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Hujumi Russiya ba Osiyoi miyona

Inkishofi minbadai robitahoi tijoratiyu siyosii Rossiya bo davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona

Chunon ki dar bolo qayd karda shud, hukumati podshohii rus say menamud, ki bo rohi iqtisodi va diplomati mavqei khudro dar Osiyoi Miyona mustahkam karda, nufuzi hukmfarmoi khudro dar Bukhoro, Kheva va Khuqand poydor gardonad. Dar okhiri solhoi chilum va ibtidoi solhoi panjohumi asri KhIKh kushishhoi Britaniya dar rohi vusat dodani tijorat va dasisahoi siyosii on Peterburgro ba tashvish andokhta, dar vay khavfi jiddii az dast raftani bozori osiyoi miyonagii molhoi rus va dar hududi janubii Rossiya ustuvor gardidani mavqei harifoni khatarnokro ba vujud ovard. Az in ru, hukumati podshohi baroi inkishofi minbadai munosibatho bo davlathoi khonii Osiyon Miyona harakat namuda, dar ayni zamon ba maqsadi barqaror kardani hukm­ronii khud dar on sarzamin iqdomoti harbi niz ba amal ovard.

Dar soli 1847 qushuni hukumati podshohi ba sohilhoi bahri Aral rasid. Dar in jo bo unvoni Raim istehkome bino karda shud, ki badho nomi Qalachai Aralro ba khud girift. In istehkom va digar qalahoi sohili bahri Aral baroi on sokhta shuda budand, ki harakati bemoneai korvonhoi tijorati ba daruntari Osiyoi Miyona tamin gardad. Dar khudi hamin vaqt dastai digare, ki az jonibi Sibir ba Osiyoi Miyona harakat mekard, ba haft­rud rasid. Ba in tariqa, quvvahoi harbii hukumati podshohi ae du taraf – az Orenburg va Omsk ba zaminhoi yayloqii az qazoqho va qirgizho kashidagiriftai davlati khonii Khuqand nazdik shudand.

Ishgoli qalai Oqmachiti Khuqand (istehkomi Perovskiy, Qizil Urdai hozira), ki soli 1853 pas az muhosira va hamlai dastai  jangovaroni  rus  tahti   farmondehii  general-gubernatori Orenburg V.A.Perovskiy ba vuqu payvast, dar rohi harakati minbadai qushunhoi hukumati podshohi marhalai muhimme gardid. hamon sol avvalin rohi obii Rossiya ba Osiyoi Miyona kushoda shud va kishtihoi rus ba shino kardan az bahri Aral ba samti sargahi daryohoi Sir va Amu shuru namudand. Pas az in qad-qadi  sohilhoi  daryoi  Sir   yak  qator  nuqtahoi  muqovimat sokhta, khatti istehkomoti Sirdaryo ba vujud ovarda shud. Dar tarafi sharqii Osiyoi Miyona khatti istehkomoti Sibir ba on mutobiqat menamud. Aholii mahalli qazoqho va qaraqalpoqho, ki duchori zulmu taaddii davlathoi Khuqand va Kheva gardida budand, ba qushunhoi hukumati podshohii rus faolona kumak merasonidand.

Peterburg dar barobari ba  amal ovardani iqdomoti harbi sayu kushishhoi khudro dar bobati ba vasilahoi diplomati «kushodani» rohi vasei ba Kheva va Bukhoro dokhil shudani molhoi rus niz idoma medod. Badi tamom shudani jangi Qrim, ki yak muddat diqqati doirahoi hukmroni imperiyai Rossiyaro az Osiyoi Miyona dur karda bud, soli 1858  ba amorati Bukhoro va khonii Kheva bo sardorii polkovnik N.P.Ignatev namoyandagii diplomati firistoda shud. Guftushunidi in namoyandagi dar davlati khonii Kheva yagon natijae nadod. Ammo dar amorati Bukhoro ba Ignatev muyassar shud, ki baze muvaffaqiyatho ba dast ovarad. Amir Nasrullo, ki bo khoni Khuqand jang mekard, bo umedi pushtiboni didan az davlati Rus hayati saforatro ba khushi paziruft va baroi savdogaroni rus imtiyozhoi muayyane vada dod. Lekin  amali  namudani  muvofiqati hosilshuda  nihoyat daraja dushvor gardid. Khudi Ignatev ham fahmid, ki hukumathoi khoni (qabl az hama, hukumati Kheva) ba mushohidahoi peshina ahamiyate namedihand: dar Kheva hatto matni qarordodero, ki dar natijai ba davlati khoni tashrif ovardani P. Nikiforov va G. Danilevskiy basta shuda bud, yofta natavonistand…

