Home / Biologiya / MODDAHOI GAYRIORGANIKII TARKIBI HUJAYRA

MODDAHOI GAYRIORGANIKII TARKIBI HUJAYRA

Ob. Payvastagii gayriorganikii pahnshuda dar organizmi zinda–ob meboshad. Mavjudiyati on dar organizm ba haddi vase merasad. Dar hujayrahoi siri dandon taqriban 10%, vale dar hujayrahoi inkishofyobandai janin-beshtar az 90% ob mavjud ast. Ba hisobi miyona dar organizmi serhujayra ob taqriban 80%-i massai badanro tashkil medihad.

Ahamiyati ob dar hujayra nihoyat buzurg ast. Vazifai on bisyor vaqt bo tabiati khimiyavi muayyan megardad. Hususiyati dipolii sokhti molekula ba qobiliyati faolona bo moddahoi gunogun ba reaksiya dokhil shudani ob sabab gardidaast. Molekulai on ba kationho va anionho tajziya shudani yak qator moddahoi dar ob halshavandaro ba vujud meorad.

hujaira-03

Dar natija, ionho favran ba reaksiyahoi khimiyavi dokhil meshavand. Aksari reaksiyahoi khimiyavi tasiri mutaqobilai bayni moddahoi dar ob halshavanda meboshand. Hamin tavr, qutbnokii molekula va qobiliyati hosil kardani ban-

dhoi gidrogeni imkon dodaand, ki ob baroi miqdori ziyodi moddahoi gayriorganiki va organiki hamchun halkunandai khub khizmat namoyad. Fayr az in, ba sifati halkunanda ob jarayoni moddahoro ba hujayra, hamchunin, az on judo namudani mahsuli faoliyati hayotiro tamin menamoyad. Zeri tasiri baze katalizatorho – fermentho ob ba reaksiyai gidroliz dokhil meshavad, ki dar natija moddahoi navi doroi khosiyathoi nav hosil megardand.

Namakhoi minerali. Qismi ziyodi moddahoi gayriorganiki dar hujayra ba namudi namakho (yo ba ionho dissotsiatsiya shudaand yo dar holati sakhti) mavjudand. Dar bayni onho ahamiyati kalonro kationhoi kaliy K va kalsiy Sa2+ sohiband, ki yake az khosiyathoi muhimi organizmi zinda–barangezishro tamin menamoyand. Az konsentratsiyai namakho dar dokhili hujayra khosiyati buferii on vobastagi dorad.

Bufer yo khud holati buferi gufta on qobiliyati hujayrahoro menomand, ki reaksiyai susti ishqoriro dar darajai doimi nigoh medorand. Mahluli buferi chunin ast, ki hangomi ba on dokhil kardan yo dar ravandi mubodilai moddaho hosil shudani miqdori kami kislota yo ishqor bo sababi hosil kardani payvastagi bo karbonatho, fosfatho yo molekulahoi organiki ba qimati rN tasir namekunad.

Dar dokhili hujayra holati buferiro asosan anionhoi kislotai fosfat tamin menamoyad. Dar moei berun az hujayra va khun roli buferiro N2SO3 va NSO ijro mekunand. Anioni kislotahoi sust va ishqorhoi sust ionhoi gidrogen (N) va gidroksid-ionho (ON)-ro payvast mekunand, ki ba tufayli in dar dokhili hujayra reaksiya tagyir nameyobad. Namakhoi mineralii halnashavanda, masalan, fosfati kalsiy, ba tarkibi moddahoi baynihujayravii boftahoi ustukhon, gushtmohii narmbadanon dokhil shuda, ustuvoriro tamin menamoyand.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Ba tarkibi hujayra kadom elementhoi khimiyavi dokhil meshavand?
  2. Vobasta ba roli biologii elementhoi khimiyavi misolho biyored.
  3. CHiro mikroelementho menomand? Misolho biyored va ahamiyati biologii onhoro tavsif kuned.
  4. Ba tarkibi hujayra kadom moddahoi gayriorganiki dokhil meshavand?
  5. Ahamiyati biologii ob dar chi ifoda meyobad? Ahamiyati namakhoi minerali dar chist?
  6. Kadom moddaho sababgori khosiyati buferii hujayraho meboshand?

Istilohot:

  1. Mahluli buferi – mahluli moddahoi gayriorganiki yo organiki, ki qimati rN-ro hangomi dokhil namudani miqdori kami kislota yo ishqor tagyir namedihand.
  2. Gomeostaz – holati muvozinati dinamikii sistemai tabiat, ki sistemai idorakunii faoliyatro nigoh medorad.
  3. Bioelementho -elementhoi khimiyavie, ki asosi molekulahoi organikiro tashkil medihand.
  4. Mikroelementho – elementhoi khimiyavii ba tarkibi molekulahoi organiki dokhilshavanda, ki miqdori onho az haddi 0,001% ziyodtar nest.
  5. Makroelementho – elementhoi khimiyavii ba tarkibi molekulahoi organiki dokhilshavanda, ki miqdori onho az haddi 1% ziyodtar nest.

 

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

priroda

INKISHOFI ORGANIZMHO VA MUHITI ZIST

Organizm be muhiti zist vujud doshta nametavonad. Az in jost, ki inkishofi organizm be muhit …