Home / Biologiya / Tasiri omilhoi tabiat ba jamoai nabotot

Tasiri omilhoi tabiat ba jamoai nabotot

Baroi sabzish va inkishofi rastanihoi jamoai nabotot sharoithoi muayyan lozimand. Onho khususan, ba tasiri omilkhoi mukhtalifi tabiat (rushnoi, nami, harorat, mavjudiyati namakhoi madani, gizoi) zich vobastagi dorand.

Tasiri rushnoi ba rushdu inkishofi jamoai nabotot. Dar hayoti rastaniho rushnoi yake az omilhoi muhimu asosi ba hisob meravad. Faoliyati hayotii rastanihoi sabz ba shiddatu miqdori kifoyakunandai rushnoi vobastagii kalon dorad. Rushnoi ba namudi zohirii rastani tasir merasonad. Dar sharoiti norasogii rushnoi rastani rangi sabzashro gum karda, rangi safedu zardro ba khud megirad va yo bargchahoi khurd paydo mekunad.

flora-tja

Masalan, sanavbare, ki dar joi kushod ruidaast az sanavbare, ki dar jangal ruvdaast zohiran farq mekunad. Agar sanavbari dar jangal sabzida poyai (tanai) rosti silindri (sutunmonand) paydo karda, faqat dar qismi ba nugash nazdik shokhavu navda doshta boshad, sanavbari dar joi kushod sabzida, baraks, qismi ziyodi tanaash bo shokhavu navdahoi sabz faro girifta shudaand.

Na hamai rastaniho ba rushnoi talaboti yakkhela dorand. Masalan. rastanihoi alafii dar zeri jangalhoi pakhnbarg, ki dar sharoiti rushnoii kam mesabzand (grushanka, sarakhs, dastnarason va gayra), hangomi darakhtoni tabaqai boloii jangalro buridan, bargi in rastaniho ba tasiri balandi nurhoi suzoni oftob tob naovarda, tadrichan nobud meshavand. Bo mururi zamon dar joi onho rastaiihoi rushnoidust meruyand. Misoli digar, buimodaron, khoma, saksavul, cherkez, ki rastanihoi khosi dashtu biyobon meboshand, dar sharoiti rushnoii balandi oftob khele khub nashunamo mekunand. Hol on ki onho dar sharoiti kamrushnoi nobud megardand. In rastanihoi nomburdaro rastanihoi rushnoidust yo rushnoiparvard menomand. Rastanihoi grushanka, sarakhs, dastnarasonro rastanihoi soyaparvard yo soyadust menomand. Hamin tavr, rastanihoro vobasta ba tasiri rushnoi ba rastanihoi rushnoidust va soyadust judo mekunand.

Tasiri harorat ba jamoai nabotot. YAke az omilhoi asosii muayyankunandai pahnshavii rastaniho dar rui Zamin garmi (harorat) ba hisob meravad. Garmi az samti khati ekvator ba qutbho (SHimoli va Janubi) kam meshavad. Garmi (harorati musbat) ba ravandhoi hayotan muhimi rastaniho (fotosintez, nafaskashi, obbukhorkuni va gayraho) va sabzishu inkishofi onho tasir merasonad. Bo tasiri garmi rastaniho shakli gunogunro megirand.

Hangomi az janub (khati ekvator) ba shimol harakat kardan dar har yak gradusi jugrofi harorati miyonai solona to 0,5°S past mefuroyad. Dar vaqti ba kuh bolo baromadan dar har 100 m harorat to 0,56°S past meshavad.

Tagyiroti hududii (aqalu aksari) harorati mavjudiyati (ba sabzish muvofiqi) nabotot khele ziyod ast. To ba darajai 0°S past shudani harorat baroi aksari rastaniho margovar nest. Zero dar muddati inkishofi tulonii tarikhii rastaniho dar baze guruhhoi onho mutobiqshavihoi makhsus paydo shudaast, ki baroi az harorati pasti margovar najot yoftanashon kumak merasonad.

Tasiri harorati past dar baze mavridho boisi tashakkulyobii gunogunshaklii namudi zohirii rastaniho (khobandagi dar rastanihoi darakhtiyu buttagi, bolishtakshakli dar baze rastanihoi alafi) megardad. Masalan, archai turkistoni dar domanakuhhoi Tojikiston shakli darakhti doshta, dar balandkuhho shakli khobandagiro ba khud giriftaast.

Rastaniho inchunin bo rohi paydo kardani puki gafs, khorij kardani moddahoi zifti va bo pulakchaho pushonida shudani mugjahoyashon va kutohqadi khudro az sharoiti nomusoidu nomuvofiki muhit najot medihand. CHunin shaklhoi mutobiqshaviro dar rastanihoi mamlakathoi garm va khunuk didan mumkin ast.

Baze rastanihoi guldor qobiliyati dar harorati past sabzidanro dorand. Inho rastanihoi mavzehoi balandkuh, qutbi va rastanihoi avvali bahor nashunamokunanda meboshand. Aksari onho, allakay dar zeri barf ba sabzish shuru mekunand, az in sabab onhoro rastanihoi zeribarfi niz menomand. Davrai inkishofi in rastaniho kutoh ast. To sarshavii garmi va khushkshavii havo bargu poyai onho khushk gardida, to bahori digar dar zeri khok faqat lunda, piyozak va yo reshapoyai onho nigoh doshta meshavad. Binobar on, chunin rastanihoi bisyorsolai davrai sabzishu inkishofashon nihoyat kutohro efemeroidhoi bahori menomand. Ba chunin efemeroidhoi bahori bodgul, havoboronak, hamai namudhoi piyozi qoz, lolai kuhi, boychechak, guli zafaron va digarho misol shuda metavonand.

