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Oilai kadugulho

Ba in oila 900 namudi rastaniho dokhil meshavand. Onho beshtar dar mintaqahoi tropiki va subtropikii kurai Zamin, az jangalhoi tropikii namnok to dashtu biyobonho, pahn gardidaand. Hususan, namudhoi ziyodi khudrui oilai kadugulon dar Afriqo, Osiyo va Amerika beshtar vomekhurand. Dar mintaqahoi iqlimashon mutadil boshad, mikdori kadugulon kamtar ba chashm merasand.

Kadugulon rastanihoi yaksola yo bisyorsola, khobanda yo khazandai alafi, bazan buttagi meboshand. Bargi onho panjashakl, panjashakli parmonand yo soddai kanorhoyash yaklukht buda, tavri joygirshaviashon dar poya navbati meboshad. Dar aksari namoyandagoni in oila tanobak dida meshavad, ki on yak shakli tagyiryoftai navda meboshad.

Kadugulon rastanihoi yak va yo dukhonagi buda, baze namoyandagonashon dujinsa meboshand. Gulho ba tavri alohida yo in ki dar khushaguli khusha, jorubak, chatrak joygir shudaand. Gulpush dar yakjoyagi bo sutunchai (resmoni) gardbargho naychai gulro paydo kardaand, ki on ba gura chaspidaast. Kosabarg va gulbargho 5-togi buda, onho bo hamdigar chaspidaand va shakli qif yo zangularo gi- riftaand. Bazan gulbargho ozodand. Gulbargho rangi zard, safed, bazan sabzrang yo surkh dorand. Gardbargho duto, dar aksari holatho panjto, ki az in mikdor chortoash bo ham juft chaspida, yaktoash ozod meboshad. Bazan hamai resmonhoi gardbargho yo in ki garddonho bo ham chaspida meboshand. Tukhmdon az se yo chor-panj mevabarg tarkib yoftaast. Guraashon poyoni buda, beshtar selonagi va dar har yak lona mikdori ziyodi tukhmmugjaho mavjudand.

Kadugulon rastanihoe, meboshand, ki tavassuti khasharotho gar- dolud meshavand. Dar gulhoi kadugulon shahddonhoi kalon tashakkul yoftaand va shahdi shirini on baroi taqriban 150 namudi hasharot va az on jumla zanburi asal khelo khub dastras meboshad. Guli bisyor rastanihoi kadugul bui diqqatjalbkunanda nadorand va az in ru, onho diqqati hasharotro ba tufayli gulbarghoi kalonu khushrang (chunonchi, dar kadu, kharbuza, tarbuz, bodiring va gayraho)- ashon beshtar jalb mekunand. Mevaashon kadumonand ast.

Dar hududi Tojikiston 8 avlod va 15 namudi oilai kadugulon vomekhurad, ki az in chor namudash khudruyand.

Tarbuz, poyaash palaki darozi shokharonda buda, barghoi separra dorad. Gulash qifmonandi zard buda, judojinsa meboshad. Mevai tarbuz mudavvarshakli kalon yo darozruya buda, rangash sabzi siyohtob yo alobulo ast. Magzi mevaash serobi shirin buda, rangashon gulobi, surkh, bazan safed yo zard meboshad. Dar tarkibi mevai tarbuz vobasta ba navhoyash miqdori ziyodi qand, vitaminho, pektin va digar moddahoi baroi salomaty zaruri mavjud ast.

Umuman, hamagi 7 namudi tarbuz malum ast. Dar Tojikiston boshad, faqat yak namudi on mavridi parvarish qaror dorad.

Tarbuz hamchun rastanii khushkidust ba kamobi tobovar ast. Onro dar zaminhoi obi va lalmi mekorand. Onro asosan dar shakli taru toza istemol mekunand. Dar sanoati qannodi niz istifoda meba- rand.

Saravlodi tarbuzi mazru tarbuzi khudrui khurdanibobi biyobon- hoi Afriqo meboshad. Kishtukori tarbuz dar Afriqo ogoz gardi- da, sipas ba Osiyoi Hurd, Kavkaz, Osiyoi Miyona pahn gardidaast. Insoniyat dar natijai istifoda burdani usulhoi gunoguni inti- khob dar davomi asrhoi tulony navhoi gunogunu khushsifati tar- buzro ba vujud ovardaast. Dar Tojikiston ziyoda az 5 navi tar- buzi khurdanibob va 3 navi tarbuzi khuroki chorvo kisht karda meshavad.

Harbuzaro qarib 4000 sol pesh az erai mo dar mamlakathoi qitai Osiyo kisht mekardand. Harbuza rastanii yaksolai polizi meboshad. Poyapalakash daroz, bargash kaloni yaklukht yo panjashakl, gulash judojinsa, bazan dujinsa meshavad.

