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TARIHI DUNYOI QADIM kitobi darsy baron sinfi 5

SHumo der boz intizori omukhtani fanni tarikh buded. Inak, on ruz ham faro rasid. In fanro aknun az hamin soli tahsil cap karda, to khatmi maktab muntazam meomuzed.

SHumo allakay oid ba tarikh donish dored. Onro hangomi tahsil dar maktabi ibtidoi va az khondani kitobhoi gunogun, majallayu ruznomaho, shunidani radio, tamoshoi televizion va kino, nakli volidon va kalonsoloni digar hosil kardaed. Vale in donishi shumo az tarikh hanuz kam buda, talaboti SHumoro purra qone karda nametavonad. Omuzishi pay dar payi fanni tarikh in kambudiro isloh khohad kard.

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Kalimai “tarikh” manii “hayoti guzashtai inson” va “voqeayu hodisahoi guzashta”-ro dorad. Tarikh ilmest, ki majmui voqeayu hodisahoi zamoni guzashtaro meomuzad, ilmest, ki dar borai jomeai insony az zamonhoi qadimtarin to ruzhoi mo bahs mekunad. On, az jumla, sokhti davlati va usuli davlatdori, faoliyati khojagi, tijorat va madaniyati khalqu davlathoi qadim, makon va zamoni ruy dodani hodisayu voqeahoi guzashtaro inikos menamoyad.

Dar maktabhoi tahsiloti hamagoni va miyonai Jumhurii Tojikiston du shokhai tarikh talim doda meshavad – tarikhi umumi va tarikhi khalqi tojik. Tarikhi umumi tarikhi zamonhoi guzashta va muosiri jahon va tarikhi khalqi tojik boshad, tarikhi zamonhoi guzashta va muosiri khalqhoi Tojikistonro dar bar giriftaast.

Kitobero, ki dar dast dored, tarikhi umumi – dunyoi qadim nomdoshta, tarikhi jahonro az zamonhoi khele dur az mo – az asri sang va Misri qadimu Bobul cap karda, to Hindustonu CHin, YUnonu Bokhtar, Port, Selevkiyonu Kushoni Buzurg va Rimu Amerikai qadimro dar bar megirad. Omuzishi tarikhi in davlatho dar peshi nazari SHumo sahifahoi pur az khodisayu voqeahoi ajoibu garoib va muhimmi tarikhiro jilvagar mesozad.

Oyo SHumo medoned, ki tarikhi az zamonhoi mo sadho va hatto hazorho sol peshtar chi guna va ba vositai chiho to ba imruz omada rasidaast? Kitobi darsii tarikhi umumi – dunyoi qadim dar in bora ba SHumo malumot medihad.

Agar kase chizero joe ba muddati yakchand ruz ba holi khud guzorad, pas mebinad, ki dar in muddat boloi onro qabati tunuki changu gubor pushondaast. SHumo khudaton in dalelro bo osoni sanjida, bovari hosil khohed kard, ki on voqean durust budaast. Dar tuli zamonhoi duru daroz qabati gafsi khok, ki az hamon qabathoi changu gubor iborat ast, ashyoho, oloti mehnat, qasru binohoi istiqomati, haykalho, tangaho, dastkhatu kati bahoro pushonida, dar boloi onho hatto alafu darakhton sabzida, shahru dehaho bunyod gardidaand. Az hamin sabab, osori zindagii odamoni qadim asosan dar zeri zamin mondaast.

YAk qismi kami tarikhi dunyoi qadim to ba mo tavassuti sarchashmahoi khatti omada rasidaast. Lekin imkoniyati vasetaru purratar omukhtani onho vujud dorad. Bo in maqsad, olimon dar kharobahoi binoho, qasrho, maqbaraho, shahrhoi zamoni qadim hafriyot, yane koftukob meguzaronand.

Olimonro, ki yodgorihoi tarikhii guzashtai dur, az on chumla, dunyoi qadimro meomuzand, “bostonshinos” (“arkheolog”) va khudi in shokhai ilmi tarikhro “bostonshinosi” (“arkheologiya”) menomand. In qabil olimon, makhsusan, baroi tarikhi dunyoi qadim mavodi baso muhim paydo mekunand.

Ashyoho va yodgorihoi paydokardai tarikhi qadim bad az omuzishi hamatarafai olimoni bostonshinos baroi namoish dar osorkhonahoi tarikh joy doda meshavand, to ki mardum az on jumla, naeli navras, ba tarikhi guzashtai khalqi khud va khalqhoi digari jahon shinos shavand, onro khub omuzand va giromy dorand. Okhir, shakhse, ki tarikhi zamoni guzashtaro namedonad, hargiz odami bomarifatu bofarhang buda nametavonad va ba qadri khalqu vatani khud namerasad. Az in ru, donistani tarikh baroi har yak shahrvavdi khurdu kaloni kishvar zarur va muhim ast.

