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SOHTI ASAB, HOZIMA, NAFASKASHI VA IHROJU JINSI

Sokhti asabi shirkhurho ba tavri faol inkishof yofta, magzi sarashon ba kismho taqsim shudaast. Sokhti markazii asab, maynai cap, maynai takhtapusht nagz inkishof yoftaast.

Dar maynai sari shirkhurho juyakho ziyod buda, on az 5 qism (maynai pesh yo nimkurai kaloni mayna, maynacha, maynai fallagi, miyonai darozruya) iborat ast. Az maynai cap 12 juft tori maynagi judo shuda davom mekunad.

Rasmi 42. a) Sistemai asabi shirkhuron dar misoli khargush; b) Sokhti magzi sari khargush
Rasmi 42.
a) Sistemai asabi shirkhuron dar misoli khargush; b) Sokhti magzi sari khargush

Uzvhoi hissiyoti shirmakho az uzvhoi somea, shomma va bosira iborat ast. Somea az qismkhoi daruni, miyona va sufrai gush iboratand.

Uzvi shomma dar devorahoi satkhi bini buda, bo torhoi makhsusi asabi tamin ast.

Uzvi bosira az yak juft chashmi murakkab iborat ast, ki on dar baze shirkhurho (vobasta ba tarzi hayotguzaroniashon) pushida ast. Masalan, uzvi bosirai krot va kurmush, ki dar qabati khok zindagi mekunand, nisbat ba uzvi hissiyotashon beshtar inkishof eftaast.

Sokhti hozimai shirkhurho az dahon, lunj, zabon, dandonho, khalq, surkhruda, meda, rudai 12-angushta, rudai borik, kurruda, rudai gafs, rudai rost, maqad iborat ast.

Zaboni shirkhurho az mushakhoi kundalangrakh iborat buda, dar shirkhurhoi darranda uzvi zoika mavjud ast. Zaboni shirkhurhoi alafkhur bo pardai khitiny pushida shudaast, ki baroi khurdani harguna khasu khoshok va alafhoi khushku khordor muvofiq va bezarar ast. Fermenthoi sathi dakhoni shirkhurho krakhmalro-qisman ba qand tabdil medihand. Dandoni shirkhurho bo emal (sir) pushida shudaast. SHumorai dandonho dar hamai shirkhurho yak khel nest. Masalan, dar khargush 28, dar maymun 36, dar odam 32 dandon hast.

Halki shirkhurho az mushakhoi nagz inkishofyofta iborat ast. Surkhruda dar shirkhurho to 70 sm darozi doshta, bo yorii mushak ba meda meguzarad. Medai hayvonhoi kavshakunanda (shutur, buz, gusfand, gov) murakkab buda, qismi baromadgohi meda rudai 12-angushta nom dorad, ki muhiti on ishkori ast. Muhiti meda kislotagi buda, ba on gadudi galkha yori msrasonad. Dar rudai borik gadudhoi khurokkhazmkuni hast. Okhiri rudai borik rastaki sarbastae dorad, ki onro kurruda menomand.

Uzvhoi nafaskashii shirkhurho az trakheya (nayi nafas) cap meshavad, ki on az khalqahoi nopurrai tagoyaki iborat buda, ba shush meravad. Dar trakheya gadudhoi siparshakli tagoyaki, halqagi, angushggshakl, chumchashakl mavjudand. Dar in jo bandakjoi ovoz joy giriftaand. Trakheya ba du nayi shush (bronkhiya) judo meshavad va har yaki on boz ba du bronkhiola (naycha) va har yaki bronkhnola ba alveolaho (puffakchahoi havoi) taqsim meshavand. Havo dar alveolaho assimshiggsiya va dissimilyatsiya meshavad. SHirkhurho niz bo miqdori kam boshad ham, tavassuti surokhihoi sathi pust nafas megirand. Baroi hamin tozagii pust sababi asosii salomati meboshad.

Uzvi judokunii shirkhurho asosan yak juft gurdai kaloni lubiyoshakl ast, ki dar du tarafi sutunmuhra (boloi chorband) joy girifta, ba peshobdon roh dorad. Peshob ba vositai juyaki peshobdon ba berun khorij karda meshavad.

Uzvhoi jinsii shirkhurho murakkab buda, gadudhoyashon juftand. Tukhm dar tukhmdonho tayyor meshavad va bo naychai falopi ba bachadon rafta, bordorshavii daruni ba amal meoyad. Bachadon dar shirkhurho 4 khel meshavad:

  1. Bachadoni dubara (dar khargush fil). 2 Bachadoni dupakhluy (dar mush. khuk). 3. Bachadoni dushokha (dar darrandaho, hasharotkhurkho). 4. Bachadini sodda (dar nimiaymunkho, maymunho va odam).

Dar baze shirkhurhoi darajai bolo janinn inkishofefta istoda ba vositai hamrohak ba organizmi modari aloqamand shuda, nasli dar batn buda az modar ba vositai kanali nof gizo megirad.

