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Oilai obnusiho

Ba oilai obnusiho du avlod va 500 namudi rastaniho mansuband. Onho rastanihoi darakhti va butgagii hameshasabz yo khazonrez (agar dar iqlimi khunuk va khushk sabzand) meboshand. Rastanihoi alafi va chubrosti (lianmonandi) onho malum nestand. Aksari rastanihoi in oila dar mintaqahoi tropiki nashunamo karda, qismi kami onho dar sharoiti iqlimi subtropiki va yo nohiyahoi iqli- mashon mutadil va garmi qitai Osiyo va Amerikai SHimoli pahn shudaand.

obnusBargi rastanihoi ba in oila dokhilshavanda kalonu sodda, sabzi siyohtobi tukhmshakl yo darozruyai nugtez buda, dar navda ba tavri navbati yo ru ba ru joygirand.

Gulho dar bagali barg yo khushaguli khurd joygirand. Onho dujinsa yo yakjinsa buda, chortogi gulbarg va kosabarg dorand. Kosabargkho to nisfashon bo kham chaspida, bo meva hamroh boqi memonand. Tojguyaho zangulashakd yo qadahmonand buda, adadi gardbargho 4 yo 16 (bazan 24-to) va onho davrashakd yaktogi, dutogi yo bisyortogi joygirand. Tukhmdon az 2 – 8 mevabarg iborat buda, gurai boloi 2 – 16-lonagi ast. Mevaash sertukhmi taru (guchummeva) sershira. bazan charmmonandi ba pahluho kushodashavanda meboshad. Tukhmho endosperm doshta, bo pustpardai tunuk pushida shudaand.

Mevai hamai namudhoi oilai obnusiho khurdanibob buda, andozaashon az 2 to 8 – 10 sm (kutrashon) merasad. Onhoro dar shakli taru toza yo khushkonidashuda istemol mekunand va az onho sharbat, murabbo tayyor menamoyand.

Dar Tojikiston az in oila yak namud — khurmoi kavkazi (chilvang) hamchun rastanii khudruy mamul ast. In namud rastani nisbatan vase pahn shuda, dar bisyor mamlakatkhoi jahon vomekhurad. Hududi pahnshavii in namud az mamlakathoi YAponiya, Hitoy az shimoli Hinduston sar shuda, to garbi Bahri Miyonazamin va Ispaniya tul mekashad. Dar hududi Tojikiston asosan dar janubi katorkukhhoi Hisoru Darvoz dar balandihoi 1100-1400 m az sathi bakhr vomekhurad.

Darakhti khurmoi kavkazi odatan dar hamjoyagi bo darakhtoni tug, shung, farq, chormagz, chinor vokhurda, to 16 m kad mekashad.

Darakhti khurmoi kavkazi beshtar dar zaminhoi sanglokh, sohilhoi daryohhoi va joyhoi sernam nashunamo karda, to harorati – 25°S khunuki tob meovarad.

Mevai khurmoi kavkazi mudavvarshakli (qutrash to 2 sm) norinji, zardchatob buda, mevai khushki on to 40% kand dorad.

Hurmoi kavkazi az tukhmash meafzoyad. Niholi khasakiashro chun rastanii payvandshavanda ziyod karda, ba on khurmoi sharki va digar navhoi purarzishro payvand mekunand.

Dar qatori khurmoi kavkazi dar Tojikiston, inchunin khurmoi sharqi va virjini hamchun darakhti mazrui mevadihanda parvarish karda meshavand.

Mevai khurmoi sharqi andozai kalon doshta (kutrash to 10 sm ast), dar vaqti khomiash mazzai taqir dorad va hangomi purra pukhtanash yo bo tasiri sarmo in khususiyatashro gum karda, khushlazzat meshavad.

Hurmoi sharqi navhoi ziyod doshta, to 15 metr qad mekashad va dar nohiyahoi gunoguni Jumhurii Tojikiston parvarish karda meshavad. CHunin navhoi khurmoi sharqi, az qabili navhoi “Hiakumi”, “Zenji Maru”, “Gosho-Gaki” ba sharoiti Tojikiston mutobiq gardonda shudaand.

Dar Pajuishgohi ilmi — tadqiqotii bogu tokparvarii Tojikiston chunin navhoi khurmoi sharqi, ba monandi navi “Guliston”, “Tojikiston”, “SHarq”, “Vakhsh” va “Hisor” ba vujud ovarda shudaand, ki bo tezpazaki, hosilnoki va sifati khubi mevaashon az digar navho bartari dorand.

Mevai khurmoi bogi dar tarkibash to 25% qand, vitaminhoi gunogun, karotin, yod, ohan dorad. Dar tib baroi tabobati bemorihoi chogar, kamkhuni, nazla, zakhmi meda.va gayraho istifoda burda meshavad.

Darakhti khurmo, ba juz mevai shirinu shifobakhsh, boz chubi purqimat dorad. Az zamonhoi qadim injonib chubi onro baroi sokhtani chevonhoi (mebelhoi) harkhela va olothoi ruzgor istifoda mebarand.

  1. Oilai obnusiho chi guna alomathoi umumi dorand?
  2. Kadom namudi khudrui in oila dar Tojikiston meruyad?
  3. Kadom navhoi khurmoro medoned?
  4. Olimoni tojik kadom navhoi navi khurmoi sharqiro ba vujud ovardaand?
  5. Namoyandagoni oilai obnusiho chi ahamiyat dorand?
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