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AFZOISH VA INKISHOFI ORGANIZMHO

Afzoish yake az khosiyathoi muhimi olami organiki meboshad. Afzoish ba hamai makhluqoti zinda, az bakteriyaho to shirkhuron, khos ast. Sababi mavjudiyati namudhoi hayvonot, rastani, bakteryaho va zamburugho, idomai nasl dar bayni volidon va nasli onho afzoish meboshad. Bo khudofari digar khususiyati khosi organizmhoi zinda, yane inkishof, niz sakht vobasta ast.

organizmho

In khususiyat baroi hamai organizmhoi zindai rui Zamin, az organizmhoi yakhujayra to nabototu hayvonoti serhujayra khos ast.

Afzoish shaklhoi gunogun dorad, vale hamai onhoro metavon ba du nav yakjoya kard – jinsi va gayrijinsi. Ivazshavii naslho va organizmhoro dar asosi hujayrahoi jansi, ki az hisobi gadudhoi jinsi paydo shudaand, afzoishi jinsi menomand. Afzoishi jinsi dar davrai tahavvulot (evolyutsiya) tarzi progressivii inkishofi organizmi nav buda, az hisobi yakjoya shudani hujayrahoi jinsii volidoni gunogun ba vujud omadaast. Dar hayvonoti

bemuhra bazan nutfa va hujayratukhm dar yak organizm pukhta merasand. In hodisaro khunsoi (germofreditizm) menomand. Rastanihoi guldor ham dujinsaand. Guli aksari namudhoi rastanihoi pushidatukhm dujinsa buda, dar onho az gardbarg jinsi narina va dar mevadon (pestik) hujayratukhm paydo meshavad. Takhminan az chor yak hissai uzvho narina (gardbarg) va modina (mevabargho) dar gulhoe ba mushohida merasand, ki bevosita az yakdigar inkishof meyoband, yane yak-jinsaand, masalan, dar rastanii kenaf. Dar baze rastaniho, chunonchi, juvorimakka, tus gulhoi narina va modina dar yak rastani joy giriftaand.

Bo vujudi in, shart nest, ki organizmi nav az hisobi omezishi hujayrahoi jinsi ba vujud oyad. Dar baze namudhoi rastani va hayvonot holathoe niz joy dorand, ki az hisobi hujayratukhmi bordornashuda organizmi nav paydo meshavad. CHunin shakli afzoishro dukhtari yo partenogenezi menomand. Hususiyati asosii afzoishi gayrijinsi dar on ast, ki fard na az hisobi hujayrahoi jinsi, balki az hisobi hujayrai jismi (somatik) paydo meshavad. In du shakli afzoishro purratar dida mebaroem.

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