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FISHORI ATMOSFERI

Fishori atmosfsferi chist? Havo massa va vazn dorad, binobar in ba sathi hamshafat fishor meovarad. Muayyan shudaasg, ki sutuni havo az sathi bahr to sarhadi boloi atmosfera ba har yak santimetri murabbai sathi Zamin bo vazni 1 kg 33 g fishor meorad (Hisob kuned, ki agar masohati kafi dastaton taqriban 60 sm2 boshad, havo ba on bo chi quvva fishor meorad). Ba badani odami miyonaqad havo bo quvvai beshtar az 14 tonna fishor meorad. Az sababi mavjud budani fishori dokhili organizm, ki ba fishori havo qarib barobar ast. odam vazni havoro his namekunad. Vale barobari afzudani balandi kas in vaznro his mekunad.

Qabati boloii havo qabati poyoniro mefishorad. Binobar in havo har qadar ba rui Zamin nazdik boshad, fishori on hamon kadar ziyod ast.

kukh

Quvvae, ki bo on qabati havoi atmosfsra ba sathi rui Zamin va ba hamai ashyoi dar on buda tasir mekunad, fishori atmosferi nomida meshavad.

Fishori atmosfery. Odam hangomi ba kuh baromadan allakay dar balandii 2500 – 3000 metr khudro bad his mekunad, nishonahoi “dardi kuhpaymoy” paydo meshavad – az narasidani havo nafas tangi mekunad, cap charkh mezanad. Dar Pomiri SHarqi balandtar az 4000 m raghoi khunguzar vass meshavand, azbaski pag» bini chuqur nest, beshtar mekafad va khun raftanash mumkin ast. Odam bazan az hush ham meravad. In az on sabab ast, ki dar joyhoi baland havo tunuk, fishorash kam va miqdori oksigen ham kam meshavad. Odam dar sharoite voqe ast, ki bayni fishori dokhiliyu berunii badanash farqiyati kalon ba vujud omad (yane borash sabuk shud) va organizm ba in sharoit muvofiq nest.

Az hamin sabab kabinahoi samolyothoe, ki dar balandii ziyod parvoz mekunand, ba tavri havonoguzar sakht mahkam karda shudaast. Dar onho  fishori havo ba tavri suny ba andozai fishore, ki dar sathi Zamin mavjud ast, nigoh Doshta meshavad.

Tagyiryobii fishori atmosferi asosan ba balandi va harorati havo vobasta ast. Tajriba nishon medihad, ki barobari khar 100 metr az sathi Zamin ba bolo baromadan fishori havo ba andozai 1 santimetr (10 mm) past msshavad. Inchunin hangomi garmshavii havo fishori on past shuda, dar vaqti joyivazkunii havo niz tagyir meyobad. Fishori atmosfsriro asosan bo barometr (az yunony “baros” vaznini) chen mekunand. Du namudi asosii barometr simobi va aneroidi (az yunoni manoyash “bemoe”) istifoda megardad. Barometri simobi az naychai shishagii yaksurokha iborat ast, ki taqriban I m darozi dorad. Naycharo bo simob pur karda, nugi kushodi onro ba kosai simobdor megutonand.

Simobi naycha to bo fishori atmosferi barobar shudan ba zarf merezad, dar qismi boloii on fazoi behavo hosil msshavad va balandii sutuni simob fishori atmosferiro (ba hisobi mm) nishon medihad. Baroi chi khamai simob narekht? Baroi on ki ba sathi kushodi simobi kosacha havo fishor ovarda, onro ba naycha tela medihad (rasmi 67). Agar fishori atmosfery past shavad, on goh dar naycha simob poyon mefaroyad (Agar fishori atmosfery baland shavad, chy holat rukh medihad?).

Barometri simobi jadval dorad. Az rui balamdii sutunchai simobii on andozai fishori atmosferiro bo millimetrho muayyan mekunand.

Muqarrar shudaast, ki dar sathi bahr hangomi 0 budan harorati havo sutunchai simobii barometrro ba 760 mm mebarorad. On hamchun fishori mutadili atmosfery qabul karda shudaast, Agar balandii simobi sutuncha az 760 mm ziyod boshad, on goh fishori baland, poyon boshad, past meguyand. Ba vositai barometr muayyan kardan mumkin ast, ki hangomi ba balandy baromadan dar har 10,5 metr fishor dar sutunchai simobi takhminan 1 mm past meshavad. CHi tavr tagyir yoftani fishorro donista ba vositai barometr balandii mahalro hisob kardan mumkin ast.

Barometri simobiro asosan dar stansiyahoi meteorologi istifoda mebarand. Dar sayohatho va ekspeditsiyaho az aneroid istifoda burdan muvofiqtar ast. Qismi asosii on quttichai metalliest, ki havoi on barovarda shudaast, az hamin sabab vay ba tagyiroti fishori berun khassos meboshad. Hangomi baland yo past shudani fishor qutticha fishurda yo vase meshavad. In tagyirot ba vositai prujinai ba qutticha chasponda ba tir (mil) doda meshavad, tir dar jadval fishori atmosferiro bo millimetrhoi sutunchai simobi nishon medihad. Fishor na tanho dar balandi tagyir meyobad. On az harorati havo niz vobasta ast (bo barometr muayyan kuned, ki bo baland va past shudani harorati havo fishor chi khel tagyir meyobad?).

Savol va suporish

  1. Sababhoi asosii tagyiryobii fishori atmosfery chist?
  2. Dar kujo fishor baland ast: dar kuhho yo vodihoi az sathi bahr nachandon baland. CHaro? Ba khotir ored, ki balandii mutlaqi mahali zisti shumo ba chy barobar ast.
  3. Hisob kuned, ki baroi mahali shumo kadom fishori atmosferiro mutadil hisobidan mumkin ast?
  4. Muayyan kuned, ki balandii nisbii qullai kuhi atrofaton chand metr ast, agar dar domanai kuh barometr 730 mm. dar qulla 450 mm-ro nishon dihad.
  5. Bo barometr khar ruz dar hamon yak soat fishori atmosferiro chen kuned va malumotro ba daftari havosanji navised. Dikqat dihed» ki agar fishor baland yo past shavad, havo chi khel tagyir meyobad.
  6. Ba badani shumo havo bo quvvai 8 tonna fishor meovarad, charo shumo onro khis namekuned? Va onro kay khis kardanaton mumkin ast?
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