Dar shirkhurho 2 khel khamrohak meshavad:

  1. Hamrokhaki jildash kuchndafaroyanda dar buz, gov, gusfand, odam mavjud ast. Dar onho bo yakchoyagii hamrohaki faroyanda zarfhoi khun ham kanda shuda, khunravi cap meshavad.
  1. Hamrohaki jildash nafaroyanla dar khuk, khar, asp, shutur, gurg, cag mavjud ast. Dar inho hangomi zoish khunravi ba amal nameoyad.

Nasli shirkhurho kobiliyati mustaqilona makidanro dorand. Dar tarkibi shir ba gayr az ob moddahoi gizoii safeda, charbho. laktoza (qand), vitamin, namakhoi minerali hastand, ki baron inkishofi nasl zarurand. Ruzhoi avval gadudhoi shir galiztar buda, falla kor karda mebarorand, ki on nisbat ba shiri oddi moddai gizoii ziyod doshta, khosiyati bakteriofagi ham dorad. SHirkhurho khususiyathoi afzoishi ba khud khos dorand. Binobar in shirkhurhoro ba guruhhoi tukhmzoy, khaltador, hamrohakdor taqsim mekunand. Ba shirkhurhoi tukhmzoy ekhidna va murgobinul dokhil meshavand. Onho dar Avstraliya zindagi mekunand. Hususan ekhidna dar buttazori dushvorguzar zindagi karda, hasharotu kirminai onhoro mekhurad. Darozii badani ekhidna to 50 sm buda, pashmi durusht dorad. Poyhoyash kutoh astu changolkhoi darozi boquvvat dorad. Ekhidna khatarro pay burda, lunda meshavad, yo in ki ba surokhihoi qabati zamin medaroyad.

Murgobinul dar sohili obanborho zindagi karda, az ob khurok meyobad. Vay nagz shino mekunad, gutta mezanad. Jogkhoyash misli nuli murgobi buda, dandon nadorad. Vay loyqaro kofta, kirm, tukumshulluk, kirminai hasharotro yofta mekhurad. Murgobinul va ekhidna tukhm meguzorand, ki daroziash 2 sm buda, parda dorad. Ekhidnai moda tukhmashro ba daruni khaltai ruyi shikamash andokhta megardad. Pas az tukhm bachai noraso baromada, dar on khalta yakchand moh meistad.

Murgobinuli modina 2 tukhmashro dar boloi chizhoi garmi khonaash monda, misli murgi kurk onhoro pakhsh mekunad, Bachahoi az tukhm baromadai murgobinulu ekhidna shiri zyudarashonro mekhurand. Onho piston nadorand, vale bachahoi onho shirro az ruyi pashmu pusg, ki dar zerash gadudhoi shir hast. pakhsh karda, shiri baromadar-o lesida, mekhurand.

Ba shirkhurhoi khaltador kenguru misol shuda metavonad, ki on dar zaminhoi kushodi Avstraliya. Amerika zindagi mekunad. Huroki vay rastany ast. Dar Vaqti az dushman gurekhtan poyhoi darozu bakuvvatashro ba zamin monda, ba masofai to 3 m mejakhad. Darozii tanash to 2 m. vaznash to 150 kg meshavad. Embrioni kenguru 40 ruz inkishof yofta, bachai nobinoyu barakhna mezoyad, ki darozii badanash qarib 3 sm buda, dar khaltai pusti ruishikamy 7-8 moh meistad va on cho shir mekhurad. Dar kholati oromy bazan bachaashro
bo dastash az khalta girifta. ba berun meguzorad va dar Vaqti khatar boz ba khaltaash andokhta, megurezad.

Ba shirkhurhoi hamrohakdor Namudhoi gunoguni shirkhurho mansuband. Masalan, cag hayvoni shirkhur buda, tukhmkhujayrai on moddaigizoy nadorad. Embrion dar badani modina, dar bachadop inkishof yofta, bo pardahoi sershumori devorai bachadon vasl shuda, glasenta yo hamrohakro ba vujud meorad. Raghoi khungardi embrion bo raghoi doirai kaloni gardishi khuni modar zich payvandand va bo in roh embrion gizoyu oksigen megirad. Ba khuni modar moddahoi nolozimi embrion dokhil shuda, toza meshavad. Inkishofi embrioni cag 2 moh davom mekunal. Cag az 4 to 10 eacha mezoyad, ki ruyi balani onho bo pashm pushida shuda, be danlon va nobinoand. Pas az 10-14 ruzi tavallud chashmashon kushoda meshavadu tadrichan dandonhoi shir ham msbarorand. Sagbachaho az modarashon shir makida, tez kalon meshavand. Dar snnni 3-4-mohagi dandonhoi shiriashon ba dandonhoi asil ivaz meshavand. Car to 15 sol umr mebinad.

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