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MAGZI SAR

magzi-sarMAGZI SAR (Encephalon), qismi peshi silsilai asabhoi markazi, ki dar javfi kosakhonai sar (jumjuma) joy giriftaast. On az nimkuraho, tana va maynacha iborat ast. Vazni M. s.-i odami kalonsol 1200 – 1400 g meboshad. M.s.-i kudaki navzod ba hisobi miyona 350 g vazn dorad, ki hashtyak yo dahyaki vazni umumii badanro tashkil mekunad (dar odami kalonsol chilyak). Rushdi M. s. dar 20-solagi ba okhir merasad; dar in muddat vazni on 3,5 – 4 marotiba meafzoyad, holo on ki vazni umumii badan 20 marotiba ziyod meshavad. M. s. asosan az hisobi mielindor shudani torhoi asab (yane ba pardai mielini pushida shudani onho va gafs gardidani in parda), inchunin az hisobi afzudani andozahoi hujayrahoi asab (dar vaqti tavallud M. s. ziyoda az 10 mlrd hujayrahoi asab dorad) mesabzad. Dar piri vazni M. s. misli dig. uzvhoi badan andak kam meshavad.
Tanai M. s. davomi harommagz dar daruni kosai sar buda, sokhtash chand sifati khosi onro nigoh medorad. Az tana reshachahoi asabhoi M.s. mebaroyand. Dar tanai M. s. ba misli shokhahoi aqib va peshi moddai khokistarrangi harommagz yadrohoi muhassisi asabhoi jumjumavu magz (signalhoro az darrokhoi pusti ruy, luobpardai bini, dahon, balum va halqum qabul mekunand), darrokhoi binoi, zoiqa, shunavoi va muvozanat, inchunin yadrohoi muharrik (mushakhoi ruy, zabon, balum, halqumro bo torhoi asab tamin mesozand) vujud dorand. Dar tanai M. s. ham, chun dar hamrommagz, rohhoi noqili bolorav va poyonrav hastand. Ammo sokht va vazifahoi tanai M. s. nisbat ba harommagz murakkabtar meboshand, zero dar tanai M. s. tashkilahoi asabie hastand, ki amaliyoti segmenthoi harommagzro nazorat mekunand va onhoro ba yak uzvi ijroiya muttahid mesozand. Ba in tashkilaho mansuband: moddai turshakl (tashkilai mushabbak), ki ba amaliyoti nafaqat harommagz, balki ba M. s., markazhoi nafaskashi va muharriki ragho niz tasiri kalon merasonad; markazhoe, ki junbishhoi ahlonai chashmho va sarro tamin menamoyand; markaze, ki vazi tana va andomhoi boloyu poyonro muvofiqan ba vazi sar tanzim mesozad; markaze, ki aksulamali nogahoni angezishhoi sadoi va rushnoiro idora mekunand va g.
Dar tanai M. s. magzi darozruya (mujoviri harommagz ast) puli magzi sar va maynai mobayni mavjudand. Magzi darozruya shomili yadrohoi muharrik, muhassis va vegetativii asabhoi zabonu balum, asabhoi gumrohu ilovagi va zerizaboni, inchunin rohhoi noqili poyonrav meboshad. Dar aqibi magzi darozruya, dar nazdikii surokhi kaloni ustukhoni pushti sar, markazhoi hayotan muhimi nafas va muharriki khunragho mavjudand; illati bakhshi mazkur mumkin ast boisi qati nafas va kori dil gardad. Dar puli M. s., ki dar bayni magzhoi darozruyayu mobayni voqe ast, yadrohoi asabhoi setora, durbar, ruy, somea joygir shudaand. Rohhoi noqil dar puli M. s. na dar shakli sutunhoi umumi, balki ba dastahoi nozuki judogona taqsim shuda, az fosilahoi tangi bayni yadrohoi khudi pul ubur mekunand. CHunin joygiri baroi ijroi yake az muhimtarin vazifahoi puli M. s. – tamini mubodilai akhbor dar bayni sistemahoi noqili mukhtalif, ki ba tavassuti az yak qabzai noqil ba qabzi digar (rohi asosiro sarfi nazar karda) guzashtani asabhoi pahlui ba amal meoyad, khele muvofiq ast. Tashkilai turmonandi pul dar muovizai akhbori bayni rohhoi noqil roli muhim mebozad.
