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HARAKATI OBI UQYONUS

Mavjho. Obi Uqyonusi Olam muntazam dar kharakat meboshad. Sababi on gunogun ast. YAke az sababhon malum va asosii harakati obi uqyonus bodhoi sakhti sathi bahru uqyonus meboshand. Hangomi harakati bod dar bayni bod va obi sathi bahr soish ba amal msoyad. Dar natijai soish dar sathi obi bahr va uqyonus mavjho hosil meshavand. Andoza va balandii mavjho gunogunand, On ba shiddat ba daoompokii bod nobasta ast. Har Kadar bod purshiddat va davomnok vazad, hamon qadar andozai mavjho meafzoyad. tegai onho baland meshavad.

Balandii tegai mavjho odatan dar uqyonus az 6-8 metr ziyod nameshavad. Az hama ziyodtar mavjho dar Nimkurai janubi mushohida megardand. Baroi on ki dar nimkurai janubi obi uqyonusho befosila ba ham payvast buda. fazoi vasero tashkil medihad va bodi garbi, passathoi shimoli garbi muntazam va bosurat mevazand. Dar natija dar in cho mavjhoe hosil meshavand, ki balandii tegai onho  13 metrro tashkil medihad. Darozii on 400 metr buda, suratash ba 20 metr dar yak soniya barobar ast.

Sunami dar Tayland (soli 2004)
Sunami dar Tayland (soli 2004)

Bazan balandii tegai mavjho az in ham ziyod meshavad. Mallohoni rus soli 1956 dar qismi  janubi sharkii Uqyonusi Orom mavjero mushohida kardaand, ki balandii tegai on ba 18 metr barobar bud. Mallohoni purtajriba hikoya kardaand, ki onho  dar uqyonus mavjhoi balandiash 30 metrro niz mushohida namudaand. Balandii mavjho dar bahrho, makhsusan dar bahrhoi dokhili kam ast. Dar bahri miyonazamin balandii  onho  az 5 metr ziyod nameshavad.

Mavjho ba sohilhoi khushki zarari ziyod meovarand. Sanghoi to 13 tonna vazn doshtaro ba sohil mepartoyand. Mavjhoi purzur baroi kishtihoi dar bandarhobuda khatari kalon dorand. Onho metavonand kishtihoro chappa namoyand. Baroi in hodisai kharobiovarro peshgiri kardan dar atrofi bandarho az ohanu beton mavjshikan mesozand.

Sunami. Dar uqyonus sunami mavjhoi az hama kharobiovar meboshand. Sababi ba amal omadani onho bod nabuda, balki harakati qishri Zamin ast. Dar qari uqyonus dar natijai zarbahoi zerizamini (yak qitai qishri Zamin past va qigai digari on baland meshavad) yo ki otashfishonii vulkonho zilzilahoi sahti zeriobi ba vujud meoyand. Dar natija obi uqyonus ba harakat medaroyad va mavjho az markazi zaminjunbi ba chor taraf monandi doira pay dar ham pahn meshavand.

Sunami ba hisobi miyona dar yak soat bo surati 700-800 kilometr harakat mekunad. Dar uqyonusi kushod sunami baroy kishtikho on qadar khavfnok nest. Baroi on ki masofai bayni mavjho nihoyat daroz ast. Binobar in balandii mavji sunami on qadar buzurg nabuda, dar masofai 100-200 kilometr hamagi yak metrro tashkil menamoyad. Mavji sunami hangomi ba sohili materikho va jaziraho barkhurdan az 10 to 50 metr baland meshavad. Sunami hama chizi dar sari rohash vokhurdaro chappa namuda, vaqti aqib gashtan bo jarayoni khud ba uqyonus mebarad. “Sunami” lafzi yaponi meboshad. “Su” khaliji khurd, ”nami” mavj manidod karda meshavad.

Sunami khususan dar Uqyonusi Orom beshtar rukh medihad. Hangomi tarkish va otashfishonii vulqoni Krakatau dar in cho (soli 1883) balandii sunami dar uqyonus 35 metr va darozii mavji on 500 metrro tashkil namud. Dar zamoni mo sunamii az hama purshiddati kharobiovar soli 1960 dar natijai zaminchunbii CHili ba amal omad, ki az sohilhoi Amerikai Janubi mavjhoi on ba vositai tamomi uqyonus to sohilhoi jazirakhoi Gavanya, Zelandiyai Nav, Avstralnya, Jopon, jazirahoi Filippin, Kuril va nimjazirai Kamchatka pahn gardidand.

