Home / Gunogun / TILLOI SAFED

TILLOI SAFED

Nakhi pakhta dar iqtisodi dunyo hanuz ham ahammiyati istrotejik dorad, vale qablan to kashfi nakhhoi suni, ahammiyati vijai istrotejik doshtaast. Kishvarhoi jahon qismi zakhirahoi molii millii khudro bo nakhi pakhta nigoh medoshtaand. Kishvarhoi abarqudrat hanuz ham zakhirahoi kofii nakhi pakhta dorand, zero dar zamoni jang tamini artish bo libosu palos yake az omilhoi asosii galaba ast. Ittihodi shuravi zaminhoi korami Osiyoi Miyonaro asosan ba hamin ziroat takhsis doda bud. Hayoti Tojikiston va mardumi tojik ba purragi vobastai hamin ziroat bud. Naqshi in ziroat dar iqtisodi Tojikiston on qadr buzurg bud, ki onro «tilloi safed» menomidand va dar vasfash sheru doston menavishtand. Qismi azami tavlidoti jumhuri az pakhta iborat bud. Az in sabab dar solhoi bad az poshkhurii Ittihodi shuravi ham, in ziroat asosi daromadi arzii kishvarro tashkil mekard.

Tilloi safedHamin tavr, man pakhtai on khojagiro ba shirkati «Dana- vant» furukhtam va muomilai avvalini man dar tijorati pakhta anjom shud, vale on mahz ba khotiri ruyondani qarzi mo az on kolkhoz surat girifta bud va man hanuz niyati idomai in korro nadoshtam.

Az on du khoriji, ki dar havopaymo shinos shuda budam, yakeashon – Jon Sted ruze ba Dushanbe omad va khohishi vokhurdan kard. Dar vokhuri malum shud, ki u in dafa bo maqsadi mablagguzori baroi ruyondani pakhta va kharidi on omadaast. Jon az man khohish kard, ki dar in mablagguzori shirkat kunam. Ruzi digar dar Bonki milli, ki in mablagguzori az tariqi on amali meshud, vokhurii kalon tashkil shud, ki mo – saroni chand shirkati mahalli bo namoyandagoni bonkho va shirkathoi khorijii kharidori pakhta ishtirok kardem.

To in dam dar sohai pakhta, bad az poshkhurii nizomi mab- lagguzorii shuravi, ravishero jori karda budand. SHirkati bozargonii svisi bo nomi «Reynhart» kharidori nakhi pakhtai Tojikiston bud va bonki «Kredit Svis» zeri kafolati Bonki millii Tojikiston mablagguzorii soharo az tariqi yakchand shirkati mahalli anjom medod.

SHirkati amrikoii «Danavant», ki Jon namoyandai on bud, niz mekhost bo hamin ravish qismi pakhtai kishvarro bikharad. Inho du shirkati bozargonii buzurgi pakhtai dunyo budand va namekhostand mustaqim bo kolkhozho qarordod bandand, zero hamkori bo khojagiho dardi sari ziyod dosht. Onho bo shirkathoi mahalli va in shirkathoi mahalli dar navbati khud, bo kolkhozho qarordod mebastand. Ruykhati shirkatho bo qarori hukumat tasdiq shuda, pas az on kafolati Bonki milli sodir meshud, ki zeri on mablagguzori az sui bonki «Kredit Svis» anjom megirift.

Mo bo yakchand kolkhozho qarordodi mablagguzori va kha- ridi nakhi pakhta bastem va dar muqobilash bo bonki «Kre- dit Svis» shartnomai qarzi va bo shirkati «Danavant» qarordodi kharidufurushi pakhta basta, ba kor shuru kar- dem. In qarordodho bisyortarafa buda, bonki «Kredit Svis» qarzdihanda, Bonki millii Tojikiston kafil, «Agroin- vestbonk» ijrokunanda, kolkhozho tavlidkunanda, shirkathoi mahalli sodirkunanda, shirkathoi «Danavant» va «Reynhart» kharidor budand. Muvofiqi in qarordodho avval mablagguzori ba tavri qarz anjom meshud va badan pakhta bor shuda, on qarz bargardonida meshud, ki ba istiloh, muomilai fyuchersi – mu- omilae, ki dar oyanda anjom meshavad, nomida meshud. Az in sabab, shirkathoi moro shirkathoi fyuchersi menomidand. Mo ba sohai muhimtarini iqtisodi kishvar vorid shudem, zero pakhta mahsuloti asosii sodirotii kishvar bud va qismi ziyodi aholii kishvar dar hamin soha kor mekardand.