Puli M. s. az tarafi pesh ba magzi mobayni tabdil meyobad; poyahoi M. s., ki az khud rohhoi noqili asosii poyonravro meguzaronand, inchunin lavhachai sarpush (chorteppa) niz mutaalliq ba magzi mobayn meboshand. Dar chorteppa du talchai boloi (shomili yadrohoi markazhoi ibtidoii binoi meboshand) va du talchai poyoni (doroi yadrohoi markazi shunavoiand) joy giriftaand. Markazhoi ibtidoii binoi va shunavoii magzi mobayni nafaqat qitahoe meboshand, ki akhborro ba markazhoi olii dar qishri nimkurahoi mayna qarordoshtai bosira va somea intiqol medihand, balki dar tashkili harakathoi beikhtiyori javobi ba tasiri angezishhoi nogahonii sadoi yo ravshani (ba istiloh «start – refleksho») ishtirok dorand. Dar mobayni chorteppa va poyahoi magz lavhachai vasatii maynai mobayni qaror dorad, ki shomili torho va yadrohoi tashkilai turmonand, yadrohoi muharrik va vegetativii asabhoi muharriki chashmho, inchunin rohhoi noqili boloravi hissiyot meboshad. Bevosita dar boloi poyahoi magz moddai siyoh va yadroi surkh mavjudand, ki dar tahiyai avtomatizmhoi muharrik shirkat dorand. Tashkilai turmonandi magzi mobayni bo qismhoi amiqi nimkurahoi magzi sar aloqai serjanba dorad va baze vazifahoi muhimro ba jo meorad, az jumla dar tanzimi khob va bedori shirkat mevarzad.
Dar aqibi tanai M. s. magzcha joy giriftaast, ki magzi darozruya va puli M. s.-ro qarib tamoman rupush mekunad. Magzcha bo tanai M. s. ba vositai se juft poya aloqamand ast: ba vositai poyahoi bolo va maynai mobayni; ba tavassuti poyahoi miyona bo puli M. s.; ba vositai poyahoi poyon bo magzi darozruya. Poyahoi magzcha aslan rohhoi noqil buda, akhborro az bakhshhoi asosii M. s. va harommagz ba magzcha intiqol medihand va baraks, signalhoro az magzcha ba hujayrahoi muharrik, ki mushakhoi skeletiro bo asab tamin mekunad, meguzaronand. Magzcha mutobiqati harakathoro tanzim menamoyad; on az qismi mobayni (kirmak), ki mutobiqati harakathoi tanro tamin mesozad va du nimkurai pahlui, ki mutobiqati harakathoi dastu poyhoro idora mekunad, iborat ast. Andaruni magzi kirmak va nimkuraho yadrohoi moddahoi khokistarrang hastand. Tamomi maynacha bo qabati qishri moddai khokistarrang, yane qishri magzcha rupush shudaast. Qishri magzcha vazifai nihoyat murakkabro ijro mekunad: darki khabarhoi mukhtalif dar borai mavqei badan va ajzoi on dar fazo, tamin namudani muvozanati mutadili badan dar holati oromi va hangomi harakat.
Magzi mobayni az pesh ba qismi vasati (diensefali)-i M. s. meguzarad, ki on dar miyonajoi du nimkurai kaloni M. s. meistad. Magzi mobayni az du nimai mutanosib iborat ast, ki onhoro medachai seyumi rogmonand az hamdigar judo mesozad. Dar in nimaho chor guruhi kaloni yadrohoi moddai khokistarrang mavjud ast: teppai bosira, mintaqahoi boloteppa, pasiteppa va zerteppa. Vazifahoi in tashkilahoi yadroi gunogun meboshand. Dar teppai bosira moddai khokistarrangi M.s. az hama ziyodtar gird omadaast. Dar in jo hujayrahoi asabe gun shudaand, ki akhborro az hamai rohhoi noqili hassosiyat va qisman az binoi va shunavoi, shomma va zoiqa qabul mekunand. Dar teppai bosira in signalho tahlilu murattab shuda, sipas ba qishri nimkurahoi kaloni M. s. intiqol meyoband. Dar mintaqai boloteppa dar khatti miyona zoidi toqai boloi mayna yo jismi gurrishakl – epifiz qaror dorad. Mintaqai pasiteppa az jismhoi zonushakli beruni va daruni iborat ast; onho ba vositai dastahoi torhoi asab ba talchahoi bolo va poyoni chorteppa, ki markazhoi binoi va shunavoi meboshand, payvast shudaand.
