Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / JUNAYDULLOHI HOZIQ

JUNAYDULLOHI HOZIQ

YAke az shoironi tavonoi asri XIX Junaydulloh ibni Islomshaykh Hoziq buda, doir ba nomu nasabi khesh dar dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho» meguyad:

Hamin «Hoziq» takhallus doramu nom,

Junaydullohi ibni SHaykhislom.

Inchunin Abdulkarim Fazlii Namangoni («Majmuat-ush-shuaro») niz chunin takid kardaast:

Junayd on hakimi bilodi sukhan,

Ki shahri Hirot ast uro vatan.

Mudaqqiq ba tahqiqi ilmu sifot,

Buvad ibni Islomshaykhi Hirot.

Hoziq dar miyonai solhoi 80-umi asri XVIII tavallud shudaast. Zodgohi u mahallai Karkhi Hirot meboshad. Junaydulloh tabi balandu zehni burro doshta, dar avvalhoi Hukmronii amir Haydar (1800-1827) az Hirot ba Bukhoro omadaast. U dar madrasa yake az behtarin tolibilmon buda, osori adiboni asrimiyonagiro niz khele daqiq meomuzad. Dar barobari in Junaydulloh ilmi tibro ham khele khub omukhta takhallusi «Hoziq»-ro az hamin jihat intikhob menamoyad. Hoziq soli 1805 madrasaro khatm mekunad va dar madrasai Oli bo farmoni amir Haydar imom tain karda meshavad. Dere naguzashta Junaydullohi Hoziqro ba darbor davat mekunand. Badi chande faoliyat dar darbor tafakkuri shoirro nisbat ba on digar namud. U khub fahmid, ki shakhsoni noloiq khele ziyod budaand va bo in toifa ahli khirad hamkori karda nametavonad:

Bori uzvi johro har sifla natvonad kashid, Hej tori ankabute iqdi gavhar mekashad?

SHoironi hasudkori darbor Hoziqro notavonbini mekardand. Jaloli, ki khud chandon istedodi baland nadosht, Hoziqro bore hajvi sakht namud. Hoziq bo unvoni «Qasida dar javobi hajvi mavlono Jaloli» – ro menavisad, ki chand bayte az on chunin ast:

Dar khotiram rasad chu khayoli qasidaat, Gardad dilam siyah zi zugoli qasidaat.

Gufti, ki zoda tabi man in bikr fikrro,

Sad shur karda dukhtari zoli qasidaat.

Ay, karda sheri khalq ba chandin balo duchor,

Boyad girist, oh ba holi qasidaat.

Hud ravshan ast gavhari mazmuni digaron,

Toriku sakta ast zuloli qasidaat.

Ay rubahak, ba sheri jayon paija mezani,

Darkash zaboi, ki iest majoli qasidaat.

Hoziq, chi holat ast darad pardai turo,

Nafsat iamuda rukh zi «kamoli» qasidaat.

Munoqisha miyoni du shoir boshad ham, amalan hadafi Hoziq khudi amir ast. Az in ru, u az doirai adabii Bukhoro dilmonda shuda, ba Huqand omadani Hoziq qayd namuda boshad ham, dar ogozi saltanati amir Umar ittifoq aftodani on ba haqiqat nazdik meboshad.

Hoziq muddate dar in doirai adabi sozish namuda, hatto ba amir Umar bazan payraviho mekunad. YAke az jidditarin iqdomhoi Hoziq dar in doirai adabi ba ejodi dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho» kamar bastani shoir ba shumor meravad. Dar in bora Hoziq baze ishorahoi sudmand niz dorad:

Mabosh az sheri mardum harfgustar,

Libosi oriyat to chand dar bar?

Bigu chu Hoziq, ar dori dimoge,

Bikun ravshan, agar dori charoge.

SHoironi maddohoi darbori: Vazir, Nola, Fazli, Dabir va Afsus boshand Hoziqro dar huzuri amir badguiho mekardand. SHoir va tazkiranigor Abdulkarimi Fazli dar «Majmuat-ush-shuaro» – i khud az Hoziq yod namuda, uro doroi istedodi baland medonad, vale «mardi devona» va «mukholifmizoj» nom mebarad:

Ba fanni sukhan garchi farzona ast,

Valekin ajab mardi devona ast.