Soli 1997 soli avvali qarordodhoi fyuchersii mo bud. Baroi har hektar ba mo 300 dollari dar zamoni ruyondan va 75 dollari baroi chidani pakhta qarz dodand. Az rui hisobi peshaki, ki dar asosi narkhi 1000 dollar baroi har tonnai nakhi pakhta hisob karda shuda bud, dar holi 2,2 ton hosil giriftan, az har hektar in qarz boyad pushida meshud. In kor nisbat ba korhoi qablii mo zahmattalabtar bud. Az in sabab, man korro taqsim karda, hamkoronro dar vazifaho masul kardam va khudam ba onho rohbari mekardam. Abdulhakim masuli taminot, Komron masuli moli, Akram nom korgari sobiqadorro mas- uli borbari tain kardam, ki har kadomi onho dar zeri dasta- shon guruhi kori doshtand. Gayr az in, muhandisi kishovarzi va timi muhosiboti niz doshtem, ki har kadom masuliyatu salohiyathoi mushakhkhas doshtand va mudiriyati korro baroi man oson mekardand.

On sol dar kishvar ba hisobi miyona az har hektar 1,6 ton hosil ba dast omad. Sababi asosii kam shudani hosil mudi- riyati badi kolkhozho bud. Raisoni kolkhozho aksaran shakhsoni tasodufi va az dehqoni dur, dar asari jangi shahrvandi ba- mansabrasida budand. Mablagguzoriro tibqi barnoma sarf nakarda, baroi niyozhoi shakhsii khud suistifoda mekardand. Agar mo bo dah-duvozdah kolkhoz qarordod doshta boshem, on kolkhozhoe, ki khub mudiriyat meshudand, az har hektar az 2 to 2,5 ton hosil girifta budand, dar hole, ki bazei digar yak tonnai pakhta jam ovardand. Az betajribagi, mo az in firebgarihoi raisoni bevijdoni in khojagiho der – dar zamoni chinish ogoh shudem, ki kor az kor guzashta bud, va in yak ton ham bo sayu kushishi kormandoni mo, ki shabu ruz dar in khojagiho megash- tandu nazorat mekardand, ba dast omad.

Gayr az in, az mohhoi oktyabr-noyabr mahdudiyati barq dar kishvar jori shud, ki korkhonahoi pakhtatozakuni az kor mondand va sodiroti pakhta to bahor aqib aftod, ki gayr az norozigii khorijihoro ba bor ovardanash, darsadi bonkii qarzro khele ziyod ba sari movu kolkhozho bor kard.

Foizi in qarz dar qarordod solona 25% navishta shuda boshad ham, dar asl to ba 40% rafta merasid. Tarhi qarordod bayni bonki «Kredit Svis» va Bonki milli muvofiqa shuda bud va mo in qarordodhoro bo sudi solonai 25% rozi shuda, imzo karda budem, vale bad malum shud, ki on kosa zeri nim- kosa doshtaast. Sudi qarz okhiri moh barovard karda shuda, ba tanai aslii qarz zam karda meshud, ki mohi digar az on ham sud meruid. Gayr az in, pardokhthoi pinhonii digare ham bud, ki doim ba tanai qarz izofa shuda, sud zoida, foizi nihoiro peshguinashavanda mekard. Voqean, kase, ki in tarhro rekhta bud, kornomai Qori Ishkambai ustod Ayniro khele bodiqqat khonda bud va beibo on hama nayrangi ustod nakuhidaro baroi khud dasturamal qaror doda bud. Dar robita bo in sudsitonii bolo, ittifoqi jolibe aftoda bud, ki hikoyatashro meoram.

Sole chand bor dar Bonki milli va «Agroinvestbonk» bo ishtiroki namoyandahoi bonki «Kredit Svis» jalasa barguzor meshud va mo dar in jalasaho masalahoi khudro matrah va hal mekardem. CHandin bor mo az namoyandai in bonk khohish kar- dem, ki masalai foizi balandi qarz va foida zoidani sudi harmoharo barrasi kunad, zero in foizho on qadr baland bu- dand, ki az qabl muayyan bud, ki har qadr pakhta ham biruyad, chize dar kishvar namemonad, balki khojagihovu shirkathoi mahalli boz ham qarzdor memonand. Aleks – namoyandai bonki «Kre- dit Svis» doim az khatar gap mezad va isbot kardani meshud, ki hatto bo in foizho hech bonke omoda nest ba Tojikiston mablagguzori kunad.