Mintaqai zerteppa yo gipotalamus az teppai bosira poyontar meistad. Gipotalamus dar qismi poyon tangii makhrutshakl – qife dorad, ki az on zoidi tahtonii mayna – gipofiz sar meshavad. Gipotalamus yadrohoi moddai khokistarrang dorad, ki onho harorati badan, mubodilai ob, namak, charb, karbogidratho, jarayoni khob va bedori, kori gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili, sistemahoi asabhoi simpati va parasimpatiro ba tartib meandozand. Hujayrahoi yadrohoi gipotalamus usorae (neyrosekret) tarashshuh mekunand, ki on ba vositai shokha (akson)-hoi hujayraho, inchunin khunragho ba gipofiz va sipas ba khun jori meshavad.
Nimkurahoi kaloni M. s. qismi az hama farokh va kalontari silsilai asabhoi markazi meboshand. Har du nimkura, ki onhoro rogi tuloni az yakdigar judo mesozad, bo hamdigar ba tavassuti chand vaslati moddai safed mepayvandand (qavitari onho jismi pinashakl meboshad). Vaslatho az torhoi asab iborat buda, markazi asabhoi har du nimkuraro marbut mesozand. Ba tufayli vaslatho nimkuraho ahlona amal mekunand. Sathi nimkuraho az qabati moddai khokistarrangi gafsiash to 5 mm iborat ast, ki onro qishri nimkurahoi kalon menomand. Qishrro hujayrahoi gunogunandoza va gunogunvazifai asab tashkil medihand. Rui qishr mavjoso pastu baland buda, az tegahoi baland, pushtachaho va chuqurihoi rogmonand – juyakho iborat ast, ki ba tufayli on masohati umumii moddai khokistarrang khele meafzoyad. Juyakho va pushtachaho har yak nimkuraro shartan ba chahor hissai asosi (hissahoi peshoni, torak, chakka va pasi sar) va yak hissai ilovagi (jazirachae, ki dar umqi rog joy girifta, hissai chakkaro az hissahoi peshoni va torak judo mesozad) judo karda, ba sifati nishon (orientir) khizmat mekunand. Dar tahti qishri nimkurai kalon moddai safed joy dorad. On az torhoi sershumori asabho, ki bo pardai mielini pushidaand va ba samthoi gunogun ravonand, tarkib yoftaast. YAk qismi torho ba rohhoi noqili poyonrav mutaaliq buda, az hujayrahoi qishr ogoz meyoband va dar yadrohoi M. s. va moddai khokistarrangi harommagz meanjomand. Torhoi digar ba rohhoi boloravi noqili hassosiyat, bosira, somea, zoiqa va shoma mansub buda, dar on hujayrahoi qishr, ki akhbori az berun va daruni organizm oyandaro qabul va dark mekunand, ba okhir merasand. Boz torhoe hastand, ki markazhoi hamon nimkuraro payvast mekunand, inchunin torhoe vujud dorand, ki kafsheraki safedi bayni nimkurahoro tashkil medihand.
Andaruni nimkurahoi kalon chand tashkilai moddai khokistarrang – ba istiloh yadrohoi bazali (asabi) qaror megirand. Onho az yadrohoi dumdor va naskshakl, inchunin ba istiloh tavora – lavhachai mahini moddai khokistarrang, ki berun az yadroi naskshakl meistad, iboratand. Dar bayni teppai bosira, ki tobei maynai vasati meboshad va yadrohoi bazali fosilai tange boqi memonad. Az hamin fosila tamomi rohhoi asosii noqile meguzarand, ki ba sui qishr yo az on poyon meravand. Rohhoi noqili dar in fosila az had ziyod gunshuda va guyo fishurdagashta ba istiloh gilofi dokhili – qabati nihoyat zichi moddai safedro, ki az 2 – 3 to 5 – 8 mm gafsi dorad, tashkil medihand. Hujayrahoi asabi yadrohoi naskshakl va bazalii dumdor dar ijroi harakathoi avtomati ishtirok mekunand.
M. s. va harommagzro 3 qabat parda pushidaast: pardai sakht, ankabuti va narm. Pardahoi M. s. az yakdigar bo fosilahoi rogmonand judo shudaand. Az jonibi beruni pardai sakhti M. s. fosilai epidurali (sakhtpardai favqoni) joygir ast. Dar mobayni pardahoi sakht va ankabutii magz fosilai subdurali (sakhtpardai tahtoni) qaror dorad. Dar bayni pardahoi ankabuti va narmi mayna fosilai zerankabuti vujud dorad, ki dar on moei magz hast. Fosilai epidurali dar atrofi harommagz qad-qadi kanali sutunmuhra bo nasji narmi charbi pur ast; dar on shabakai siyohragho joygir buda, khunro az harommagz dur mebarand. Fosilai epiduralii kovokii jumjuma nasji charbi va siyohrag nadorad: pardai sakhti magz bevosita bo lavhachai daruni ustukhoni sar jafs meshavad. Pardai narmi magz ba sathi M. s. va harommagz zich rasida, ba tamomi rogu juyakho vorid meshavad va raghoi khungarde dorad, ki ba M. s. gizo medihand.