Kalandarmizoj astu devonakhust,

Vale dar fununi sukhan tozagust.

Az baze ishorahoi Hoziq paydost, ki u khudro zirakona ba devonagi vonamud karda budaast:

Gar namekhohi, ki dardi sar kashi az ruzgor,
Hamchu Hoziq bo kamoli ziraki devona bosh.

Az qazovati bolo malum megardad, ki mojarohoi ahli darbor va tamalluqi shoironi tamakoru choplus Hoziqro baso ozurda namuda, ba u fishori manavi medodand.

Az in sabab, Hoziq dar darbori amir Umarkhon faoliyat kardanro digar ravo namebinad. Hususan, in holat badi ba sari takht omadani pisari in amir Muhammadalikhon boz ham noguvortar megardad. In ast, ki Hoziq az darbori Muhammadalikhon kanorajui namuda, ba Bukhoro meoyad va dar in shahri bostoni bo peshai tabibi kasbi maosh mekunad.

U az rui ehtiyojhoi zindagi bo baze sohibmansabon qarobat justaast. Bore yake az sohibmansabon ba shoir vada medihad, ki ba u (ba Hoziq) asp inom mekunad. Vale pas az guzashtani chand muddat az qavlash barmegardad. Hoziq ba on kas chunin qitai hajviro mebakhshad:

Rasid mehri tilo lek aspi mo narasid,

Bigu namedihamat, to ba kay bahona kuni.

Munosibi tu ba on shavkatu jalol in ast,

Ki kheshro magaram muhrai zamona kuni.

Kujo ravos(t), ki khudro baroi yak aspe,

Miyoni khalq ba behimmati fasona kuni…

Hoziq chand gohe dar Horazm niz budaast, ki onro solhoi 1825-29 takhmin kardaand. Zero dar in solho Muhammad Rahimkhon vafot karda, ba sari qudrat Ollohqulikhon omada bud.

Muhimtarin khususiyati doirai adabii Horazm on budaast, ki bo tashabbusi sarvari in doirai adabi -Munisi Horazmi tarjumai osori adiboni asrimiyonagii tojik ba zaboni uzbeki khele avj girifta budaast. Soli 1829 Hoziq az Horazm boz ba Bukhoro barmegardad va u Hoji Hakimkhonro (muallifi «Muntakhab-ut-tavorikh»-ro), ki az sayohat bargashta bud, peshvoz megirad.

Hoziq bisyor mekhost, ki ba safari olam baromada, ba in vosita az nizoi husudon rahoi yobad. Vale imkonoti modi baroi shoir dast namedod, ki onro az baze ishorahoi shikvaomezi Hoziq pay burdan mumkin ast:

Dame rasid ba khotir, ki sui Rum ravem,

Ki shoyad in dili gamgin shavad nishotpazir.

Zi sayri shom gahe rekht bar dilam savdo,

Ki subhi aysh damad shoyadam zi shomi zamir.

SHikast fikri Halab goh shisha dar roham,

Namuda goh Farangam dar oyina tasvir.

Gahe zi Hind namak rekht dar dili resham,

Gahe zi Misr shakar yoft tutii taqrir.

SHoir dar qitai bolo orzui shahrhoi Rumu SHom, Halabu Farang (Avrupo), Hindu Misrro dar sar doshtaast, vale on amali nashudaast. Amir Nasrulloh mekhost Hoziq yake az muqarraboni u boshad, vale shoir az amir duri mejust. Zero Nasrulloh payvasta dar andeshai kishvarkushoi, goratu asirgiri buda, borho hatto ba Huqand lashkar kashidaast.

U bori seyum soli 1842 ba Huqand hujum namuda, dar on jo qatli om menamoyad. Hoziq dar yak qasidaash oqibati jangro bayon namuda amirro ba sulh davat mekunad:

To buvad sulh jang natvon kard,

Jang boshad dirang natvon kard.

SHoh boyad khurad gami olam,

Na ki z-on olam fitad dar gam.

Amir maslihati shoirro qabul mekunad. Bad u az Hoziq talab menamoyad, ki in piruziashro dar qasidae vasf bikunad. Hoziq «piruzi»- i amirro dar bayti zerin mahkum mekunad:

Buridy bar qadi khud az malomat,

Libose to ba domoni qiyomat.