Baroi peshgui kardaii sukami lar bisyor mamlakatkho stansiyahoi tadqiqoti ilmi sokhta shudaand, ki onho surat giriftan va harakat kardani sunamiro mushohila menamoyand, aholiro peshaki az nazdik shudani on ogoh mekunand. In bud, ki soli 1960 olimon dar natijai hisobu kitob vaqti ba sohili jazirahoi Kuril va nimjazirai Kamchatka rasidani sunamiero, ki dar natijai zaminjunbii CHili ba amal omada bud, muayyan namuda, aholiro az on peshaki ogoh namudand. Dar

natija odamonro ba joyhoi bekhatar barovardand, yagon kas giriftori badbakhtii in ofati tabii nagardid.

Hodisai maddu jazr. Mavjho, makhsusan majhoi kalon dar uqyonus dommo befosila ba vujud nameoyand. Bazan hamin tavr meshavad, ki obi bahr va uqyonus yakchand ruz nisbatan orom meshavad. Dar in vaqt balandii mavjho hamagi yakchand santimetrro tashkil menamoyad. Ammo dar bahrho va uqyonus ba gayr az on mavjhoe, ki tavassuti bod, harakati qishri Zamin; va otashfishonii vulqonho ba amal meoyand. mavjhoe mavjudamd, ki dar yak shabonaruz du bor tarafi sohil hamla ovarda va az on du bor pas megardand.

In hodisa dar natijai anbuhi obi bahru uqyonusro ba khud jazb namudani Moh va Oftob ba vujud meoyad. Onro madd va jazr meguyand. Hangomi madd obi bahru uqyonus damida, khushkii nazdi sohilro pakhsh menamoyad. Baraks. dar vaqti jazr ob aqib megardad va khushkii nazdi sohil az sari nav az ob ozod meshavad. Vale in mavjho ba monandi mavjhoi digari bahru uqyonus benizom ba amal nameoyand, balki bo yak tartibi doimi va muayyan rukh medihand.

Vaqti sarshavi va ba okhir rasidayai maddu jazr aniq nest. Hamin tavr, vaqte ki mavji madd ba sohil rasad, madd cap meshavad, vaqte ki aqib gardad, jazr meshavad. Balandii mavji madd dar hama qismi  bahru uqyonus yak khel nest. Dar bahr va uqyonusi kushod balandii on 1-2 metrro tashkil medihad. Ammo dar sohilhoe, ki khatti sohil kaju kileb ast, balandii mavj madd tadrijan meafzoyad. Dar Haliji Fandi, ki dar sohili Atlantikai Amerikai SHimoli voqe gardidaast, balandish mavj ba 18 metr barobar ast. Balandii mavj dar Haliji Penjini Bahri Okhota 12 metr, dar Bahri Baltika qarib 5 metrro tashkil medihad. Madd ba baland shudani sathi obi daryoho niz tasir merasonad.

Dar daryoi Amazonka dar natijai hodisai madd sathi obi on Dar masofai 1400 kilometr ba sui boloobi on baland metavad. In ba daryoi Amazonka vorid gardidani kishtihoi uqyonusiro oson megardonad. Gayr az in, dar on joyhoe, ki balandii mavji madd ziyod ast, stansiyahoi elektrikii maddi sokhta shudaand. Dar Rusiya chunin stansiyaro dar Haliji Kislaya (nimjazirai Kola) bino kardaand. Hodisai maddu jazr ba shikori mohi ham madad merasonad. Hangomi jazr dar on joe, ki az ob ozod meshavad, mohigiron tur mekashand. Dar vaqti madd gurho zeri ob monda, ba onho  mohiho dokhil meshavand. Badi aqib gashtani ob (jazr) turhoro gundoshta az onho  mohiro berun msorand.

Savol va suporish

  1. Mavjhoi sathi bahrho va uqyonusho ba chi vobasta ast?
  2. Sunami chi tavr hosil meshavad?
  3. CHaro dar bahrho maddu jazr hosil meshavand?
  4.  Foida va zarari maddu jazrro fahmoned.
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