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PAYDOISHI ISLOM

Dini islom dar nimjazirai Arabiston dar iqlimi Hijoz ba vujud omad. Dar tarikh zamoni pesh az paydoishi islomro davrai johiliyat menomand va dar in davra Makka va Madina shahrkhoi kalontarin va markazhoi madaniyu farhangii Hijoz budand. Makka dar mavqei garm karor doshta, az du tarafi on teppahoi na chandon baland voqeand. Tobiston ba sababi tangii havo va ramzoi /garmoi/ Makka nafasgiri hatto mushkil megardid.

Dar in shahr ibodatgohi umum -Kaba qaror dosht. Aholii shahr asosan ba sando mashgul budand, korvonhoro to bahri Surkh va hatto uqyonusi atlantik hamrohi menamudand. Aholii on asosan az qabilai Quraysh iborat bud, chand avlod qudrati siyosi va iqtisodiro dar ikhtiyori khud dosht. Az jumla bani Hoshim, ki hazrati Mukhammad /s.a/ az on bud, bani Umiya, bani Zuhra, bani Makhzum, bani Asad va gayra.

paydoishi-islomIn shahri khurd dar sari rohi tijorat qaror doshta, Iroqu SHom /Suriya/-ro bo YAman mepayvast va bayni Mashriqu Magrib kishvarhoi sohili bahri Miyonazamin, Afrikayu Osiyo bo in roh aloqa barqaror megardid.

Korvonhoi savdoi in shahr to hadde buzurg Buda, bazan nazdiki 2000 shuturro tashkil mekardand. Aloqai korvon dar tamomi tuli roh bo shahr ba vositai qosidon tamin megardid. Foidae, ki az guzarondan va ishtirok dar savdo ahli Makka dosht, bazan nisfi mablagi onro tashkil mekard.

Mablagi daromadi khonavodahoi doroi Makkaro ribo – sudi mablagi ba savdo guzoshtashuda boz ham afzuntar mesokht. Kaba – ziyoratgohi arab, nufuzi Makkava qabilai Qurayshro beshtar mesokht,harchand, ki Kaba khosi ahli Makka va Quraysh nabuda, ba tamomi arabho taaluq dosht.

Muvofiqi rivoyathoi dar in jo 360 buti qaboili arab mavjud bud va hatto dar sutunhoi on tasviri Maryam ham duchor omadaast va in guvohi medihad, ki masehiho hangomi az Maka guzashtanashon va yo iqomatashon ba in ibodatgoh rafta, dar on rusumi dinii khudro ijro mekardand. Dar bayni khudohoi in ibodatgoh, alloh khudoi az hama sohibqudrat, vale na yagonayu bemisl, shumurda meshud. Dar barobari Alloh chandin khudohoi digar budand, ki minbad dar Quron mabudoni manfiro tashkil dodand.

Az jumla Lot-khudoi oftob dar shakli bute az sangi safed, Manot-khudoi taqdir, margu ajal, ki ba surati bute az sangi siyoh, parastida meshud, Uzzo-Zuhra /ba in khudo ahli Quraysh ehtiromi makhsus dosht/. Rivoyathoi ziyod dar borai parastishi in khudoyon naql meshavand. Namunahoi onro, chunon ki badtar mushohida khohem kard, dar Quron duchor shudan mumkin ast.

Nisbat ba in khudoyon marosimhoi tavof /chunon ki imruz dar hajji Kaba ast /, mash – molidan bo chize /az in jo masehiyat-molida shuda/ qurboni ba jo ovarda meshud. Ba arabho tavofi Kaba ahamiyati makhsus doda, muqaddasoti in odatro qatan rioya mekardand. Parastishi Alloh dar in marosimho hamchun kholiqi zaminu osmon mavridi tavajjuhi khosi arabho bud.

Unsurhoi fetishizm dar marosimhoi arabho tasiri bagoyat buzurg dosht. Az jumla odati sangparasti. Arabho porai sangro hamchun nishonai khudohoi khud bo khud ba sahro meburdand va agar dar roh sangi digare paydo mekardand, ki az in sang zebotar boshad, sangi peshtaraashonro dur andokhta, sangi nav paydokardaashonro bo khud hamroh megiriftand. Ribokhoroni (suzkhuroni) Makka benavoyoni on va girdu atrofro dar haqiqat gorat menamudand. Pul ba qarz doda az on foidai bisyore ba dast meovardand. sol 4 mohro mohhoi harom meguftand, ki dar onho tavofi Kaba va taboduli koloro anjom medodand.

Arabhoi badavii nimjazirai Arabiston, aglab ba chorvodori mashgul budand. Dar bayni onho ziddiyathoi qabilavi ba andozae shiddat paydo karda bud, ki oromii in Kabai muqaddas  mintaqaro ba kulli az bayn burda, jangu jidolro vusat medod va juzvi hayoti arabhoi davrai johiliyat, vositai ba dast ovardani zaminhoi nav baroi charogoh, sitondani intiqomi kheshu taborhoi khud gashta bud. Odati intiqomi khuni, tazodi qabilaho vaziyati be in ham nooromi in mintaqaro boz ham shiddatnoktar mesokht.

Dar okhiri asri VI va ibtidoi asri UP vaziyati purshiddati mintaqa, hatto vazi savdo va korvonhoi savdoro khele murakkab sokht.

Suporish va savolho.

  1. Dar borai Arabiston va shahrhoi Maka va Madina chihoro medoned?
  2. CHaro davrai bisyorkhudoiro dar Arabiston davrai johiliya menomand?
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