Tasiri iami ba jamoai nabotot. Ob baroi rastaniho nihoyat zarur ast. Vay yake az omilhoi asosi va muayyankunandai faoliyati hayotii rastaniho meboshad. Ob ba tarkibi sitoplazma va shirai hujayrai har yak organizmi zinda va alalkhusus rastaniho dokhil meshavad. Be mavjudiyati ob dar rastaniho moddahoi gizoi harakat karda nametavonand, ravandi fotosintez va digar ravandhoi baroi organizmi rastani muhim guzashta nametavonand. Ba tufayli obbukhorkuni, rastani khudro az tasiri nurhoi tafsoni oftob muhofizat mekunad. Jismi rastani az 50 to 98 % ob dorad. Va hamai ravandhoi fiziologi bo ishtiroki ob meguzarand. Hamin tavr, ob (namnoki) yake az omilhoi muhimi tabii buda, ba sabzishu inkishof va pahnshavii rastaniho dar rui Zamin musoidat mekunad.

Tasiri moddahoi madani ba rastaniho. CHi tavre ki malum ast, dar khokhoi gunogunkhel rastanihoi gunogun vomekhurand. In holat ba khususiyati gizogiri va ehtiyoju talaboti rastaniho nisbat ba namakhoi madanii gunogun zich vobastagi dorad.

Rastani az khok moddahoi harkhelai madaniro jabbida megirad. Vay beshtar ba nitrogen, fosfor, kaliy va ba miqdori kami bor, mangan, ohan ehtiyoj dorad.

Tasiri organizmhoi zinda ba jamoai nabotot. Ba rushdu numui jamoai nabotot na tanho omilhoi tabiati gayrizinda (rushnoi, ob, harorat, moddahoi madani), inchunin organizmhoi zindai hamshafatashon niz tasir merasonand. Mikroorganizmho, hayvonot, inson va nabotot bo ham aloqamandona faoliyat doshta, ba hamdigar tasir merasonand.

Bo ishtiroku faoliyati hayotii mikroorganizmho dar khok ravandhoi murakkabi biokhimiyavi guzashta, moddahoi organiki ba gayriorganiki tabdil doda meshavand.

Dar tabiat aloqai mustahkam bayni rastanihoi darajai oli va past, simbioz bayni rastanihoi lubiyoy va bakteriyaho yo simbiozi obsabzu zanburugho dar gulsang mushohida karda meshavad. Ba sabzish va inkishofi rastaniho, inchunin kasalihoi zanburugi (zanburugi zang, siyohak, siyohmug va gayraho) tasir merasonand. Hususan, baze hasharotho (malakh, gambusaki Kolorado) ba rastaniho zarari kalon merasonand.

Muddati duru daroz charrondani chorvo niz boisi tagyiryobii tarkibu miqdori namudho dar margzoru dashtho megardad.

Bisyor hasharotho gardoludkunandai guli rastanihoi pushidatukhm buda, bazeashon dar pahn shudani tukhmi rastaniho (murchaho) kumak merasonand.

Dar navbati khud khudi rastaniho niz ba hamdigar tasir merasonand. Reshai baze namudi rastaniho az khudashon moddahoe khorij mekunand, ki ba faoliyati rastanihoi digar tasiri musbi yo manfi merasonand.

Rastanihoi balandqad ba rastanihoi javonu khurdjussa soyagi mekunand. Guruhi digari rastaniho (lif, tok, kadu, lubiyo va digarho) rastanihoi digari rostsabzandaro ba sifati takyagoh istifoda mebarand. Mikroorganizmho boqimondai rastanihoi bakhokaftidaro pusonda, tarkibi khokro az moddahoi gizoiyu madani boy gardonda, ba sabzishu inkishofi khubi rastaniho musoidat mekunand.

Tasiri faoliyati inson ba jamoai nabotot. Tasiri inson ba olami nabotot az zamonhoi qadim,  az vaqti paydoishash ogoz shuda, to ayni zamon davom dorad. Inson botloqhoro khushkonida, zaminhoi beobro obyori mekunad. Vay navhoi behtarinu serhosili ba kasaliho tabovarro ba vujud ovarda, baroi parvarishi onho sharoithoi muvofiq faroham meovarad. Inson ba muqobili alafhoi begona muboriza burda, ba pahnshavii rasta nihoi foidanok musoidat mekunad. Lekin faoliyati gunogunjabhai inson metavonad ba tabiat zarar ovarda, oqibathoi noguvor doshta boshad. CHunonchi, obyorii nodurust ba botloqshavi va bolobaroii namaknokii khok ovarda merasonad. In holat boisi nobudshavii rayotanihoi foidanoki kishovarzi megardad. Az buridani jangal qabati hosilkhezi khok zarar mebinad. In holat ba biyobonshavi ovarda merasonad. Hamin tavr, inson dar natijai faoliyati khud ba olami nabotot va umuman ba tabiat tasiri kalon merasonad.

  1. Baroi mavjudiyati jamoai tabiii nabotot kadom omilho zarurand?
  2. Baroi hayoti jamoai nabotot rushnoi, ob va garmi chi ahamiyat dorand?
  3. CHand foizi jismi rastanihoro ob tashkil medihad?
  4. Mikroorganizmho va hayvonot ba hayoti jamoai nabotot chi guna tasir merasonand?
  5. Tasiri baynihamdigarii khudi rastaniho dar chi zohir meshavad?
  1. Inson ba tabiat va jamoai nabotot chi guna tasir merasonad?
Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

nargis

Guli Nargis

In rastanii gulkunanda az piyozash meruyad va ranghoi gunoguni gulash hast az jumla Nargisi zard …