Mevaash sertukhmi gunogunshakl (daroziash az 4 sm to 2 m, vaznash vobasta ba navhoyash az 150-200 g to 16-18 kg) ast. Ba aqidai oli- mi barjastai rus, yake az tadqiqotchiyoni nabototi Tojikiston, aka- demik N. I. Vavilov kharbuza ziroati qadimii Tojikiston, Uzbekiston, Turkmaniston, shimoli Afgoniston va Eron meboshad. Inchunin, qayd kardan joiz ast, ki az 500 navi kharbuza, ki dar Osiyoi Miyona parvarish karda meshavad, 230 navash nomi tojiki dorad.

Tarkibi mevai kharbuza az moddahoi baroi organizm nihoyat mu- him – qand, ravgan, ohar, safeda, vitaminhoi gunogun va gayraho boy meboshad. Mevai kharbuzaro ba tavri taru toza yo khushkonidashuda istemol mekunand. Az mevai on inchunin murabbo, shirini va asali kharbuza tayyor mekunand.

Dar nohiyahoi janubii Tojikiston dar bayni maydonhoi pakhta, kunjitu polizho va bazan dar sohilhoi daryo kharbuzai dashti (yo kharbuzai sagak) vomekhurad. Dar tibbi khalqi meva va jushobi re- shai onro baroi tabobati kasalihoi istisqo, zardparvin va gayra istifoda mebarand.

Kadu rastanii yak yo bisyorsola buda, 20 namudro darbar megi- rad. Namudhoi khudrui on asosan dar Afriqo pahn gardidaand. Ba- ze namudhoi on dar zamonhoi qadim mazrui karda shudaand. Holo navhoi ziyodi kadui istemoli, khuroki chorvo va oroishi ba vujud ovarda shudaast. Dar ayni zamon se namudi kadu — gahvorakadu, palavkadu va oshkadu mavridi parvarish qaror dorand. Dar zaminai in namudhoi kadu navhoi gunogun ba vujud ovarda shudaast, ki onho az jihati tezpazaki, kalonii meva, qandnoki va gayraho az yakdigarashon farq mekunand.

kadugul

Gulbarghoi kadu gunogunrangi zard, norinji buda, mevai kaloni shaklash harkhela dorad.:

  • – namudi umumi;
  • – guli narina;
  • – guli modina;
  • – mevai iste- molshavanda; burishi kundalan- gii meva;
  • – mevai pukhpgara- sida.

Guli kadu nisbatan kalon buda, bargash soddai yaklukht yo panjashakl meshavad. Poyai kadu girdshakl yo qira- noki khobanda meboshad.

Dar mevai kadu az 11 to 20 foiz qand, safeda, moddahoi pektini. vitaminho va namakhoi madani mavjud ast. Tukhmi kadu to 25 foiz ravgan dorad va onro ba sifati davoi kijjaron dar tib istifodg mebarand.

Bodiring rastanii polizii yaksola buda, darozii palakan az 0,5 to 1,5 m (dar garmkhonaho to 6-7 m) merasad. Bargu dumchaash va palaki on bo muyakchaho ihota gardidaast.

Gulbargho rangi zard doshta, gul shakli zangula va qifro dorad. Guli bodiring judojinsa buda, gulhoi modina yaktogy va gulhoi narina judo dar bagali bargho joygirand. Bodiring mevai darozruyai borik dorad.

Bodiring 25 namud dorad, ki az hama pahnshudatarinash bodiringi kishtshavanda meboshad. Vatani aslii oi nohiyahoi tropikii Hindusgon meboshad, ki onro taqriban 3000 sol pesh dar in mamlakat parvarish mekardand. Dar sarzamini tojikon az asri 16 injonib malum ast.

Bodiring sabzavoti foidanok buda, dar tarkibi mevai taru tozaash 95— 96% ob, 0,86% moddahoi nitrogendor, 1,8 —2,8% qand, 0,4% kletchatka, inchunin vitaminhoi S, A, V,, V,, namakhoi kaliy, kalsiy va fosfor dorad. Mevai bodiringro dar shakli taru toza yo namakikunondashuda istemol mekunand.

Bodiringro ba juz dar maydonhoi kishtshavanda, inchunin dar garmkhonaho parvarish karda, dar fasli zimiston metavon hosili dilkhohi mevai taru tozai onro ba dast ovard.

  1. Oilai kadugulon chi khel alomathoi umumi dorand?
  2. Kadugulon beshtar dar kadom mintaqahoi jahon pahn shudaand?
  3. CHaro hasharot ba guli bodiring, kharbuza, tarbuz va kadu beshtar shavqu ragbat dorad?
  4. Kadugulon chi ahamiyat dorand?
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