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NAMOZI JANOZA

Namozi janoza dar haqiqat duost baroi mayit dar peshgohi  Arhamu-r-rohimin.

SHarthoi namozi janoza hamon sharthoi namoz ast va ilova bar in agar khabari marg rasida boshad. Agar kase az barpo shudani namozi janoza khabar nayoft, pas u mazur ast va bar u namozi janoza vojib nest.

Baroi sihhati namozi janoza du shart ast. YAke taalluq ba namozguzor va digare taalluq bar mayit dorad.

SHarthoi namozi janoza baroi namozguzoron.

Avval: Tahorat. Duvvum: Satri avrat. Savvum: Istiqboli qibla. CHahorum: Niyat.

SHarthoi namozi janoza baroi mayit.

Avval: Mayit boyad musalmon boshad, agarchi fosiq ham boshad. Albatta, bar duzdu yogi, ki dar holati jang va zudukhurd bo sarbozoni islom kushta boshand, hamchunin baroi qotili padaru modar namozi janoza khonda nameshavad.

janoza-namoz

Agar padaru modari bachai favtida musalmon hastand, pas bar on bacha namoz khonda shavad.

Mayit iborat az kase ast, ki zinda boshad va bimirad, agar murda ba dunyo biyomad, mayit nest va bar u namozi janoza joiz nest.

Duvvum: Badan va kafani mayit haz najosati khaqiqivu hukmiya boyad pok boshad. Albatta, agar najosati haqiqiya az khudi mayit berun omada boshad va dur kardani on boisi norohatii mardum ast, pas namozi janoza joiz ast.

Agar mayit az najosati hukmi pok naboshad, yane onro gusl va yo tayammum nadoda boshand, namoz joiz nest. Vale agar biduni gusl dafn shuda boshad, bar qabri on namoz joiz ast. Va agar biduni gusl va yo tayammum namoz khonda dafn kardaand, pas boyad digarbora bar qabri u namoz khonda shavad va namozi avvala joiz nest.

Agar biduni namozi janoza dafn shuda boshad, to se shabonaruz bar qabri on mayit namoz khondan joiz ast.

Tahorati makon baroi guzoshtani mayit shart nest. Agar zamin va takhtavu tobut kasif[1] boshand, tavre ki kafan najas nashavad va mayitro bar on guzoshta namoz khonda shavad, namoz joiz ast.

Savvum. Avrati mayit boyad pushida boshad va agar mayit komilan barahna boshad, namoz joiz nest.

CHahorum. Mayit dar peshi namozguzoron guzoshta shavad. Va agar dar aqib boshad, namoz joiz nest.

Panjum. Mayit va yo on chi mayit bar boloi on ast, boyad bar zamin guzoshta shavad, vale agar dar boloi dasti mardumon va yo moshin va yo gayri inho boshad, namoz joiz nest.

SHashum. Mavjud budani mayit ast va agar mayit mavjud naboshad, namozi janoza joiz nest.

Dar namozi janoza du chiz farz ast: Avval, chahor marotiba takbir guftan. Duvvum, qiyom. Biduni uzr tarki qiyom joiz nest. Vale dar in namoz rukuu sajda va qada nest.

Dar namozi janoza se chiz sunnat ast: Avval, hamdi Hudoi taolo. Duvvum, durud bar Hazrati Muhammadi Mustafo (s). Savvum, duo baroi mayit.

Jamoat dar namozi janoza shart nest va agar yak nafar namozi janozaro az jinsi mard, zan, bolig yo sagir bikhonad, farz ado meshavad. Albatta, in namoz bo jamoat behtar ast.

Abuhurayra (raz) guyad: Paygambar (s) farmud: «Kase, ki bar janozae hozir shavad va korhoi marbut bar onro anjom dihad, to joe ki bar mayit namozi janoza bikhonand, savobi on kas yak qirot ast va kase, ki dar marosimi janozae az avval shirkat kunad, to joe ki mayitro ba khok suporand, savobash ba andozai du qirot ast». Az Paygambar (s) pursida shud: «Du qirot chand ast?» Farmud: «Ba andozai du kuhi buzurg ast». (YAne, kase, ki dar in marosim to okhirin marhila shirkat kunad, monandi on ast, ki du kuhi buzurg dar tarozui amolash qaror doda shudaast).[2]

Ibni Abbos (raz) az Paygambar (s) rivoyat mekunad, ki: «Avvalin chize ki Hudovand bad az marg ba bandai mumin podosh medihad, on ast, ki kasone, ki dar tashei janozai u shirkat kardaand, mavridi afvu omurzish qaror medihad».[3]

Tariqai khondani namozi janoza

Tariqi sunnati khondani namozi janoza in ast, ki mayitro dar pesh guzoshta, imom dar muqobili sinai mayit istoda shavad. Va hama niyat kunand, ki:

Niyat kardam biguzoram chahor takbiri saloti janoza sano mar Hudoyro, durud mar Muhammad Mustaforo, savobash mar in mutavafforo. Ruy ovardam ba qibla, qibla ba jihati Kaba, iqtido kardam ba imomi hoziristoda, kholisan lillohi taolo. Allohu akbar.

Har du dastro bardoshta ba narmii gushho rasonida bad poyon namuda, dar zeri nof bibandad. Va bad az on in duoro bikhonad:

Subhonakallohuma va bihamdika va taboraka-smuka va taolo jadduka va lo iloha gayruk. Allohu akbar.