Imperiyai Rossiya ba khulosae omad, ki baroi rasidan ba maqsadhoi siyosi va iqtisodii khud dar Osiyoi Miyona boyad quvvahoi musallahro ba kor andokht. In niyat az on sabab ham quvvat megirift, ki pas az jangi Qrim nisbat ba davlathoi taraqqikardai avrupoi zaiftar budani Rossiyai podshohi ayon gardid va Osiyoi Miyona hamchun bozori kamu besh zamonatdori molhoi sanoatii rus dar peshi nazari doirahoi hukmron va sohibkoroni mamlakat ahamiyati makhsuse paydo namud. Vajhi okhiri bo taraqqiyoti sarei munosibathoi kapitalisti dar Rossiyai nimai duvumi asri KhIKh, khususan pas az bekor kardani huquqi krepostnoi khele sakht aloqamand bud. Korkhonahoi navi sanoati ba vujud meomadand. Muhimtarin sohai sanoat – bofandagi, ki bo tamini pakhta vobasta bud, bo surati tamom vusat meyoft. Taraqqiyoti iqtisodi ba dast ovardani bozorhoi navi furushi mol, manbahoi navi mavodi khom va vasilahoi navi aloqaro talab mekard.

Ilova bar in, amaliyoti faolonai davlati Rus dar Osiyoi Miyona na faqat khavfi az tarafi Angliya istilo shudani in sarzaminro bartaraf mekard, balki, baraks, Rossiyaro ba hududi mulkhoi sharqii Britaniya nazdiktar menamud. Ba hamin vosita Peterburg qusuri shikasti jangi Qrimro giriftani va mavqei khudro dar Evropa mustahkam kardani bud. Az in ru, sar darovardan ba daruntari Osiyoi Miyona bo maqsad va manfiathoi ham pomeshikon va ham doirahoi burjuazii imperiyai Rossiya muvofiqat mekard.

Mo dar barobari takid namudani omezishi sababhoi iqtisodi va siyosie, ki Peterburg dar muayyan kardani naqshai faoliyati khud nisbat ba davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona onhoro ba asos megirift, mavqei darajai avval doshtani omilhoi iqtisodiro boyad dar nazar doshta boshem[1]. V.I.Lenin dar maqolai «Boz doir ba masalai nazariyai realizatsiya» mahz dar davrai badi islohot beshtar avj giriftani mustamlikakunii kishvarhoi kanoriro besabab khotirnishon nakardaast. U menavisad: «Janub va janubi sharqi qismati Rossiyai Evropoi, Kavkaz, Osiyoi Miyona, Sibir yak nav mustamlikahoi kapitalizmi rus meboshand va na faqat ba qad, balki ba bar ba andozai buzurg taraqqi yoftani kapitalizmi rusro ham tamin mekunand»[2].

Binobar in besabab nest, ki masalai dar Osiyoi Miyona ustuvor gardidani mavqei imperiyai Rossiya tavajjuhi az had ziyodi doirahoi tijoratiyu sanoatiro ba khud kashida, dar tashkilot va organhoi matbuoti onho mavqei muhokimai purjushu khurushe gardidaast.

Ishgolgarihoi mustamlikavi faqat ba hukumati mutlaqai podshohi, pomeshikho, dvoryaninhoe, ki dar khizmati grajdani va harbi mansabhoi kalonro sohiband, ba yak tudacha kapitaliston, fabrikantho  va   pudratchiho  foidanok   ast[3].

Dar solhoi shastumi asri KhIKh, ba sababi on ki dar natijai sar zadani janghoi dokhili dar shimol va janubi Amerika ba Evropa kashondani pakhtai amerikoi qat gardida, buhroni sanoati bofandagii Evropa va Rossiya ba amal omad, istiloi Osiyoi Miyona hamchun manbai mavodi khomi pakhta ahamiyati makhsus kasb namud. Masalan, to soli 1861 yak pud pakhtai Bukhoro dar yarmarkai Nijegorod 4-5 sum arzish doshta boshad, narkhi on dar soli 1862 ba 7 sumu 50 tin va dar soli 1864 ba 23-24 sum rasid.

[1] Nig.: Khalfin N.A., 1972.

[2] Lenin V.I. Asarho, j. 4, s. 86.

[3] {amon asar, s. 386.

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