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CHand namudi rastaniho hastand?

Gunogunii rastaniho va paydoishi onho: Nabototi sayyorai mo khele gunogun ast. Dar on ziyoda az 350 hazor namudi rastaniho nashunamo mekunand. Pahnshavii rastaniho dar kurai Zamin yakkhela va barobar nestand. Dar beshazorhoi mintaqai tropiki (Hususan, tropikai namnok) az hama ziyodtar namudhoi gunoguni rastani meruyand. Onho mansubi tamomi guruhhoi tasnifotii olami nabototand. Dar on jo rastanihoi darakhti, buttagi va chubrost (lianmonandho) beshtar vomekhurand, ki dar yakjoyagi anbuhi jangalhoi kasnoguzarro paydo kardaand.

Dar digar mintaqahoi gayritropiki, khususan dar nohiyahoi iqlimashon mutadil, anbuhi changalhoi darakhtoni pahnbargu suzanbargro mushohida kardan mumkin ast. Dar manotiki dasht boshad, beshtar rastanihoi alafii yaksola va bisyorsola meruyand. Dar biyobonhoi beob rastaniho khele kam buda, parokanda joygir shudaand. Umuman, dar rui Zamin joe nest, ki dar on jo rastani naboshad. Onho dar qari uqyonusho (to on joe, ki nuri oftob rafta merasad), dar marzu bumi uqyonusi YAkhbastai SHimopiyu Antarktida, dar qulpakuhhoi osmonbus va ham dar biyobonhoi beob vomekhurand.

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Pas savole paydo meshavad, ki oyo dar rui Zamin az davrahoi qadimtarin sar karda, to ba imruz on namudhoi nabotote, ki holo dar tabiati girdu atrof nashunamo dorand, hamesha hamin tavr hukmron budand? Oyo onho ba mururi zamon, vobasta ba tagyiryobii sharoithoi iqlimiyu hodisahoi geologi (fururavi, boloravii zamin, paydoshavii qatorkuhho va gayra) tagyir yoftaand yo ne? Ba in savol faqat ilmi paleobotanika (ilmest, ki boqimondahoi tarikhan kuhani rastanihoi qadimai dar vaqti hafriyot yoftashudaro meomuzad) javob doda metavonad. Bozyofthoi in ilm nishon medihand, ki khelhoi gunoguni anbuhi rastaniho dar tuli solhoi duru darozi tarikhi ba bisyor tagyirotho duchor shudaand.

Bisyor namudhoi kuhani rastaniho bo ivazshavii sharoiti iqlimi mahalli zist va digar hodisahoi nomatlubi geologi ba darajai nestshavi rasida, joi onhoro khelhoi digari rastanikho ivaz kardaand. In isbot mekunad, ki rastanihoe, ki holo dar rui Zamin vomekhurand, yakbora paydo nashudaand. Olami nabotot botadrij az organizmhoi sodda ba murakkab inkishof yoftaast. Rasta- nihoi avvalin hamchun mavjudoti zinda dar muhiti obi paydo shuda, inkishof yoftaand. Dar ravandi inkishof in organizmhoi sodda tadrijan murakkab gardida, ba muhiti atrof khudro mutobiq kardaand.

Gulkhoi Tochikiston

Tarikhi inkishofi sathi Zamin milliardho solro darbar megirad, ki onro ba eraho va davrahoi gunoguni geologi judo mekunand. Baroi har yak erai geologi va davrahoi on inkishofi boavji yak guruhi muayyani rastani va hayvonot khos ast. Dar har yake az in davrahoi geologi sathu qishri Zamin ba khud khos jinshoi gunoguni takshini dorad, ki dar on jinsho boqimondahoi rastaniyu hayvonoti sanggardida naqshbandi shudaand.

Az rui in boqimondahoi daryoftshuda aniq karda shudaast, ki avvalin organizmhoi zinda dar rui Zamin bakteriya va obsabzhoi kabudu sabz budaand. Taqriban, 600 million sol pesh, ki holo az mavjudiyati rastanihoi oli umuman darak nabud, dar bahru ukyonushoi qadim, khelhoi gunoguni obsabzho dar nashunamo budand.

Dar davrai angishtsang (350 million sol muqaddam) dar rui Zamin munmunaho va sarakhsshaklon bo avji baland nashunamo karda, dar tabiat nisbat ba digar namudi rastaniho bartarii kalon doshtand. Paydoish va avji inkishofi ushnashaklon niz ba hamin davra rost meoyad.

Aksariyati in rastanihoi qadima be nomu nishon nobud shuda raftaand. Tanho baze az onho yo uzvhoi alohidai onho ba sharoithoi makhsuse aftodaand, ki pusish yo tajziyashavii onho ba amal naomadaast. Onhoro imruz dar qatori bozyofthoi paleobotaniki didan mumkin ast. Boftahoi in rastaniho moddahoi madaniro ba khud jabbida, ba sang tabdil yoftaand. Dar konho, dar aksari holatho darakhton va uzvhoi alohidai sangshudaro meyoband, ki hatto sokhti anatomii (tashrehii) onhoro metavon omukht. Bazan dar jinshoi sakht naqsh yo aksi rastaniho boqi mondaand, ki az rui onho oid ba namudi zohirii in yo on ras- tanii qadima malumot dodan mumkin ast.

Olimon az rui in bozyoftho ba bisyor masalahoi noravshani tabiat javob gufta, sinnu sol va khelhoi rastanihoi qadimaro muayyan mekunand.

In bozyoftho va koftukovhoi paleobotaniki nishon dodand, ki in- kishofi olami nabotot dar sayyoraamon – Zamin yakkhela nabudaast. Olami nabototi zamonhoi qadim az nabototi hozira ba kully fark mekardaast.

Dar rafti tadqiqotho muayyan gardid, ki faqat dar qabathoi nis- batan badina (na qabathoi qadimtarini qishri zamin) boqimondahoi mavjudoti zindai sodda mavjudand. Sinnu soli qabathoi qishri zamin harchi qadar javon boshad, dar on boqimondai organizmhoi sokhtashon murakkab hamon qadar ziyodtar vomekhurand va onho ba mavjudoti zindai hozirazamon beshtar monandi dorand.

Hulosa, zamone bud, ki dar rui Zamin mavjudoti zinda vujud na- dosht. Bo guzashti zamon organizmhoi zinda paydo shudand va tad- rijan inkishof yofta, murakkab gardidand. Aksariyati in mavjudo ti zinda vobasta ba sharoiti muhiti zist tagyir yofta, shaklan digargun shudand. Qisme az onho ba sharoiti tagyiryoftai muhit mutobiq shuda natavonista, barham khurdaand va ba joi onho namudhoi digari rastaniho paydo shudaand. Bo hamin minvol shaklhoi gunoguni hayoti, az on jumla nabotot inkishof yoftaand.

Dar tuli durudarozi ravandi inkishof dar rui Zamin bisyor namudi rastaniho bebozgasht az bayn raftaand, baze namudho ta- moman digargun shudaand. Binobar on, tarikhi inkishofi olami nabototro purra barqaror kardan khele mushkil ast. Lekik inrs metavon isbot kard, ki tamomi rastanihoi hozira az rastanihoi soddai qadima paydo shudaand.

  1. Nobarobar pahnshavii rastanihoro bo kadom dalelho metavon isbot kard?
  2. Paleobotanika chist?
  3. Bo kadom dalelho metavon tagyirot va inkishofi olami nabototi sayyoraamonro sharh dod?

 

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