Amir az shunidani on dar gazab meshavad. Hoziq boshad ba SHahrisabz dar khonai dustash-Hakimkhon panoh mebarad. Amir Nasrulloh pisari shoirro, ki Muhtasham nom dosht, ba SHahrisabz firistoda, omadani Hoziqro talab mekunad. Hoziq bayti zerinro navishta ba amir mefiristonad:

CHun huzuram sababi ranjishi tabat gardad,
Megurezam, ki malulat nakunam bori digar.

Amir az in kori shoir dar gazab shuda, Dushanboy nom duzdro baroi ovardani sari Hoziq amr mekunad.

In besharaf bo se tan badandeshoni digar ba SHahrisabz omada, shabongah ba khonai khobi Mavlono Hoziq vorid shuda, uro ba qatl merasonand va sari shoirro bo khud ba Bukhoro mebarand. Ba hamin tariq, Junaydullohi Hoziq 14-umi yanvari soli 1843 dar viloyati SHahrisabz vafot kardaast.

Merosi aDabii CHunayDullohi Hozis

Sarfi nazar az murakkabii avzoi zamoni zindagii Hoziq va nobasomonihoi ruzgori u, az in shoir osori pur- arzishe boqi mondaast. On osor az «Devoni gazaliyot» dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho», risolahoi «Voqeoti islomi» va «Tahqiq-ul-qavoid» iborat meboshad. Risolai «Tahqiq-ul-qavoid» nomi digar niz dorad, ki on «SHarhi qonuncha» ast.

«Devoni gazaliyot»-i Hoziq.

Dar devoni shoir gazal mavqei markazi dorad. CHun anana mavzui asosii gazal ishq ast. In mavzu bo tamomi juziyot: hijronu visol, sabru toqat, vasfi husnu jamoli dilbar, bevafoi va sustahdi, nomehruboni, sarddili va gayra ba tasvir omadaast. Dar irtibot bo in mavzu mayu boda (hamchun ramzi khushguzaronii umr, zindagi), vasfi bahor va juziyoti in fasli arusi sol: rezishi boroni naysonu shildir- shildiri jorishavii chuyhoi bahori, nakhati gulhovu muattarii nasimi subhgohi, safoi samovu garmoi havo va monandi inho khele hunarmandona ast.

CHunonchi, dar in gazal, ki shoyad dar davroni nisbatan pironsolagii Hoziq ejod shuda boshad:

YOdi ayyome, ki pur az may sabue doshtem,

SHab hama bar sari gam hoyu hue doshtem.

SHab nihon z-agyor movu yor dar bazmi visol,

Mo ham az imoi abru guftugue doshtem.

Gardishi davron guli moru chunin pajmurda sokht

V-arna dar in bog mo ham rangu bue doshtem.

Z-inqilob andesha kun, moro ba chashmi kam mabin,

Dar diyori khesh mo ham obrue doshtem.

Man hamchun qahramoni lirikii gazali Hoziq payvasta dar iztirob, hayajon ast. Zero ba in holat uro mahbuba ovardaast. Doirai faoliyat va munosibati qahramoni liriki – man purvusat, serjabha va gunogunshakl ast. Vale asosan olami botinii u dar munosibat bo mahbuba oshkoro megardad. Oshiq namekhohad, ki agyor az in sir pay barad. U pursabru purtoqat va hifzkunandai asroru rozhost:

Hoziq, magu ba bekhiradon rozi ishqro,
Az anbaru abir kashad govu khar chi haz.

Qahramoni liriki – man goliban janbahoi vasei ijtimoi megirad. Dar simoi agyor bekhiradivu pastfitrati, noqobilivu nouhdabaroi, zolimiyu khudpisandi, kutohnazarivu zohirbini, harisivu mardumfirebi barin amalhoi zishtro jambast menamoyad. Az in ru, vazninihoi hayot payvasta bar dushi khiradmandonu oqilon ast. In ast, ki Hoziq meguyad:

Maro chun bishkufad khotir, ki hamchun gunchavu lola

Dilam khun ast tu bar tu, jigar dog ast to bar to.

Dar in ayyom har kas jomi ayshe mekashad chun gul,

Manu dogi dilu huni jigar chun lolai humro.

