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GLYUKOZA

glukozaGLYUKOZA (yun. glykys – shirin), qandi angur, dekstroza, C6H12O6, karbogidrat az guruhi geksozaho; dar tabiat farovon ast. Kristalli berang, t gud. 146,50S, dar ob nagz hal meshavad; az jihati optiki faol; qismi muhimi tarkibi organizmhoi zinda. G. baroi aksari organizmho manbai energiya meboshad. Organizm G.-ro dar tabadduloti anaerobi, ki az sintezi ATF (kislotai adenozintrifosfat) sar shuda, bo hosil gashtani kislotai shir (kislotai alfa-oksipropionat) ba itmom merasad, sintezi glikogen zeri tasiri fermenti glyukooksidaza, to kislotai glyukonat oksidshavii aerobii G. va tabdili on ba pentoza va dig. qandhoi soda istifoda mebarad. Rastaniho va baze bakteriyahoe, ki energiyai rushnoii oftob va reaksiyahoi oksidshavii khimiyaviro istifoda mebarand, G.-ro az unsurhoi noorganiki hosil mekunand. Dar sanoat G.-ro hangomi gidrolizi krakhmal ba dast meorand. G. dar qannodi, tib va baytori (chun vositai muolija) istifoda burda meshavad.
Miqdori G. dar tarkibi khuni odami solim zeri nazorati silsilai asabi markazi va sistemai endokreni qaror dorad. Dar tanzimi miqdori G.-i khun gormoni insulin va glyukagon, hamchunin adrenalin, glyukokortikoidho, tiroksin va triyodtironin, gormoni hissai peshi gipofiz shirkat mevarzand.
Sababi dar khun ziyod shudani G. (giperglikemiya) gunogun ast, mas., istemoli gizoe, ki G.-i bisyor dorad (giperglikemiyai gizoi), tajziyai barziyodi glikogen dar jigar hangomi kori vaznini jismoni, az charbu va safeda hosil shudani G. va g.
Dar tarkibi khun az meyor kam shudani G.-ro gipoglikemiya menomand. Ba tavassuti peshob bisyor khorij shudani on glikozuriya nom dorad. Dar khun az 50 mg/100 ml past shudani saviyai G. boisi khalal yoftani faoliyati silsilai asabi markazi megardad.
G. baroi purra «sukhtan» – i ravgan dar organizm zarur ast. Binobar in norasoii on boisi dar khun afzudani kislotahoi ravgan meshavad (dar natija atsidoz va ketoz rukh menamoyad.).

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