Muovini raisi «Agroinvestbonk» Goryashenko guftani mar- de bud. Dar yak jalasae, ki boz gap sari hamin vazninii foizho raft, u latifaero naql kard: «Ruze yak rus ba nazdi yahudi rafta, khohish mekunad, ki ba u yak sum qarz dihad. YAhudi mepursad, ki ba kafolat chi meguzori? Rus meguyad, ki hech chiz nadoram. YAhudi meguyad, tabari dastat chi? Rus rozi shuda, tabarashro kafolat meguzorad. YAhudi meguyad, yak sum mediham, bad az yak sol du sum karda barmegardoni. Mardi rus rozi meshavad va yak sumro girifta, raftani meshavad, ki yahudi meguyad, tu ba man badi yak sol boyad du sum bidihi, hozir yak sum dori, onro bideh, yak sumi digarro yoftanat osontar meshavad. Mardi rus fikr mekunad, ki voqean, in harfi mantiqist va yak sumro doda, az nazdi yahudi mebaroyad va ba khud meguyad, chi jolib! Tabar ham nest, pul ham nest, boz yak sumi digar qarzdor ham shudam, vale misli in ki hamaash durust ast».

Namoyandai bonki «Kredit Svis» to gushhoyash surkh shud. Soli digar – soli sevum, giriftani foiz az foizro bas kard.

Dar zaboni rusi maqole hast, ki meguyad: «Badbakhti tanho nameoyad». On sol narkhi nakhi pakhta dar bozori jahoni ba gunai besobiqa poyon raft va mo pakhtaro ba joi 1000 bo qimmati 550 – 600 dollari furukhtem. Dar natijai in se omil, on sol mo hamagi 20-30% qarzro gardonida tavonistemu khalos.

Raisoni khojagiho gayr az kishti pakhta ziroathoi digar ham kisht mekardand va on ziroathoro kase mablagguzori name- kard. Az in sabab, onho az hamin mablagguzorie, ki baroi pakhta peshbini shuda bud, ba kharji digar ziroatho niz sarf mekar- dand. Va hamesha baroi mablagi beshtar niyoz doshtand. Kambudi mablagguzori boisi kosta gardidan dar teknolojii parvarishi pakhta gashta, ba kam shudani hosil ovarda merasond.

Man, ki zud-zud az khojagiho didan mekardam, kambudihoi onhoro dida, majbur meshudam az hisobi khudam mablaghoi ilo- vagi bidiham. Hamin tavr, orom-orom man tamomi sarmoyai andukhtaamro ham ba khojagiho dodam, ki dar rui khojagiho qarz shuda mond va dar natija man tamomi sarmoyai khudamro ba chohi betage andokhta, dar ilova az bonk ham qarzdor shudam. Hulosa, tibqi maqoli khalqi:

Be dardi sare nishasta budam,

Pul dodamu dardi sar kharidam.

Man dar holati garavgon mondam. Na joi aqibgardi doshtam va na dar idomai kor chashmandozi khube medidam. Ba purragi ba in qarordod vobasta budam. Agar az in mablagguzorii asirku- nanda dast kasham, sarmoyai tuli solho ba zahmat andukhtaamro, ki dar in kor sarf karda budam, az dast medodam va gayr az in, qarzdor ham memondam va ba javobgari kashida shudanam mumkin bud. Dar yak holati bade monda budam. Man, ki hamesha dar tasmimgiriho ozod budam, aknun ozodii khudro az dast doda budam, nafasgir budam. Soli duvum narkhi nakhi pakhta kame behtar shuda boshad, ham ba darajai dilkhoh narasid. Vale, zar- bai soli guzashta maro ba hush ovarda bud. Medonistam, ki okhiri in roh ba nobudi ast. Masuli bargardondani pulho faqat va faqat khudam budam.

Raisoni kolkhozhoi peshqadamro jam karda, bo onho masli- hat kardam, ki sarfakorona mablagguzori karda, hosilnokiro bolo mebarem. Az hamkori bo kolkhozhoi aqibmonda, ki raiso- nash beshtar pai daromadi muft ba jaybi shakhsiashon budand, dast kashidam. Nazoratro purzur karda, bo mablagguzorii khele kamtar hosili beshtar ba dast ovardem. Aknun, boyad pesh az hama, az on qarzi gulomkunanda khalos meshudam.

Rohbaroni shirkati «Danavant» zud-zud omada meistodand va «mazraa»-hovu «barda»-hoi khudro khabar megiriftand. Man ham yake az in bardaho budam, ki guyo qamchin dar dast az nomi onho va baroi onho kor mekardam. Vaqte ba khojagiho safar mekardam va holi zori mardumro medidam, dilresh meshudam, vale chora nadoshtam, qarordodro boyad ijro mekardam.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

zanoni-arobakas

Zanoni arobakashi Tochik

Binobar sababi vaznin budangi sathi zindagi dar Tojikiston zanoni tojik ba arobakashi mashgul shuda to …