Lirikai ijtimoii u bazan vusati beshtare paydo namuda, hatto ohanghoi qavii siyosi niz megirad. Ba aqidai Hoziq, sohibmansabon boyad shakhsoni sazovoru loiq boshand. Na har yak shakhs az uhdai korhoi rohbari baromada metavonad. Dar sistemai rohbari boyad prinsipi jiddie hukmron boshad, to in ki shakhsoni tasodufii beistedod ba mansabhoi balandi davlati sohib shuda natavonand. Tarikh guvoh ast, ki agar shakhsi noloiqe sari mansabe oyad, on goh jomea duchori mushkilihoi sershumor khohad shud:

Halqi olamro na har dun dast bar sar mekashad,

In qadah az davri gardun mehri khovar mekashad.

Bori uzvi johro har sifla natavonad kashid,

Hej tori ankabute naqdi gavhar mekashad.

YAne ba in vosita lirikai shoir janbahoi voqeii hayoti girifta, ba hayoti jamiyat va ruzgori mardum beshtar nazdik meshavad. SHoir takid ba takid meguyad, ki shakhsoni harisi johu mansabro naboyad imkon dod, ki hadafhoi palidi khudro amali namoyand. Baraks, peshi rohi onhoro boyad girift, to in ki mardum az in toifai kutoh – nazar khalos boshand:

Baski masti bodai hirsand abnoi zamon,

Tabashon khuni padar az shiri modar mekashad.

Dar ogozi rasidan ba hadaf bazan in toifa usuli kori khudro digar khel namuda, raftori choplusonaro pesh megirand. Hamin ki ba hadafhoi nihoii khud rasidand, hamon zamon tagyir meyoband. Ba in mani shoiri mushohidakor ogoh mesozad, ki ba tavozui sokhtakoronai mansabkhohon firefta naboyad gasht. Onho hama chizro bo mansab ivaz khohand kard. U meguyad:

Qadi zolim az tavozu nest juz tamhidi zulm,

Meshavad kham neshi aqrab zahr, chun barmekashad.

Digar az mavzuhoe, ki dar lirikai Hoziq khele ziyod resha dorad, mavzuhoi pandu andarz, mavizatu nasihat, tarbiyaviyu akhloqi meboshand, ki shoir ba mavzui mazkur beshtar tavajjuh zohir namudaast. CHunonchi:

Ba giru dori buzurgi tu bosh khush, ki dili man,

Giriftaast, tamannoi doru gir nadorad.

Zi fayzi olami mani ba makhzani dili Hoziq,

Javohirest, ki shohi falaksarir nadorad.

Boyad guft, ki Hoziq shoirest, ki ba qadri sukhan va sukhanvar bo tamomi hastii khud merasad. U sukhanro durru gavhar meguyad, vale sherro, khususan sukhani matini manzumro afzal meshumorad, yane agar sukhani nasri, ki on ham durru guhar ast, naku ast va agar manzum gardad, nakutar khohad gasht. SHoir meguyad:

Sukhanro sher bakhshad zebi digar,

SHavad az nazm afzun qadri gavhar.

Agar khud sherro husne nabudi,

Ba Hasson kay Nabi ehson namudi.

Junaydullohi Hoziq adibi tavono buda, hunari u az navhoi liriki khususan dar gazal sazovori tahsin ast. Zero u az ejodiyoti buzurgtarin gazalsaroyon: Sadiyu Hoju, Nosiri Bukhoroivu Salmoni Sovaji, Husravu Hasan, Hofizu Kamol, Jomiyu Hiloli, Mushfiqivu SHavkat va digaron komilan ogoh budaast. Tasiri ejodiyoti shoironi nombarshuda dar ashori Hoziq az nigohi janbahoi hunari: korgiri az sanathoi badei, mazmunsozi, maniofari, daryofti radifu mahorati qofiyasozi, intikhobi vaznhoi muvofiqu khushohang va gayra khele khub mushohida karda meshavad.

Sabku uslub, shevai ejodu hunari talifi Hoziq niz khele jolib ast.

Az in jost, ki nufuzi ejodiyoti Hoziq ba adabiyoti davr va minbada niz khele khub ba mushohida merasad.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

bobo

Boboe Fayz

Ramahoi kolkhozi Rudaki zimiston ba dashthoi Uzbakiston meraftandu tobiston ba charogohhoi khudamon, ba Toji- kiston …