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SOHTORI LITOSFERA

Dar paragrafi peshina mo qayd kardem, ki litosfera (az kalimai yunonii lithos – sang va sphaira – kurra) qabati sakhti az qishri zamin va mantiyai boloi iboratbuda meboshad. Dar in paragraf boshad, mo ba qishri zamin va sokhti on, hamchun qismi litosfera ahamiyati jiddi medihem. Dar qiyos bo qabathoi amiqi zamin qishri boloiyash khub omukhta shudaast.

Tuloni shudani shaklgirii qishri zamini ba murakkab gardidani sokhti on tasirguzor bud. Qabati boloii on bo jinshoi gunoguni kuhi pushida shudaast. Jinshoe, ki qishri zaminro tashkil mekunand, az rui khususiyot, tarkib va paydo- ishashon bisyor gunogun meboshand. Onho az madanhoi gunogun va jinshoi kuhi iborat yoftaand.

Jinshoi kuhi az rui paydoishashon ba se guruh taqsimbandi megardand: magmatiki, tahshin va metamorfi (jadvali 5).

Jadvali 5

SHakhho va sanghoe, ki qishri zaminro tashkil medihand

Qishri zamin: shakhho

Tahshinshuda

Pora-pora (kharsangi lunda, shagal, sangreza, qum va regsang, less, gil) Paydoishi khimiyavi (namak- sang, gips va g.) Paydoishi organiki (buri khatnavisi, ohaksang, torf, angishtsang) Tadbilshuda: kvartsit, varaqsang, marmar va g. Magmavi: khoro- sang, andezit, bazalt, tufsangi vulqony

Jinshoi kuuii magmavi, ki onhoro magmatitho niz menomand, az khud mahsuloti omodai faoliyati vulqonhoro inikos mekunand (faoliyati magmavy). Dar jarayoni az magmai gudokhtashuda ba holati sakht guzashtanash modda kristalli meshavand.

Jinshoi kuhii magmavi ba sifati mavodhoi garminigahdory.

Jinshoi kukhii taushinshuda khosi qabathoi boloii qaishri zamin ast. Jinshoi tahshinshuda beshtar az se chor hissai sathi khushkiro tashkil medihad. CHunin jinsho dar natijai ravandhoi gunogun, ba monandi shamolkhury, az ob af- tidan chiz (khimiyavi va mekhaniki), faoliyati hayotii organizmho, vayronshavii jinsho hastand va paydo meshavand.

Jinshoi kuhii tabdilshuda – jinshoi dar natijai ravandhoi bo nomi me­tamorfizm paydo shudaast. Jarayon khosi tagyiryobii sokhtori jinshoi quhi zeri tasiri fishor va harorati baland meboshad.

Dar litosfera jinshoi kuhi, ki qishri zaminro tashkil medihad, dar natijai gardishi moddaho paydo shudaand (ras. 31).

Skhemai gardishi moddaho dar litosfera
Rasmi 31. Skhemai gardishi moddaho dar litosfera

CHunone, ki az skhema malum ast, hangomi ikhroji vulqonho dar sath jinshoi kuhi paydo meshavand. Onho zeri tasiri quvvai oftob va digar kuvvahoi beruna vayron meshavand va ba jinshoi kuhii tabdilshuda mubaddal megardand.

Dar qabathoi jarftari Zamin zeri tasiri harorati baland jinsho digargun meshavand. Litosfera az jinshoi kuhi tashkil yoftaast va az ruyi sokhti qishri zamin farq mekunad. Dar robita bo in qishri zamin ba kontinentali va uqyonusi taqsim meshavad.

Dar borai qishri zamin dar sinfhoi boloi mufassal omuzonida meshavad.

Tobai (plitai) litosferi – bakhshi buzurgi ustuvori qishri
zamin, yak qismi litosfera.

Az ruyi malumothoi ilmi litosfera az haft toba iborat ast. Inho: Avruosiyo, Hind-Avstraliya, Uqyonusioromy (tobaizerioby), Afriqo, Antarktika, Amrikoi SHimoli va Janubi (ras. 32).

Savol va suporishho

  1. CHi guna jinshoi kuhi, ki tarkibi qishri zaminro tartib dodaand, ba qismho taqsim meshavand?
  2. Skhemai gardishi modda dar litosfera chi guna ast?
  3. Kadom tobahoi litosferi vujud dorand? Onhoro nombar kuned.
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