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ZIYONI KASBi

zieni-kasbiZIYONI KASBi, osebi kasbi, zarari kasbi, omilhoi gunoguni mehnat va muhiti istehsolot, ki ba salomati va qobiliyati korii odam tasiri noguvor rasonda, dar baze mavridho boisi bemorihoi kasbi yo avji har guna bemorihoi digar meshavand. Z. k. dar surati nomukammalii tekhnologiyai nav, istifodai moddahoi zahrnok va rioya nakardani meyorhoi sanitariyu tekhniki ba amal meoyad.
Ba Z. k.-e, ki binobar nomukammalii tekhnologiyai istehsolot va tajhizot barmeoyad, changu gard, shavqun, navason, harorati baland va past, rutubati nisbatan balandi havo, baland yo past shudani fishori atmosferi, moddahoi zahrnok va radioaktiv, manbahoi afkanishoti ionho, mavjhoi elektromagniti, mikroorganizmho va g. mansuband. Z. k. ba jarayoni mehnat va tashkilu davomoti on niz vobasta ast, mas., asaboni va otashin shudan, khastagii chashm va shunavoii ronandagon, harakati paihamu yakrang zimni kor bo konveyer, shiddati mushakho yo kori vaznini dastgohsozon va g.
Omilhoi istehsolot, ki ba organizmi odam tasiri nomusoid merasonand, ba khatarnok va ziyonovar taqsim karda meshavand. Omilhoi khatarnok oneand, ki ba zarbu lat yoftani organizm va kharob gashtani salomati ovarda merasonand. Hangomi tasiri omilhoi ziyonovar in yo on bemori rukh namuda, qobiliyati kori past megardad. Har du omili nomburda ba se guruh – khimiyavi, fiziki va biologi judo karda meshavand.
Ba omilhoi khimiyavi bisyor moddahoi organiki va gayriorganiki, hamchunin payvasthoi onho mansuband. Onho dar havoi korgoh metavonand dar shakli aerozol, gaz va bug pahn shuda, ba tavassuti uvzhoi nafas ba rohi medayu ruda, pust va luobpardaho roh yoband.
Omilhoi fiziki harorati baland yo past, namnoki, harakati havo, yakbora tagyir yoftani fishori barometri, vibratsiya, ultrasado, shuru magal va g.-ro darbar megirand.
Ba omilhoi biologi vasoiti mikrobiologii himoyai rastaniho, antibiotikho, gormonho, mikroorganizmho, mahsuli sintezi mikrobiologi va g. taalluq dorand. Onho metavonand havoi korkhonaro iflos namuda, boisi sar zadani bemorihoi gunogun shavand.
Z. k.-e, ki ba ravandi mehnat asos yoftaast, asosan omilhoi nomusoidi psikhofiziologiro darbar megirand, mas., zur omadan binobar bardoshtani bori vaznin, ba yagon qismi badan duru daroz tasir rasondani ashyoi atrof, zur omadan ba sistemahoi organizm (khungardish, rohi sado, chashm, somea va g.), kamharakati, kori bosurat va g.
Dar mavridi naandeshidani tadbirhoi zaruri Z. k. boisi paydoishi bemorihoi kasbi meshavad. Tasiri Z. k. ba organizmi inson bo sinnu sol va jins vobasta ast. CHunonchi, ijroi hamon yak kori jismoni dar navrason mumkin mujibi tagyir yoftani silsilai dilu ragho va nafaskashi gardad, vale dar odamoni kalonsol yagon digarguni ba vujud naorad.
Nishonahoi Z. k. dar bonuvon dar tagyiri hayz, faoliyati naslovari, tavalludi kudaki nosolim ba mushohida merasad. Mehnate, ki bo bardoshtani bori vaznin, khamu rost shudan, bisyor rost istodan, dar yak vazi noqulay qaror giriftan aloqamand ast, khoh nokhoh boisi osebi mushakho, asab, ikhtiloli hayz, vayron kardani kudak, khuruji bemorihoi zanona meshavad. Muqarrar shudaast, ki hassosiyati zanho ba tasiri afkanishoti ionnok, maydoni elektromagniti, radiobasomad, surb, simob va g. nihoyat ziyod meboshad.
Bo maqsadi kam kardani Z. k. ba organizm, muvofiqi talabot ba roh mondani nizomi koru istirohat, durust tajhizonidani joi kor, ijroi mashqhoi jismoni (varzishi korgohi) ahamiyati kalon dorad.

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