Dar M. s. 4 javf, yane medachahoi mayna hastand, ki onho bo moei magz pur meboshand. Du medachai pahlui mutanosiban dar umqi har yak nimkurai kaloni M. s., ammo medachahoi III va IV toq buda, dar khatti miyona, dar mintaqai maynai vasati va tanai M. s. voqeand. Hama medachaho bayni yakdigar roh dorand: medachahoi pahlui bo medachai III, ki onro rogi borik dar bayni teppahoi rost va chapi bosira «fishurdaast», kushoda meshavand. Medachai III ba vositai noi makhsus – ba istiloh obrohai M. s., bo medachai IV, ki dar mobayni tanai M. s. va magzcha qaror dorad, marbut ast. Medachai IV bo yorii surokhho bo fosilai zerankabuti va noi markaziyu tulonii harommagz payvast shudaast. Dar medachaho va fosilai zerankabutii odami kalonsol hamagi 90 – 150 ml moei magz hast. In moe dar medachahoi M. s. (asosan medachahoi pahlui) hosil gardida, bad ba fazoi zerankabutii M. s. va harommagz meguzarad va ba vositai gurrihoi ankabutparda ba tashkilaho makhsusi pardai sakhti magz – kovokiho (sinusho)-i vena, sipas ba sistemai venaho dokhil meshavad. Moei M. s. dar yak shaboruz 5 marotiba ba kulli ivaz meshavad. Fosilai zerankabuti chand jobiya (sisterna)-ro tashkil mekunad, ki az moei magz pur meboshand. Dutoi onho – jobiyai kalon, ki dar mobayni magzi darozruya va magzcha meistad va jobiyai intihoi, ki qismi poyoni kanali sutunmuhraro ishgol mekunad, nisbatan kalontarand. Az in du jobiya bo khalonidani suzan (ba poyoni pasi sar va yo kamar) chand millilitr moei magzro baroi tadqiq berun mekashand.
M. s. va harommagz bo moei magz ihota shudaand va guyo dar on «shino mekunand»; chunin vaziyat onhoro az osebu sadama emin medorad. Moei magz inchunin dar mubodilai moddaho dar silsilai asabhoi markazi ishtirok mekunand; on qismi tarkibii saddi bayni khunu mayna meboshad, ki sistemai murakkabi masuniyat buda, moddahoi zahrnok, virusho va bakteriyaho, angezandagoni bemorihoi siroyatiro az khun ba mayna guzashtan namemonad. Silsilai asabhoi markazi az raghoi sershumori gusturda khun megirad va takhminan 20 foizi oksigenero, ki bo khun ba tamomi uzvu sitemahoi badan kashonida meshavad, sarf mekunad va ba hamin vasila qobiliyati balandi korii hujayrahoyu torhoi asabro tamin mesozad. M. s. ba khun ehtiyoji kalon dorad va norasoii oksigenro zud his mekunad.
Usuli asoii tadqiqi bemori giriftori noqisihoi M. s. pajuhishhoi nevrologi, oftalmologi va otonevrologi meboshand. Dar tashkhisi bemorihoi M. s. tadqiqi rentgenologi, ham bo istifoda az mavodi kontrasti (pnevmoensefalografiya, ventrikulografiya, angiografiya) va ham biduni istifodai onho (rentgenografiyai jumjuma) ahamiyati kalon dorad. Usulhoi zamonavii tashkhis dar klinikai nevrologi va neyrokhirurgi tomografiyai kompyuteri, tashkhisi ultrasadoi, gammaensefalografiyai radionuklidi, sisternografiya meboshand. Usulhoi nisbatan mamuli tadqiqi fiziologi elektroensefalografiya va reoensefalografiya mahsub meshavand. Hamchunin tahqiqi moei harommagz niz mohiyati khudro gum nakardaast.
Ba bemorihoi M. s. nojurihoi inkishof, oseb, bemoriho va omoshoi gunogun mansuband.