Baroi osontar shudani omuzishi tarikhi dunyoi kadim kitobi darsii mazkur ba bobho, mavzuho va mavzuchahoi alohida taqsim karda shudaaast. Aksu surathoi kitob mazmuni mavodi talimiro baroi SHumo boz ham purrataru ravshantar megardonand.

Dar okhiri har yak mavzu baroi sanjishi mustaqilona va sayqal dodani donishi SHumo savolu suporishho peshnihod karda shudaand. SHumo metavoned az onho samaranok istifoda bared.

Dar okhir ba SHumo, khonandagoni arjmand, dar omuzishi tarikhi dunyoi qadim baror va ilhom mekhoham.

MUNDARIJA

Muqaddima…………………………………………………………………………………. 3

BOBI I. ASRI SANG

  • 1-2. Hayoti odamoni qadimtarin………………………………………….. 5
  • 3. Mashguliyati odamonn ibtidoi………………………………………… 13
  • 4. Barhamkhurii jamoati ibtidoi………………………………………… 16

BOBI II. SOLSHUMORI DLR TARIH

  • 5-6. Solshumoriho va taqvimho…………………………………………….. 19

BOBI III. MISRI QADIM

  • 7. Tabiat va aholii Misri qadim……………………………………….. 24
  • 8. Ba vujud omadani davlat dar Misri qadim …………………… 28
  • 9. SHohigarii qadim dar Misr…………………………………………….. 32
  • 10. SHohigarii miyonai Misr ……………………………………………….. 37
  • 11-12. SHohigarii navi Misr………………………………………………… 41
  • 13. Misri qadim…………………………………………………………………….. 48
  • 14-15. Hat, maorif va ilmi Misri qadim ………………………….. 51
  • 16. Etiqodhoi dinii misri qadim…………………………………… 56
  • 17. Adabiyoti Misri qadim…………………………………………………… 60
  • 18. Sanati Misri qadim……………………………………………………… 63

BOBI IV. OSIYOI GARBI DAR ZAMONI QADIM

  • 19. Baynannahranni Janubi………………………………………………….. 67
  • 20. Davlathoi Sumer va Akkad………………………………………………. 71
  • 21. Davlatkhoi Bobul va Oshur……………………………………………….. 74
  • 22. Madaniyati Bobul va Oshur……………………………………………… 78
  • 23. Davlati Hettho………………………………………………………………….. 84
  • 24. Davlati Urartu ……………………………………………………………….. 88
  • 25. Davlatkhoi Suriya. Finikiya va Falastin………………………. 91

OI1 V. DLVLA G\OP FORSIZLBONI QLDIM

  • 26 Dashkin Elom……………………………………………………………………. 97
  • 27. Davlati Modho…………………………………………………. 100
  • 28. Davlati Hakhomannishin……………………………………………….. 103
  • 29-30. Dashkii Bokhtar. (Horazm)………………………………………… 107

OII VI. HINDUSTONI KUTIM

  • 31. Hiiduetoni tamoni Harappa……………………………………….. 114
  • 32. Hinduoriyon……………………………………………………………………. 117
  • 33. Dashi» HON Hinduston …………………………………………………… 121
  • 34. Madannyati Hinduston…………………………………………………… 124

BOBI VII. CHINI QLDNM

  • 35. Tashkilyobii davlati CHini qadim………………………………. 127
  • 36. CHin dar zamoni hukumronii Sin………………………………….. 131
  • 37. CHin dar davran imperiyai Hon ……………………………………. 135
  • 38. Madainyatn CHini qadim………………………………………………… 139

BOBI VII. YUNONI QADIM

  • 39. Davlathoi avvalini YUnoni qadim ……………………………. 145
  • 40-41. Dostonhoi Homer………………………………………………………. 151
  • 42. Davlati Afina………………………………………………………………. 156
  • 43. Davlati Sparta …………………………………………………………….. 161
  • 44. SHahr-davlati YUnon …………………………………………………….. 166
  • 45-46. Janghoi YUnonu Fors……………………………………………….. 169
  • 47. Demokratyai Afina……………………………………………………….. 174
  • 48. Hat, maktab va dini YUnoni qadim………………………………… .177
  • 49. Ilmi YUnoni qadim………………………………………………………. 181
  • 50. Adabiyot. Teatr va Bozihoi Olimpii YUnoni qadim……… 184
  • 51.Sanati YUnoni qadim…………………………………………………… 188

 

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