khulosa omad, ki sababi orizahoi ufuni (boisi favt az jarrohi megashtand) mikroorganizmhoi ba jarohat voridshuda meboshand. u avvalin shuda usuli muborizaro bar ziddi mikroorganizmho peshnihod kard va onro A. nomid (1867). Usuli mazkur ba jarohat roh yoftani mikrobhoro peshgiri va mikrobhoi ba jarohat aftodaro nobud mekard. CHun vositai bekterisidi (mikrobkush) kislotai karbolat istifoda meshud. Bo mahluli on asbobu anjomi jarrohiro bezarar megardonidand, dukhtur dastonashro pesh az jarrohi meshust, mahlulro ba khonai jarrohi meposhidand. Ammo bad malum gardid, ki kislotai karbolat zahri qotil buda, metavonad boftahoi jarohatro nobud kunad, hangomi nafasgiri boisi zahroludii organizm shavad. Lozim omad, ki az chunin antiseptik dast kashand. Ammo inkishofi A. ba tufayli moddahoi nav, ki tasirashon zudtaru zahrnokiashon kamtar bud, davom kard. Ayni zamon justujui usulhoe, ki mikrobhoro bezarar gardonandu baroi organizm beoseb boshand, ogoz yoft.
Muqarrar gasht, ki mikroorganizmho az tasiri harorati baland nobud meshavand. Jarrohi nemis E. Bergmann tarzi navi bezarar gardonidanro kashf namud va onro aseptika nomid. Muvofiqi talaboti aseptika har on chi, ki hangomi jarrohi yo zakhmbandi ba jarohat merasad, boyad tamiyzi (az mikrobhoi zinda ozod) boshad. Baroi tamyiz havoi tafson, bug va g. istifoda megardand. CHizhoe, ki ba harorati baland tob nameorand (mas., dastoni jarroh), ba tarzi «khunuk» (beshtar bo moddahoi khimiyovi) tamyiz karda meshavand. Hini aseptika bazan vasoiti antiseptikiro niz ba kor mebarand. Bo yorii mavodi A.-i hozira imkon dorad, ki baze kasalihoi angezandaashon mikrobhoi ufuni (mas., mastit) biduni jarrohi tabobat karda shavand. Vale in vositaho hamesha natijai dilkhoh nameorand. Mas., molidani mahluli spirtii yod bakteriyahoi zakhmi na on qadar chuquri pust va joi kharoshkhurdaro hamon vaqt komilan nobud mekunad, ki agar mikrobho takroran tasir narasonand. Az in ru hangomi rasonidani yorii avvalini tajili (dar asnoi yarador shudan, sukhtagi) qoidahoi odditarini aseptikiro boyad rioya kard. Dar khona nigoh doshtani matoi zakhmbandi (doka va pakhtai toza) va bint lozim ast. Masolehi zakhmbandie, ki az dorukhona giriftaand, dar surate toza (bezarar) memonad, ki agar khaltachai on nodarida yo tar nashuda boshad. Pesh az kushodani khaltacha dasthoro bo sobun toza shusta, khushk kardan va spirt yo atr molidan lozim ast. Hub meshud, ki dar khona pinset ham boshad. Onro pesh az istifoda 10 daq. dar ob mejushonand. Hangomi bastani zakhm salfetkaro boyad az yak kunjash girift (na az joe, ki ba sathi jarohat merasad). Haltachai zakhmbandii shakhsi baroi istifoda khele muvofiq ast. Dar surati nabudani masolehi zakhmbandii tamyizshuda metavon az matoi pakhtagii tozayu darzmolkarda istifoda namud. Nig. niz Zakhmband, Zakhmbandi.

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