Nuqsi inkishof bisyor vaqt dar natijai tashakkuli nodurusti silsilai asabho yo oseb yoftani on dar davrai inkishofi janin, bemorihoi siroyatii modar (toksoplazmoz, surkhakon, sitomegaliya, gepatiti virusi), tasiri afkanishoti ionnok, oseb, baze moddahoi khimiyavi ba vujud meoyad. Ba nuqsi inkishofi M. s. mansuband: anensefaliya (nabudani nimkurahoi kalon va sarpushi jumjuma), siklopiya (yakchashmi), porensefaliya (ba vujud omadani javfhoe, ki odatan bo medachahoi pahlui aloqamand meboshand), mikrogiriya (khurd budani chinhoi mayna), mikrosefaliya (khurd budani hajmi kosakhonai sar), gidrosefaliyai modarzod (dar javfi jumjuma bisyor jam shudani moei harommagzu mayna) va g.
Ikhtiloli khungardishi M. s. dar mavridi bemorii gipertoniya, aterosklerozi raghoi M. s. va raghoi asosii sar, nuqsi inkishofi raghoi mayna, anevrizmahoi arteriyavii raghoi mayna, vaskulitho, bemorihoi khun, zarbu lat, bemorihoi dil va g. ba vuqu mepayvandad. Alomathoi asosii ikhtiloli khungardish dar mayna sardard, sado dodani gush, charkh zadani sar, kabud shudani luobpardaho va pusti ruy, behushi, ikhtiloli nutq, khalal yoftani faoliyati asabhoi jumjumayu mayna, saktai magzi sar va g. meboshand.
Bemorihoi iltihobii M. s. az arakhnoidit, sarsom, ensefalitho, dumbali mayna, sili magzi sar va sifilisi mayna, bemorihoi parazitii on boshand az sistiserkoz, ekhinokokkoz iboratand. Dar M. s. omoshoi gunogun niz tashakkul meyoband.
Ad.: Abdurahmonov F.A., Anatomiyai odam, j. 1 – 2, D., 1995, 1998; Solodkov A. S., Fiziologiya cheloveka, M., 2001; Gayvoronskiy I. V., Anatomiya SNS, SPb., 2006;
F. A. Abdurahmonov,
F. A. SHukurov.
KL
Rasmi 1. Magzi sar (burishi darozruya): 1 – hissai peshoni; 2 – pechi kamarbandshakl; 3 – jismi pinashakl (ozakhmonand); 4 – tavorai shaffof; 5 – ravoq; 6 – kafsheraki pesh;7 – tasolubi bosira; 8 – mavzei zeri talamus; 9 – gipofiz; 10 – hissai chakka; 11 – pul (kupruk); 12 – magzi darozruya; 13 – medachai chorum; 14 – magzcha; 15 – obrasoni mayna; 16 – hissai pasi sar; 17 – lavhachai sarpush; 18 – jismi kurashakl; 19 – hissai toraki sar; 20 – talamus.
Rasmi 2. Magzi sar (namud az pahlu): 1 – hissai peshoni; 2 – hissai chakka; 3 – magzi darozruya; 4 – magzcha; 5 – hissai pasi sar; 6 – hissai toraki sar; 7 – juyaki jonibi (laterali); 8 – juyaki mobayni.
Rasmi 3. Magzi sar (namud az bolo): 1 – hissahoi peshoni; 2 – hissahoi toraki sar; 3 – hissahoi pasi sar; 4 – rogi darozruyai magzi kalon.
Rasmi 4. Magzi sar (namud az poyon): 1 – hissahoi peshoni; 2 – rohi shomma; 3 – asabi bosira; 4 – hissai chakka; 5 – asabi muharriki chashm; 6 – asabi gargarashakl; 7 – pul (kupruk); 8 – asabi setora; 9 – asabi durbar; 10 – asabhoi chehra va dahleziyu halzuni; 11 – asabi zabonu halqum; 12 – asabi gumroh; 13 – asabi ilovagi; 14 – magzcha; 15 – hissahoi pasi sar; 16 – ahromho; 17 – asabi zeri zabon; 18 – jismi pistonshakl; 19 – talchai khokistarrang va qif; 20 – tasallubi pasi sar.
Rasmi 5. Magzi sar (raghoi maynai kalon,namud az bolo): 1 – sinusi darozruyai bolo; 2 – hurfa(lakuna)-hoi pahlui; 3 – arteriyahoi sathi nimkurrahoi kaloni mayna; 4 – ba sinusi darozruyai bolo hamroh shudani venahoi mayna; 5 – venahoi peshoni.
Rasmi 6. Magzi sar (raghoi maynai kalon, namud az poyon): 1-arteriyai subotii dokhili; 2 – arteriyai peshi mayna; 3 – arteriyai payvandii pesh; 4 – arteriyai payvandii qafo; 5 – arteriyai qafoi mayna; 6 – arteriyai asos; 7 – venai asos; 8 – venai kaloni mayna; 9 – arteriyai miyonai mayna.

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