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INFORMATIKA VA KOMPYUTER

Insoniyat dar tuli mavjudiyati khud yak zumra inqilobhoi ilmiyu tekhnikiro pasi sar namudaast, ki har kadomashon dar kamolot va khudshinosii on naqshi amiqro boqi guzoshtaand. Masalan, asri sangi ba paydoshavii avvalin oloti mehnat sabab gasht, ki on zahmati insonro kullan digargun sokht.

Asri birinji ba azkhudkunii gudokhtani metall ovard, ki on ba digargunshavii mohiyati hayoti jamiyati takone dod. Va bo hamin zayl, asri charkh ba paydoish va istifodabarii arobayu avtomobil, asri barq ba azkhudkuni va istifodabarii energiyai behamtoi barqi, asri yadroi ba azkhudkuni va inkishofi minbadai omuzishi kayhon va energetikai atomi sabab gashtaand, ki onho mehnati fikriyu jismonii insonro millionho marotiba oson gardonidaand. Imruzho boshad, inson dar borai asri informatsioni sukhan meronad. In besabab nest.

exnologiyai-info_

Asri HHI baroi on asri «Informatika» nom giriftaast, ki boyad dar in asr tamomi samthoi faoliyati inson az dastovardhoi tekhnikai kompyuteri va tekhnologiyai navtarini korkardi informatsiya bahravar gardad. Sahmi informatsiya dar qabuli qarorhoi idorakunii istehsolot, jamiyat, tafakkur va halli masalahoi ruzmarra ba darajae meafzoyad, ki on ba qatori du omili hayotan muhimidigar – modda va energiya shomil megardad. Omilhoi segona, yane modda-energiya-informatsiya ba zumrai on gizohoe tabdil meyoband, ki insoni qarni nav mazmunu mundarijai hayot va faoliyati aqloniyu jismonii khudro dar takya ba onho banizom medarorad.

Informatsiya (Infoqmation) mahfumi khele vase ast. Kalimahoi tojikii (shoyad forsi yo arabi) «khabar», «akhbor», «malumot», «ittiloot» va gayraho baze pahluhoi mafhumi informatsiyaro manidod menamoyand, vale yagontoi onho in kalimaro purra ivaz karda nametavonand. Masalan, signali yagon datchikro informatsiya guftan mumkin ast, vale ittiloot ne.

Informatika fanni tekhniki buda, qonunho va usulhoi gunkuni, zakhirakuni, korkardabaroi va intiqoli informatciyaro bo yorii kompyuter meomuzad.

Fanni informatikaro dar mamlakathoi garb «Ilmi kompyuteri (Computeq science)» meguyand. Kompyuter, ki onro moshini elektronii hisobbaror (MEH) niz nom mebarand, yake az dastovardhoi buzurgtarini ilmu tekhnikai hozirazamon ba hisob meravad. Hudi manoi kalimai kompyuter (computeq) niz dar zaboni

tojiki hisobbaror ast. Qarib har sol skhema va sokhti in moshinho takmil yofta, sohahoi tadbiqi onho vase megardand. Ba hisobi miyona qarib har dahsola dar tekhnologiyai istehsolot, konstruksiya va usulhoi istifodabarii MEH tagyirothoe ba vujud meoyand, ki beshubha dar borai paydoshavii nasli navi kompyuterho sukhan rondan lozim meoyad.

Imruz on kompyuterhoe, ki aslan baroi halli masalahoi hisobkuni sokhta shuda budand, tadbiqi khudro dar idorakunii ravandhoi istehsoli, hisobbarorihoi masalahoi iqtisodi, nigohdori va korkardi malumothoi statistiki, manbahoi malumotdihandai informatsiya, tarhrezii ravandhoi fiziki va faoliyati fikrii odamon yoftaand.

Ofarinishi MEH bo behtarin komyobihoi inson, az qabili azkhudkunii quvvai barq, ikhtiroi charkh, bunyodi mekhanizmhoi bugi, istifodabarii energiyai atomi va digar kashfiyot dar yak poya qaror giriftaast. Ikhtirooti nomburda dar rushdi istehsoloti jamiyati va boloravii tafakkuri inson naqshi bagoyat kalone bozidaand. Ba tufayli onho sharoit va sathi zindagii odamon baland gardida, quvvahoi istehsolii jamiyati ba kulli tagyir yoftaast.

Agar moshinhoi muqarrari imkoniyathoi jismonii odamro vase gardonida boshand, pas kompyuter nerui aqloniyu zehnii onro baland bardoshtaast. Taraqqii minbadai MEH ba on ovarda merasonad, ki dar bisyor sohahoi faoliyati fikriyu jismonii inson, moshinho vazifai yordamchii begarazi onro ijro mekardagi meshavand.

Garchande moshinhoi elektronii hisobbaror az jihati namud va tarzi istifodabariashon khele gunogun boshand ham, vale prinsipi kori onho ba hamdigar bis-yor monand ast. Dar hamai onho qismho va juzhoero yoftan mumkin ast, ki funksiyahoi yakkhelaro ijro mekunand. Aynan chunin monandi va umumiyathoro dar sokht va mohiyati masalahoi az sohahoi gunoguni ilm, tekhnika, iqtisodiyot va gayraho paydoshuda niz didan mumkin ast, ki onho ba vositai apparati yakkhelai matematiki hal karda meshavand. Ba monandi hamin, bisyor umumiyathoro dar sohai programmasozi ham didan mumkin ast.

Savolho:

  1. Informatsiya gufta chiro mefahmed?
  2. Baroi chi asri XXI-ro asri «Informatika» menomand?
  3. Informatika chiro meomuzad?
  4. Kalimai kompyuter chiro mefahmonad?
  5. Ikhtiroi kompyuterro bo kadom dastovardhoi behtarini insoniyat muqoisa namudan mumkin ast?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Sohahoero nombar kuned, ki dar onho kompyuterro istifoda mebarand.

 

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