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Gandum dar Tojikiston va muhimiyati on

Gandum  ne in ziroati galladonagii bisyor qadima buda, qarib dar hamai mamlakathoi dunyo parvarish karda meshavad. Dar Misr, Iroq, Eron, Turkiyo 6 hazor sol pesh az milod gandum malum bud. Kishti gandum dar Osiyoi Markazi niz tarikhi qadima doshta, dar Bokhtar dar asri 4 pesh az milod ogoz shudaast. Sayyohi mashhuri itoliyoi Marko Polo ba Tojikiston niz omada budaast va bisyor budani maydonhoi kishti gandumro dar Pomir qayd kardaast. Olimi rus N. I. Vavilov Tojikistonro markazi paydoishi navhoi gunoguni gandum medonad.

Gandum dar khob

Gandum ziroati purqimatu muhimi ozuqavori meboshad. Az rui safedanoki, mikdori ohar, khushhazmshavi va kobiliyati ziyodi gizoi doshtanash az digar ziroathoi galladonagi bartari dorad. Sabusi ordash, khaspoya va bargu poyai sabzash khuroki khubu sergizoi chorvo ba hisob meravad. Az in jost, ki talabot nisbati gandum dar miqyosi jahon khele ziyod ast. Dar qarorhoi qabulkardai Hukumati jumhuriamon niz bosurat va sobitqadamona baland bardoshtani khosilnokii ziroathoi galladonagi, az on jumla gandum, boisror takid karda meshavad. Hususan, baroi afzun gardonidani hosil va sifati doni navhoi purqimati gandum, ki az onho noni alosifat, makaron, yarma va gayraho ba dast ovarda meshavand, inchunin ba kam talafyobii galladona dar davrai jamovarii hosil va nigohdorii on dar anborho diqqati jiddi doda meshavad.

Dar ayni zamon, dar jahon 20 namudi gandum aniq karda shudaast. Dar Tojikiston 4 namudi gandum duchor meshavad. Az inho aso- san gandumi sakht va muloimro mekorand. Har yaki in namudho dar navbati khud, navhoi ziyode dorand.

Gandum chun digar galladonagiho ba sinfi yakpallagiho taalluq doshta, doroi alomathoi khosu umumii in sinf meboshad. CHun khushadoron gandum patakresha va khaspoya dorad. Dar khaspoyai gandum bandho (bugumho) inkishof yoftaand, ki onho ba poya ustuvori mebakh- shand. Az har yak rastanii gandum az mintaqai panjazani (ki dar zeri khok pinhon ast) az 2 to 12- to va az on ziyodtar poya ba bolo qad mekashad. Bargi gandum az pahnak va gilofak iborat ast. Pah- naki barg daroz buda, ragroniash mutavozi ast. Dar gandum khusha- guli murakkab mesabzad, ki az khushachaho iborat ast. Dar tiri har kadom khushacha du pulakchai khushagi hast va dar pasi onho az 2 to 7 gul joygir ast. Dar har guli gandum duto pulakcha dida meshavad, ki dar bayni onho uzvhoi afzoishi gul, yane 3 gardbarg va tukhmdon joygir shudaast. Guli gandum khudgardoludshavanda buda, in hodisa to shukuftani gul amali megardad. Mevai gandumro don yo dona meguyand.

Gandumi sakht va muloim khele purarzish meboshand. Gandumi sakht va muloim az rui sokhti endospermashon farq mekunand. Endosper- mi doni gandumi sakht zichii ziyod dorad. Agar doni onro burem, chun shisha jilo medihad. Dar tarkibi doni gandumi sakht miqdori safeda ziyod ast. Binobar on, doni gandumi sakhtro dar nonpazi, istehsoli makaron, rishtaugro, pecheni va digar makhyouloti az ord tayyorshavanda istifoda mebarand.

Dar tarkibi endospermi nisbatan kovoki gandumi muloim sa- feda kamtar buda, mikdori ohar khele ziyod ast. Az ordi in gandum asosan non mepazand.

Dar aksari kholatho kishti gandumi sakhtro dar avvali fasli ba- hor guzaronida, gandumi muloimro dar fasli tiramoh mekorand. Baroi kishti tiramohii gandumi muloim be/ptar navhoi Navruz, Sete Serros-66, Krasnovodsk-25 va gandumi navi Besuki-1-ro is- tifoda mebarand. In navho ba khunuky tobovar buda, poyaashon ustuvor ast.

Tukhmi gandumi tiramokhiro nisbat ba gandumi bahori chuqurtar kisht mekunand, to ki az khunukiho oseb nabinad. Muhlati kishtash- ro boshad, tavre muayyan mekunand, ki to sar shudani khunukiho maysaho nagz inkishof yofta az 3 to 5-to papja zanand. Panchazanii maysahoi gandumi dar bahor kisht kardashuda sust ast. Binobar on, onro zichtar mekorand. Agar dar zaminkhoi lalmi meyori koshtani tukhmi dar yak gektar 120-160 kg boshad, dar zaminhoi obi in meyor 200-250 kg-ro tashkil medihad.

Gandumi tiramohi nazar ba bahori az borishoti tiramohu zi- miston beshtar bahra mebarad va to faro rasidani garmoi suzonu, khushk shudani qabati khok (fasli tobiston) pukhta merasad.

Baroi ruyonidani hosili balandi gandum istifoda va rioya kardani qoidahoi kishovarzi (agrotekhniki) ahamiyati kalon dorad. YAke az sharthoi asosi koshtani tukhmi khushsifatu yakkachini navhoi serhosilu ba kasaliho tobovari gandum meboshad. SHarti digar on ast, ki onho ba sharoiti iqlimi makoni kisht boyad muvofiq boshand va zamin az nurihoi madani tamin shuda boshad. Inchunin, bosifat guzaronidani shudgor, az alafhoi begona toza kardani zamin, sari vaqt burdani muboriza bar ziddi hasharoti zararrason ba hosili don hosil zam mekunad. Dar zaminhoi obyorishavan- da ba tanzim darovardani muhlatu meyori obyori niz az foida kholi nest.

Baroi oson kardani zahmati dehqonon dar guzaronidani korhoi kishovarzi (az shudgor to jamovarii hosil) vositahoi gunoguni tekhniki ba vujud ovarda shudaand.

Dar qatori rastanihoi muhimi galladonagi ba juz gandum, inchu- nin jav, javdor, juvorimakka, sholi, marjumak, arzan, tritikale va gayrahoro metavon nombar kard.

  1. CHaro gandumro ba oilai khushadorho dokhil mekunand?
  2. Hushai gandum chi guna ast?
  3. Az gandum chi khel mahsuloti ordy tayyor mekunand?
  4. Gandumi muloim az sakht bo chi farq mekunad?
  5. Baroi hosili farovoni gandum ijroi kadom korho shart ast?
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