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Uzvhoi hozima

Ozuqavori va moddahoi gizoi. Khurok baroi inkishof, tashakkul va faoliyati hayotii organizm sharti zaruri meboshad. Ozuqavori (non, gusht, shir, tukhm, mohi, ravgan, sabzavot, mevajot) az moddahoi asosii gizoi: safedaho, charbho, angishtobho, namakhoi minerali, ob va vitaminho iborat ast.

Mahsuloti az nabotot va hayvonot hosilshuda hamdigarro purra karda, hujayrahoi organizmro bo tamomi moddahoi zarurii gizoi tamin mekunand. Ob, namakhoi minerali va vitaminho bo hamon namude, ki dar khurok hastand, az khud karda meshavand.

uzvhoi-hozima

Molekulahoi kalon-kaloni safedaho, charbho va angishtobho az devori kanali hozima guzashta nametavonand. Az hamin sabab in moddaho duchori tajziyai khimiyavi – yane hazm meshavand. Khurok hangomi dar uzvhoi hozima harakat kardanash hazm meshavad.

Sokhti uzvhoi hozima. Sistemai uzvhoi hozima az noyi hozima va gadudhoi hozima iborat ast. Kanali hozima az kovokii dahon, halq, surkhruda, meda, rudai borik va gafs, ki bo rudai rost va surokhii maqad itmom meyobad, iborat ast.

Devori seqabata dorad. Vay az berun bo boftai mustahkami payvastkunanda pushonida shuda, dar poyoni on mushakhoi sufta mavjudand. Ba tufayli kashishkhurihoi mavjmonand khurok ba darozii uzvi hozima harakat mekunad. Pardai dokhilii noyi hozima az boftahoi epiteli iborat ast. Sathi pardai luobi chin-chin va doroi bisyor gadudhoi mayda buda, ba kovokii kanali hozima shira tayyor karda medihad.

Gadudhoi kalon berun az kanali hozima joy giriftaand. Onho shiraro bo majroi makhsus ba kovokii on mefiristand. Onho se juft gadudhoi obi dahon, jigar va gadudi zeri meda meboshand.

Ba jumlai shirahoi gadudhoi hozima fermentho – moddahoi aslan safedavi dokhil meshavand. Har yak ferment reaksiyai qatiyan muayyanro metezonad. Yak guruh fermentho karbogidratho, digarashon safedaho va seyumashon charbhoro tajziya mekunand. Moddahoi badi tajziya paydoshuda odatan dar ob hal meshavand, ki onhoro organizm az khud karda metavonad.

Usulhoi omukhtani hozima. Mushohidai bevositai uzvhoi hozima imkonpazir ast. Binobar in hazmi khurokro muddati duru daroz dar hayvonoti jarrohikardashuda meomuzand.

Fiziologi buzurgi rus I.P.Pavlov dar omukhtani fiziologiyai hazmi khurok khizmati buzurge kardaast. Vay rohhoi toza ba dast darovardani shirai medaro daryoft namuda, tarkib va miqdori onhoro muayyan karda, tarzi tanzim kardani khorijshaviashro omukht. I.P. Pavlov baroi korhoi doir ba fiziologiyai hozima guzaronidaash soli 1904 sazovori joizai Nobeli gardida bud.

Holo usulhoi bedard ikhtiro karda shudaand, ki dar odam be yagon zarar istifoda meshavand. Aksar odamon usulhoi milzani – ba kovokii medayu rudai duvozdahangushta baroi giriftani shirai medayu ruda dokhil namudani mil, yane rudai reziniro medonand. Inchunin usuli rentgenkuni vase istifoda burda meshavad: ba bemor ordobae mekhuronand, ki shuoi rentgenro nameguzaronad. Bad tavassuti ravshan kardan dar ekrani asbob tarhi qismhoi gunoguni kanali hozimaro muayyan mekunand. Dar natijai taraqqi kardani radioelektronika baroi omukhtani uzvhoi hozima imkoniyathoi nav ba vujud omadaand. Ba bemor baroi furubari radioperedatchiki khurd – radiopilyula medihand, ki qutrash 8 mm va daroziash 15 mm meboshad. Radiopilyula az kanali hozima be malol guzashta, mavji radioro pahn mekunad, ki on dar borai tagyiryobii tarkibi kimiyovii gizo, harorat yo fishori qismhoi gunoguni on malumot medihad.

Solhoi okhir baroi tadqiqi uzvhoi hozima asbobi makhsus – endoskopro istifoda mebarand. Endoskopiya – ba uzvhoi dokhilii odam guzaronidani asbobhoi optiki va nurafkan imkoniyat medihad, ki kovokii kanali hozima va hatto majroi gadud muoina karda shavad. Bo yorii in usul dukhturon metavonand bemorihoi gunogunro daryoft karda, nozuktarin amaliyoti  jarrohiro guzaronand.

Savol:

  1. Chiro hazmi khurok meguyand?
  2. Hazmi khurok chi ahamiyat dorad?
  3. Noyi hozima az kadom qismho iborat ast?
  4. Devorai noyi hozima chand qabat dorad?
  5. Kadom usuli tadqiqi va vazifahoi sistemai hozimaro medoned?
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