Allohumma salli alo Muhammadiv-va alo oli Muhammadin kamo sallayta alo Ibrohima va alo oli Ibrohima, innaka Hamidum-Majid. Allohumma borik alo Muhammadiv-va alo oli Muhammadin kamo borakta alo Ibrohima va alo oli Ibrohima, innaka Hamidum-Majid. Allohu akbar.

Agar murda shakhsi bolig boshad, khoh mard boshad, khoh zan in duoro bikhonad:

Allohumma-gfirli hayino va mayitino va shohidino va goibino va sagirino va kabirino va zakarino va unsono. Allohumma man ahyaytahu minno fa ahyihhu ala-l-islomi va man tavaffaytahu minno fa tavaffahu ala-l-imon. Birahmatika yo Arhama-r-rohimin. Allohu akbar.

Agar mayit pisarbachai khurdsol va yo shakhsi devonae boshad, ki dar tamomi umrash hushyor nashuda boshad, in duoro bikhonad:

Allohumma-jalhu lano farratav-va-jalhu lano ajrav- va zukhrav-va-jalhu lano shofiav-va mushaffio. Birahmatika yo Arhama-r-rohimin.

Agar mayit dukhtarbachai khurdsol boshad, in duoro bikhonad:

Allohumma-jalho lano farratav-va-jalho lano ajrav-va zukhrav-va-jalho lano shofiav-va mushaffio. Birahmatika yo Arhama-r-rohimin.

Bad az in duo takbiri chahorumro gufta, biduni in ki dasthoro bardorad, ba du taraf salom dihad.

Masalahoi namozi janoza

Dar khondani duoho va gayri onho dar namozi janoza imom va iqtidokunandagon barobarand, faqat in qadar farq dorad, ki imom takbir va salomro baland meguyadu muqtadi ohista.

Mustahab ast, ki mardum se saf gardand, agarchi haft nafar boshand. YAk nafar imom, se nafar safi avval, du nafar safi duvvum va yak nafar safi savvumro tashkil dihand.

Har chize, ki namozro fosid mekunad, mufsidi namozi janoza niz hamon ast. Vale dar namozi janoza khandai qahqaha tahoratro nameshikanad. Va agar bo zane az lihozi saf muqobil shavad (yane, agar zan dar safi mardon boshad), fosidkunandai namozi janoza nest, dar surate, ki in muqobala dar namozi farz namozi mardro fosid mekunad va niz khandai qahqaha dar namozi farz tahoratro botil mekunad.

Hondani namozi janoza dar masjide, ki namozhoi panjgona va jumavu idayn khonda meshavad, makruh ast, chi mayit dar dokhili masjid boshad va chi dar beruni masjid.[4] («Hulosatu-l-masoil», sah. 111).

Takhir kardani namozi janoza baroi ziyod shudani jamoat makruh ast.

Hondani namozi janoza ba tariqi nishasta biduni uzr makruh ast.

Agar yakchandto janoza boshad, ba har yake alohida namozi janoza khondan behtar ast, vale agar chand tobutro pahlui ham guzoshta, bar hamaashon yak namoz khonda shavad, niz joiz ast.

Agar mayitho az asnofi mukhtalif (yane, mardu zan va pisaru dukhtari nobolig boshand) boshand, avval mardho, duvvum pisarho, savvum zanho va chahorum dukhtarho guzoshta shavand.

Agar kase bad az in, ki imom chand takbirro guftaast, birasid, favran takbir naguyad, balki intizori bikashad, to on zamone ki imom takbiri soniro biguyad, u niz takbir biguyad va dokhili jamoat gardad. Hangome ki imom salom dihad, baqiyai takbirotro biduni in, ki chize bikhonad, biguyad. Va agar vaqte rasad, ki imom takbiri chahorumro guftaasg, favran takbir biguyad va dokhili namoz shavad va bad az salom dodani imom takbiroti favtshudaro biguyad.

Agar kase dar avvali jamoat baroi shirkat dar jamoat omodagi doshta bud, vale ba vositai gaflat dokhili shuda natavonist. Hangome ki imom bad az guftani takbir mashguli khondani «Subhonakallohumma» meboshad, favran takbiri avvalro biguyad va ba namoz sharik shavad. Iodai on takbire, ki imom takbiri duvvumro nagufta boshad, ba namozi janoza sharik gashtaast, lozim nest.

Baroi imomatii namozi janoza muqaddamtar az har kas raisi jumkhur, yo podshohi islomi vaqt ast. Agar inho hozir naboshand, hokimi shahr va badan qozi va badan noibi qozi va agar noibi qozi niz naboshad, imomi masjide, ki mayit dar holi hayot on jo namoz mekhond va yo vali[5] va yo kase, ki vali ba u ijozat dihad, behtar ast.

Agar kase, ki sazovori imomat naboshad, biduni ijozati vali namozi janozaro khonad, valii mayit metavonad on namozro ioda kunad va agar sazovor boshad, nametavonad. Inchunin tavsiya ast, ki somonai mazkur khonda shavad: http://life.ansor.info/tj/niyati_namozi_janoza/ 

[1] Kasif – nopok, oluda.

[2] «Al-luluu va-l-marjon». Jildi avval. Sah. 398.

[3] «Mukhtoru-l-ahodis». Sah. 197.

[4] Az Hazrati Abuhurayra (raz) rivoyat shuda, ki Rasululloh (s) farmud: «Kase, ki dar masjid namozi janoza khonad, baroi u hej chiz nest», yane na namozi janozaash durust ast va na mujibi podosh megardad. («Ravishi namozi Rasululloh (s)», sah. 440).

[5] Vali – sohibi murda.

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